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Age-Related Functional Recruitment For Famous Name Recognition: An Event-Related Fmri Study, Kristy A. Nielson, Kelli Douville, Michael Seidenberg, John L. Woodard, Sarah K. Miller, Malgorzata Franczak, Piero Antuono, Stephen M. Rao Oct 2006

Age-Related Functional Recruitment For Famous Name Recognition: An Event-Related Fmri Study, Kristy A. Nielson, Kelli Douville, Michael Seidenberg, John L. Woodard, Sarah K. Miller, Malgorzata Franczak, Piero Antuono, Stephen M. Rao

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Recent neuroimaging research shows that older adults exhibit recruitment, or increased activation on various cognitive tasks. The current study evaluated whether a similar pattern also occurs in semantic memory by evaluating age-related differences during recognition of Recent (since the 1990s) and Enduring (1950s to present) famous names. Fifteen healthy older and 15 healthy younger adults performed the name recognition task with a high and comparable degree of accuracy, although older adults had slower reaction time in response to Recent famous names. Event-related functional MRI showed extensive networks of activation in the two groups including posterior cingulate, right hippocampus, temporal lobe ...


Fighting Amnesia As A Guerilla Activity: Poetics For A New Mode Of Being Human, Karen M. Gagne Jun 2006

Fighting Amnesia As A Guerilla Activity: Poetics For A New Mode Of Being Human, Karen M. Gagne

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Radically anti-colonial workers must work towards the dismantling of the disciplinary boundaries of academia. This means rejecting the artificial separations between the humanities and the sciences, between the activist and the scholar, and between the purely Western mind/body/spirit split. By keeping these boundaries intact, we fail to see that it is only through poetry (art) that humans can have access to whole modes of cognition that were penned up as a result of the colonial/enslavement process and the rise of Western Man. Autopoesis is crucial for bringing about a new mode of being human (an "After Man ...


Medial Prefrontal Dissociations During Processing Of Trait Diagnostic And Nondiagnostic Person Information, Jason P. Mitchell, Jasmin Cloutier, Mahzarin R. Banaji, C Neil Macrae Jun 2006

Medial Prefrontal Dissociations During Processing Of Trait Diagnostic And Nondiagnostic Person Information, Jason P. Mitchell, Jasmin Cloutier, Mahzarin R. Banaji, C Neil Macrae

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Previous research has suggested that perceivers spontaneously extract trait-specific information from the behaviour of others. However, little is known about whether perceivers spontaneously engage in the same depth of social-cognitive processing for all person information or reserve such processing specifically for information that conveys diagnostic clues about another person's dispositions. Moreover, a question remains as to whether the processing of such nondiagnostic information can be affected by perceivers’ explicit goal to consider another's dispositions or not. To examine processing of diagnostic and nondiagnostic social information as a function of perceivers’ explicit social-cognitive goals, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance ...


Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam May 2006

Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam

Psychology Faculty Works

Decision making was assessed using a laboratory gambling task in 67 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) and in 19 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) control participants. Neurocognitive test performance across several domains was also analyzed to examine potential cognitive mechanisms of gambling task performance. As predicted, the HIV+ group performed worse on the gambling task, indicating greater risky decision making. Specifically, the HIV+ group selected more cards from the “risky” or disadvantageous deck that included relatively large payoffs but infrequent large penalties. The control group also selected such risky cards but quickly learned to avoid them. Exploratory analyses also indicated that ...


Quantum Theories Of Consciousness, Imants Barušs Jan 2006

Quantum Theories Of Consciousness, Imants Barušs

Psychology

The assumption is often made in conventional cognitive science that consciousness is a computational process resulting from macroscopic neural activity as described by classical physics. That assumption has been questioned both because it has been unsuccessful in explaining consciousness and because it is based on outdated ideas about the nature of matter. More contemporary quantum theories may be more successful for understanding cognition. For example, Mari Jibu, Kunio Yasue, and Yasushi Takahashi have proposed a theory of memory as a spinor field underlying cortical dipoles in which quantum mechanical tunnelling instantiates memory decay and in which the creation of Goldstone ...


Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit Jan 2006

Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit

Nancy Levit

The thesis of The Heuristics Problem is that the societal problems about which identity theorists are most concerned often spring from and are reinforced by thinking riddled with heuristic errors. This article first investigates the ways heuristic errors influence popular perceptions of feminist issues. Feminists and critical race theorists have explored the cognitive bias of stereotyping, but have not examined the ways probabilistic errors can have gendered consequences. Second, The Heuristics Problem traces some of the ways cognitive errors have influenced the development of laws relating to gender issues. It explores instances in judicial decisions in which courts commit heuristic ...


A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene Jan 2006

A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene

Theses and Dissertations

Cross-sectional research of youth with type I diabetes has demonstrated that rote and working memory predict blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and carbohydrate consumption, respectively; however, to date, no longitudinal follow-up studies exist. Rote and working memory subtests from well-standardized memory measures, along with a problem-solving and executive functioning measures were administered to 118 youth with type I diabetes, aged 9-16 in two waves of data collection (mean interval = 2.07 years). Diabetes care behaviors were assessed through the 24-hour Diabetes Interview. This study was the first to document longitudinal prediction of BGM by rote memory and fat consumption by working ...


Study Of The Cognitive Functioning Of Medicated And Non-Medicated Elementary School-Aged Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Janet Friedman Jan 2006

Study Of The Cognitive Functioning Of Medicated And Non-Medicated Elementary School-Aged Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Janet Friedman

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a serious disability that has been shown to adversely affect cognition, affect, and behavior. Research using traditional measures of cognitive functioning, such as intelligence tests has shown that children diagnosed with ADHD perform poorly on cognitive measures of processing speed, and on working memory in particular (Kerns, Mclnerney & Wilde, 2001; Weiler, Bernstein, Bellinger & Waber, 2000). Mahone, et al. (2003), note that reviews involving the Wechsler Scales for children suggest that Full Scale IQ scores (FSIQ) on the WISC-III average 5 to 6 points lower than scores in the WISC-R. It was hypothesized that changes on revised subtests of the WISC-III Performance Scale may place ADHD children at a disadvantage if their performance on these subtests is compared to their performance on analogous WISC-R subtests. Mahone, et al. (2003) theorize that increased executive demands resulted in lower FSIQ scores and call for further analysis upon future Wechsler revisions. Although results are equivocal, research suggests that psychostimulant medication may ameliorate ADHD cognitive deficiencies that adversely impact working memory and processing speed. Brown and Borden (1989) suggest that stimulant drug improvement occurs primarily on rote or simple tasks, but measures emphasizing the processing of higher-order information may be less influenced. Barkley (1998) indicates that the impact of drugs upon behavior and concentration was most salient, with performance on intelligence tests unaffected by medication. However, most of these studies extrapolated IQ scores either from short forms or from several subtests of the Wechsler scales. Research using more traditional measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., standardized intelligence tests), and focusing on long-term effects of cognitive performance (Gillberg, et aI., 1997; Livingston, Mears, Marshall, Gray & Haak, 1996; Mahone, et aI., 2003), suggests that results depend on the measures and methods used. As part of the initial validation of the revised WISC-IV, an ADHD group was compared to a matched control group. Additional research called for investigations ...