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2006

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Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano Dec 2006

Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

Chronic pain has adverse effects on individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) as well as their family members. Borrowing from an empathy model described by Goubert et al. (2005), we examined topdown and bottom-up factors that may be related to psychological well-being in the spouses of ICPs. A diverse community sample of 113 middle-aged spouses of individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) completed measures on pain severity and spouse pain catastrophizing (PCS-S; Cano et al., 2005). Results showed that almost half (48.7%) of spouses reported chronic pain themselves and that pain in the spouse accounted for within-couple differences on psychological distress ...


Glucose Modulation Of The Septo-Hippocampal System: Implications For Memory, Desiree Lynne Krebs-Kraft Dec 2006

Glucose Modulation Of The Septo-Hippocampal System: Implications For Memory, Desiree Lynne Krebs-Kraft

Psychology Dissertations

Extensive evidence suggests that glucose has both positive and negative effects on memory and these effects likely involve an influence on the brain. For instance, direct infusions of glucose into the septum (MS) or hippocampus can enhance or impair memory. The present set of experiments attempted to determine the different conditions that dissociate the memory-enhancing and -impairing effects of glucose in rats. Specifically, these experiments examined the effects of glucose in spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial working memory and shock avoidance, an index of emontional long-term memory. The results showed that the memory-impairing effects of MS infusions of glucose ...


Investigating The Utility Of The Film War Zone As A Component Of A Street Harassment Prevention Program, Doyanne A. Darnell Dec 2006

Investigating The Utility Of The Film War Zone As A Component Of A Street Harassment Prevention Program, Doyanne A. Darnell

Psychology Theses

Street harassment, the sexual harassment by strangers in public places, is a common experience shared by many women and has been linked with other forms of sexual victimization. The negative impact of street harassment, such as fear and behavior to avoid being harassed, points to the need for preventing the behavior. This study sought to determine whether the documentary-style film War Zone may be effective in impacting men’s attitudes toward street harassment, and whether the effectiveness of the film would depend on men’s hostility toward women and level of peer acceptance for street harassment. Findings do not support ...


The Relation Between Self-Report Mindfulness And Performance On Tasks Of Attention, Stefan Kennedy Schmertz Dec 2006

The Relation Between Self-Report Mindfulness And Performance On Tasks Of Attention, Stefan Kennedy Schmertz

Psychology Theses

The present study examined the relation between self-report mindfulness and performance on tasks measuring abilities for three aspects of attention: sustained, selective, and attention switching. Because attention regulation has been described as a core component of mindfulness, and past research suggests that experience with mindfulness meditation is associated with improved attentional skills, the present study predicted that higher self-report mindfulness would be positively related to performance on tasks of attention. Fifty undergraduate students completed self-report mindfulness questionnaires and completed a battery of attention tasks. There was mixed support for the relation between mindfulness scores and sustained attention, such that higher ...


Predicting Support For Government Action To Reduce Inequality, Adam James Darnell Dec 2006

Predicting Support For Government Action To Reduce Inequality, Adam James Darnell

Psychology Dissertations

The current degree of economic inequality in the US is the largest it has been since prior to the Great Depression and growing. Economic inequality is linked to mortality, social capital, interpersonal trust, and democratic participation, beyond the effects of poverty. Two main constructs are reviewed as predictors of support for efforts to reduce inequality: 1) distributive justice norms (equity and equality of outcome), and 2) causal attributions (individual and structural). Justification of the unequal status quo is often driven by reference to dominant cultural values personal responsibility and just deserts, which are likened to individual attributions and equity, respectively ...


An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D. Dec 2006

An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Near-death experiences appear to be universal phenomena that have been reported for centuries. A near-death encounter is defined as an event in which the individual could very easily die or be killed, or may have already been considered clinically dead, but nonetheless survives, and continue his or her physical life. Reports of near-death experiences date back to the Ice Age. There are cave paintings, in France and Spain that depict possible after life scenes that are similar to reported scenes related to near-death experiences. Plato's Republic presents the story of a near-death experience of a Greek soldier named Er ...


An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D. Dec 2006

An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D.

David San Filippo Ph.D.

Near-death experiences appear to be universal phenomena that have been reported for centuries. A near-death encounter is defined as an event in which the individual could very easily die or be killed, or may have already been considered clinically dead, but nonetheless survives, and continue his or her physical life. Reports of near-death experiences date back to the Ice Age. There are cave paintings, in France and Spain that depict possible after life scenes that are similar to reported scenes related to near-death experiences. Plato's Republic presents the story of a near-death experience of a Greek soldier named Er ...


Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson Dec 2006

Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson

Psychology and Child Development

Although group therapy for abused and neglected youth is a viable and efficacious treatment option, facilitation is challenging. Group leaders must contain intense affect, manage multiple transferences, and advocate for their clients within the larger social welfare system. Using a case study of a group for sexually abused girls, this paper explores some of these issues and discusses ways in which therapists recognize and deal with the dual challenge of advocating for and treating children.


Tips, Volume 26, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2006/2007, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 2006

Tips, Volume 26, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2006/2007, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• War & the Military

• Torture

• Slavery

• Violence in Society, Especially Among the Young

• Crime & Criminality

• The Validity of Evidence in Criminal Cases

• Some Ideological Issues Around Crime

• Sex Offenses

• Patterns Among the Poor Related to Crime

• Some Unusual--Perhaps One of a Kind?--Crimes

• Computer-Based or -Facilitated Crimes

• Illegalities by Illegals

• Miscellaneous Crime News

• ... And Its Punishment

• Prison Issues

• Homelessness

• Hobo & Homeless Songs & Poetry

• Some Reflections on "Street People" & Their Favorite Hymns

• Other Relevant Songs

• Poverty

• The Gap, Growing Into a Gulf, Between Rich & Poor

• Transfer of Wealth From the Bottom to the Top in Society

• Philanthropy

• Social Advocacies

• Self-Determination

• "Choice"

• Relying ...


Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward Dec 2006

Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

The primary objective of this study was to examine whether individuals with chronic pain (“participants”) and their spouses agree on perceptions of solicitous, distracting, and punishing spouse responses to pain. The second aim was to examine the role of participant catastrophizing (a negative mental set about pain), participant and spouse marital satisfaction, and participant and spouse depression in participant perceptions of spouse responses, spouse perceptions of their responses, and agreement between participants and spouses. Individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their spouses (N=108 couples) completed questionnaire packets. Examination of overall group averages (participants vs. spouses) indicated little or no ...


Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow Dec 2006

Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow

Management Papers

Motivated by real examples that run contrary to conventional wisdom, we examine how firms organize themselves to strategize well. Interactions among decisions make strategizing difficult. They raise the spectre that a firm's strategizing efforts will get stuck in a web of conflicting constraints prematurely, before managers explore a wide enough range of possibilities. A key role of organizing is to free strategizing efforts and encourage broad search. At the same time, organizing must ensure that strategizing efforts are stabilized once the firm discovers an effective set of choices. The need to balance search and stability, we argue, is a ...


Family Environment As A Contributor To Locus Of Control In Children And Adolescents, Christopher Michael Delap Dec 2006

Family Environment As A Contributor To Locus Of Control In Children And Adolescents, Christopher Michael Delap

Electronic Thesis Collection

The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between family environment and locus of control among children and adolescents. The data examined consisted of 52 participants who were from a larger study that was comprised of 265 participants in a school setting. The measures used for this study were the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Multidimensional Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control (MMCPC). An independent groups t test was used to examine whether there were significant differences in scores on the relationship and growth domains on the FES between internal, external, or unknown locus of ...


Managing Complaints About Doctors: Stakeholder Perspectives Of The Role Of The Medical Council In Ireland, Siobhan Mccarthy, Hannah Mcgee, Ciaran O'Boyle Dec 2006

Managing Complaints About Doctors: Stakeholder Perspectives Of The Role Of The Medical Council In Ireland, Siobhan Mccarthy, Hannah Mcgee, Ciaran O'Boyle

Psychology Reports

This study has quantified the number of complaints made about doctors to hospitals in Ireland over a five year period. Complaints about doctors represented a minority of overall complaints to hospitals. They predominantly concerned clinical care and communication issues. There were few patient complaints about unprofessional behaviour. Hospitals rarely referred complaints to the Irish Medical Council. Thus current practice differs significantly from that envisaged in the new legislative framework. There is a need to promote transparent, efficient and effective regulation through a standardised inter-agency approach.


Differential Effects Of Stimulus Context In Sensory Processing: Effets Différentiels Du Contexte De Présentation Des Stimuli Sur Les Processus Perceptifs, Yoav Arieh, Lawrence E. Marks Dec 2006

Differential Effects Of Stimulus Context In Sensory Processing: Effets Différentiels Du Contexte De Présentation Des Stimuli Sur Les Processus Perceptifs, Yoav Arieh, Lawrence E. Marks

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Stimulus contexts in which different intensity levels are presented to two sensory–perceptual channels can produce differential effects on perception: Perceived magnitudes are depressed in whichever channel received the stronger stimuli. Context differentially can affect loudness at different sound frequencies or perceived length of lines in different spatial orientations. Reported in the hearing, vision, haptic touch, taste, and olfaction, differential context effects (DCEs) are a general property of perceptual processing. Characterizing their functional properties and determining their underlying mechanisms are essential both to fully understanding sensory and perceptual processes and to properly interpreting sensory measurements obtained in applied as well ...


An Investigation Of Automaticity In Learning Disabled (Ld) And Non-Clinical Adults, Kerry Towler Dec 2006

An Investigation Of Automaticity In Learning Disabled (Ld) And Non-Clinical Adults, Kerry Towler

Doctoral Dissertations

Dyslexia research has implicated phonetic dysfunction in the phoneme-grapheme associations which underlie reading skills. Expert readers of normal developmental etiology have required less mental effort, faster processing speed, and reduced focal attention when applying reading subskills. Readers with dysphonia and poorly automatized reading subskills have required more time, mental effort, and attention. Dyslexia automaticity deficit has been attributed to left hemisphere neuro-cortical disruptions of the underlying neurological substrata that support developmental acquisition of reading subskills. Effects of inefficiently automatized phoneme-grapheme skills accumulate over time resulting in poor reading skills that are detrimental to academic achievement.

Using neuropsychological methodology, adults with ...


Psychological Adaptation Of Mainland Chinese Female International Students: A Phenomenological Inquiry, I-Wen Chan Dec 2006

Psychological Adaptation Of Mainland Chinese Female International Students: A Phenomenological Inquiry, I-Wen Chan

Doctoral Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to obtain a description of Mainland Chinese female international students’ experiences of adjustment in the U.S. Thirteen participants were asked the one question that guided the study: “Please tell me in as much detail as you can, regarding being a female and originally from China, your process of adapting to your studies and living in the United States.” Participants described their experiences in individual audio-taped in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, creating thirteen separate transcripts. These transcripts, serving as the primary data source, were analyzed using a phenomenological method. Analysis revealed ...


Justifying Leadership: A Social Cognitive Approach To Understanding And Predicting Egotistic And Philanthropic Leadership, Katherine R. Helland Dec 2006

Justifying Leadership: A Social Cognitive Approach To Understanding And Predicting Egotistic And Philanthropic Leadership, Katherine R. Helland

Doctoral Dissertations

This study extends the current literature on egotistic and philanthropic leadership by considering the role of social cognition in explaining self-serving versus collective- serving leadership behaviors. Specifically, this study proposed that the overt traits and behaviors that constitute egotistic and philanthropic leadership are surface manifestations of the justification mechanisms (JMs) stemming from uninhibited and inhibited power motives. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the JMs that egotistic leaders rely on to enhance the rational appeal of self-serving influence behaviors and the JMs that philanthropic leaders rely on to enhance the rational appeal of collective-serving influence behaviors. Additionally ...


The Thematic Meaning Of Face-To-Face Conflict Experiences: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Investigation, Thomas Rhett Graves Dec 2006

The Thematic Meaning Of Face-To-Face Conflict Experiences: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Investigation, Thomas Rhett Graves

Doctoral Dissertations

Face-to-face interactions are the experiential basis for our reflected understandings of the social world. Face-to-face conflict (as a form of social transaction) is present across different forms of social conflict (e.g., international or intergroup conflicts). Understanding the phenomenology of face-to-face conflict thus provides insight concerning experiences of social conflict and our evaluations of it. In this investigation, a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to describe the thematic meanings of face-to-face conflict experiences.

Eleven dialogical interviews were conducted concerning situations in which participants “experienced a conflict between themselves and another person(s)” and comprise 17 hours of recorded dialogue between ...


An Investigation Of Sense Of Identity Among College Students, Christine Susie Wu Dec 2006

An Investigation Of Sense Of Identity Among College Students, Christine Susie Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study the construct, Sense of Identity was examined. Specifically, variables conceptually related to Sense of Identity will be described, and the nature of any relationships with personality traits including the Big Five personality traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness were explored. Additionally, the study examined the nature of the relationships between narrow personality traits and Sense of Identity. Lastly, the relationships between Sense of Identity and extracurricular activities were investigated. Sense of Identity was positively related to the Big Five personality traits with a range of r=.32 to r=.46 with p<.01. Additionally, the ...


Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett Dec 2006

Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett

Social Work Faculty Publications

The article discusses the historical social construction of the most prevalent diagnosis of youth in the U.S. The country's psychiatry controls the definitions of mental health disorders and diagnosis through required practice utilization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A research is conducted through a social construction theoretical paradigm to identify diagnostic classification systems, nosology changes, and critical time periods.


The Experience Of Being Loved: Physical Affection From Parents As Remembered From Childhood, Ellen Senter Denny Dec 2006

The Experience Of Being Loved: Physical Affection From Parents As Remembered From Childhood, Ellen Senter Denny

Doctoral Dissertations

This project provided a description of the experience of physical affection as remembered from childhood. In-depth, non-directive interviews were conducted with 21 adult participants who were asked to describe their experiences of receiving physical affection from their parents during childhood. The raw data consisted of transcriptions of the interviews, and a method informed by phenomenology and hermeneutics for the purpose of describing the thematic structure of the experience was employed.

The ground of Being Loved provided the context upon which three themes became figural. It included the awareness of feelings that participants experienced, such as love, security, being cared for ...


Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz Dec 2006

Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The transformation of the United States Army to a combat force capable of operating successfully on future battlefields requires the leveraging of digital communication capabilities to support distributed battle command. The purpose of this study is to investigate collaborative command group planning performance in traditional face-to-face (collocated) and geographically dispersed group (distributed) conditions. The Reactive Planning Strategies Simulation (REPSS) system was developed to provide a realistic group planning task supporting empirical estimates of planning process and performance outcome success, measured in this context as delivery rate of humanitarian supplies. Results indicate that synchronization scores were not significantly different between conditions ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Time-Series Data Collection And Duration Of Treatment In A University Clinic: A Survival Analysis, Justin D. Winkel Dec 2006

Exploring The Relationship Between Time-Series Data Collection And Duration Of Treatment In A University Clinic: A Survival Analysis, Justin D. Winkel

Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in time-series research and the duration of psychotherapy. In previous research, 50 patients were accepted into the Time-Series Study at the University of Tennessee Psychological Clinic. Study participation included a significant degree of patient involvement, including repeated assessment of process and outcome variables totaling 120 items which patients were asked to complete twice a week. It was hypothesized that participation in this type of research may have resulted in shorter treatment duration due to increased subject burden, or may have motivated patients to stay in treatment, thus increasing ...


A Multi-Source Model Of Perceived Organizational Support And Performance, Sarah Kay Nielsen Dec 2006

A Multi-Source Model Of Perceived Organizational Support And Performance, Sarah Kay Nielsen

Doctoral Dissertations

The two-fold purpose of this field study was to examine: 1) the collective contributions of supervisor support (PSS), coworker support (PCS), and direct report support (DRS)to an employee’s global sense of organizational support (POS), and 2) the additive value of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) to a performance outcome model of POS that also includes in-role and extra-role performance. To this end, the researcher predicted a 360-model of POS such that PSS, PCS, and DRS would better predict POS than any individual support variable alone. Additionally, the researcher hypothesized that POS would predict in-role performance, extra-role performance, and CWB ...


Modeling Crowd And Trained Leader Behavior During Building Evacuation, Nuria Pelechano, Norman I. Badler Dec 2006

Modeling Crowd And Trained Leader Behavior During Building Evacuation, Nuria Pelechano, Norman I. Badler

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidently blocked. It takes into account simulated crowd behavior under two conditions: where agents communicate building route knowledge, and where agents take different roles such as trained personnel, leaders, and followers.


The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery Dec 2006

The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Parents' perceptions of children's behavior may vary depending on the gender of the child and the type of behavior displayed. It is important to delineate which factor(s) influence parental perceptions because parental perceptions directly influence whether or not parents respond to their children's behavior and how parents choose to manage the behavior. The present study examined how the gender of the child and the types of behaviors (internalizing vs. externalizing) the child displays affect parental perceptions regarding the severity of the behavior. One hundred and three parents of children ages 1 V2 to 5 years in the ...


Training Parents To Treat Noncompliance In Children With Developmental Disabilities Using Guided Compliance, Christine Bennett Dec 2006

Training Parents To Treat Noncompliance In Children With Developmental Disabilities Using Guided Compliance, Christine Bennett

Master's Theses

Noncompliance with parental directions is a critical target for children with developmental disabilities for several reasons, including the frequency of the problem and its impact on caregivers. Three decades of research have shown the effectiveness of guided compliance with children with developmental disabilities; however, only a few studies have examined the effects of parent-implemented guided compliance with this population (Handen, Parrish, McClung, Kerwin, & Evans, 1992; Smith & Lerman, 1999; Tarbox, Wallace, & Penrod, 2003). Three children with developmental disabilities and one primary caregiver for each participated in the present study. Parents were trained in three-step guided compliance (i.e., command, gestural prompt, and physical prompt) via ...


The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento Dec 2006

The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento

Masters Theses

Researchers have established a strong association between the frequency and duration of environmental reward and affective mood states, particularly in relation to the etiology, assessment and treatment of depression. Given behavioral theories that outline environmental reward as a strong mediator of affect and the unavailability of an efficient, reliable and valid self-report measure of environmental reward, we developed the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) and examined its psychometric properties. In Experiment one, an exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional 10-item measure with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability. When administered to a replication sample, confirmatory factor analysis suggested an excellent ...


Contingency Management Techniques And Smoking Cessation In College Students, Laurie Athey Dec 2006

Contingency Management Techniques And Smoking Cessation In College Students, Laurie Athey

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine smoking cessation using different criteria for delivery of monetary reinforcement for college students from Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ. Participants participated in a 4 week study using a single subject reversal design (ABAC) in which baseline phases were alternated with either fixed criterion or shaping using an escalating schedule of reinforcement. The order of administration of intervention phases was determined randomly. Each intervention phase lasted 5 days (Monday-Friday). Results showed that contingent reinforcement for reduced carbon monoxide levels was effective in reducing smoking. However, additional studies need to be completed for longer periods ...


African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower Dec 2006

African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous studies (Madole, Eastman, Stone, & White, 2005) have suggested that children do not make inferences about people on the basis of race until around 8 years of age. The present study was a replication of a study performed by Madole et al. The distinction between the two studies was in the sample used, hi the previous study the majority of children used were Caucasian. The present study sought to examine whether African American children were more likely to make inferences on the basis of race than Caucasian children. Children ages 6 to 11 years were asked to perform an inference ...