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2006

Psychology

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

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Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz Dec 2006

Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The transformation of the United States Army to a combat force capable of operating successfully on future battlefields requires the leveraging of digital communication capabilities to support distributed battle command. The purpose of this study is to investigate collaborative command group planning performance in traditional face-to-face (collocated) and geographically dispersed group (distributed) conditions. The Reactive Planning Strategies Simulation (REPSS) system was developed to provide a realistic group planning task supporting empirical estimates of planning process and performance outcome success, measured in this context as delivery rate of humanitarian supplies. Results indicate that synchronization scores were not significantly different between conditions ...


Examination Of The Relationship Between Parenting Styles And Parental Tolerance, Amanda Sowers Dec 2006

Examination Of The Relationship Between Parenting Styles And Parental Tolerance, Amanda Sowers

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Noncompliant behavior in children may be due to the developmental stage the child is going through, but persistent noncompliance can have long-term effects on the child ranging from academic problems to relationship problems (Forehand & Wierson, 1993; Kalb & Loeber, 2003). Parents' response to noncompliant behavior may be influenced by their parenting style. Parental tolerance is one factor that may differ among parenting styles. Parental tolerance can be defined by how annoyed the parent becomes by disruptive behavior displayed by children and the affect it has on the parent-child interaction (Brestan, Eyberg, Algina, Johnson, & Boggs, 2003). One new measure of parental tolerance is the ...


The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery Dec 2006

The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Parents' perceptions of children's behavior may vary depending on the gender of the child and the type of behavior displayed. It is important to delineate which factor(s) influence parental perceptions because parental perceptions directly influence whether or not parents respond to their children's behavior and how parents choose to manage the behavior. The present study examined how the gender of the child and the types of behaviors (internalizing vs. externalizing) the child displays affect parental perceptions regarding the severity of the behavior. One hundred and three parents of children ages 1 V2 to 5 years in the ...


African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower Dec 2006

African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous studies (Madole, Eastman, Stone, & White, 2005) have suggested that children do not make inferences about people on the basis of race until around 8 years of age. The present study was a replication of a study performed by Madole et al. The distinction between the two studies was in the sample used, hi the previous study the majority of children used were Caucasian. The present study sought to examine whether African American children were more likely to make inferences on the basis of race than Caucasian children. Children ages 6 to 11 years were asked to perform an inference ...


Memory For Non-Focal Words, John Jones Dec 2006

Memory For Non-Focal Words, John Jones

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In two experiments a modified flanker paradigm was used to simultaneously present a focal word and an incidental non-focal word. The participants' task was to process the focal word in one of two conditions: naming aloud or a conceptual decision (concrete or abstract). The focal and non-focal words were either semantically related or not. Participants were instructed to direct their attention at the focal word. Furthermore, the presentation of the focal word was brief to reduce the possibility of eye movement to the non-focal word. Memory was measured with implicit and explicit memory tests. Evidence was found to suggest implicit ...


Detecting Intentional, Realistic Response Distortion On The Mmpi-2 Using Multiple Validity Scales, Andrew Minton Aug 2006

Detecting Intentional, Realistic Response Distortion On The Mmpi-2 Using Multiple Validity Scales, Andrew Minton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is a 567-item questionnaire used by psychologists to help diagnose mental disorders. The effectiveness of the MMPI-2 validity scales (F, Fp, F-K, and Ds-r2) were evaluated by asking college students to respond honestly or fake bad on the MMPI-2. Each scale was scored in the usual manner, but as a group they were evaluated in a noncompensatory fashion. That is, failing even one scale was interpreted as a faked response. MMPI-2 protocols of all participants were analyzed to determine if the validity scales were able to accurately identify which subjects faked and which answered ...


The Impact Of Reading Programs As A Map Project Strategy, Tena Jones Aug 2006

The Impact Of Reading Programs As A Map Project Strategy, Tena Jones

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 was enacted to protect the United States' most vulnerable students and was signed into law in January 2002 (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). For many years, black, Hispanic, special education, and limited English proficient students were not achieving at the same level as their white, middle-class counterparts because schools were not held accountable for their individual progress. The achievement gap is well documented in previous research at all levels of education. Scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1996 to 2000, obtained from a national sample of ...


Does Item Exposure Impact The Relationship Between Specificity And Interrater Agreement, Traxler Littlejohn Aug 2006

Does Item Exposure Impact The Relationship Between Specificity And Interrater Agreement, Traxler Littlejohn

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study attempted to replicate the results found in Roch and Paquin (2004). Raters in their study viewed a video tape performance and rated a target's performance during a leaderless group discussion. Their results indicated that as item specificity decreased (i.e., as items became more vague), there was an increase in interrater agreement, a positive correlation between item difficulty and interater agreement, and a positive correlation between performance and interrater agreement. The present study also examined the impact of item exposure as it related to these hypotheses and the relationship between item exposure and interrater agreement. Using ...


The Effect Of Divulging The Intent Of The Conditional Reasoning Test Of Aggression To Responses, Nathan Carter Aug 2006

The Effect Of Divulging The Intent Of The Conditional Reasoning Test Of Aggression To Responses, Nathan Carter

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Under the conditional reasoning (CR; James, 1998) system of personality measurement, items are constructed to have the appearance of a logic or reasoning test. This characteristic of CR tests is designed to combat response distortion by test takers in personality testing. The CR system was used to develop the Conditional Reasoning Test of Aggression (CRT-A; James & Mclntyre, 2000), a tool used to screen employees whose scores indicate an aggressive disposition. An assumption of the CRT-A is that respondents are unaware of the construct being measured. This study examines the effect of informing respondents that the CRT-A measures aggression. A sample ...


Human Aggression And Sports Media Violence, Justin Wright Aug 2006

Human Aggression And Sports Media Violence, Justin Wright

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study was designed to gain more perspective on human aggression and how sports media violence affects aggression levels. Anderson (1997) defined aggression as behavior that is intended to harm others or one's self. Anderson (2001) defined media violence as a portrayal of intentional harmful behavior directed at another person or the self. To define sports aggression, the definition of aggression must be manipulated slightly. The definition should be changed to a form of behavior intended to injure, whether or not an actual injury occurs, directed at an opposing team or opposing player to gain an advantage during ...


The Effects Of Item Grouping On Test Reliability, Holly Mackey Aug 2006

The Effects Of Item Grouping On Test Reliability, Holly Mackey

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Optimal ordering of items on a multidimensional test has been the focus of several studies. In all but one study, previous research centered on measures of personality or opinion. The current study examines item grouping effects for a cognitive ability test. Two forms of a cognitive ability test containing four constructs (verbal ability, basic computation, number series, and spatial visualization) were prepared. Form A consisted of items grouped by construct, and Form B had items dispersed randomly throughout the test. The order of items within a construct remained the same for both forms. Tests were administered to 186 undergraduate psychology ...


Do The Goal Orientations Of National Board Certified Teachers Differ From Their Non-Certified Counterparts?, Carrie Newby Aug 2006

Do The Goal Orientations Of National Board Certified Teachers Differ From Their Non-Certified Counterparts?, Carrie Newby

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Given the increasing number of those achieving certification through National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and the amount of federal money NBPTS has been awarded to design the assessment of identifying teachers, the majority of research has focused on whether National Board Certified teachers impact student achievement and whether NBPTS effectively measures teacher quality. There is very little, if any, published research that addresses other factors that could possibly distinguish teachers that have obtained National Board Certification, however. In the current study, it was presumed that goal orientation might be an important factor that could distinguish those who have ...


Relationships In Aging, Cognitive Processes, And Contingency Learning, Sarah Reeder Aug 2006

Relationships In Aging, Cognitive Processes, And Contingency Learning, Sarah Reeder

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study investigated the influence of age, processing speed, working memory,and associative processes on the acquisition of contingency information. Young and older adults completed positive (+.65) and negative (-.65) contingency tasks that measured their ability to discover the relationship between a symptom (e.g., FEVER) and a fictional disease (e.g., OLYALGIA). Both d' scores, i.e., contingency learning, and contingency estimates, i.e., contingency judgment, were examined. Participants were also asked to complete cognitive tasks that measure the constructs of processing speed, working memory resources, associative memory, and associative learning. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the ...


Sorority Eating Patterns: A Longitudinal Investigation, Marissa Hobbs Aug 2006

Sorority Eating Patterns: A Longitudinal Investigation, Marissa Hobbs

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

To date, most research in the area of college women and eating disorders has only been conducted to determine the prevalence of eating disorders among selected college subgroups. Although such research is limited, particularly for those women that choose to join social sororities, it generally indicates that sorority women represent a subgroup with high instances of eating disorders and often presents a conflicting view of these women's eating patterns and beliefs regarding weight loss and food. The present study was designed to continue the investigation of sorority women and their eating patterns by conducting a longitudinal study, consisting of ...


"None Of The Above" As An Answer Option In Observatoin Based Multiple-Choice Questions, Stephen King Aug 2006

"None Of The Above" As An Answer Option In Observatoin Based Multiple-Choice Questions, Stephen King

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the characteristics of items using none of the above (NOT A) as an answer option in observation based multiple-choice questions. Previous research has examined only the use of a NOTA option in academic knowledge based testing, not in visual recognition testing. Item difficulty and discrimination were examined for three different item formats: (a) items without a NOTA option, (b) items with NOTA as a distracter, and (c) items with NOTA as the correct answer. The questions were based on two photographs with similar content. A total of 98 participants from a large southeastern university completed a visual ...


Aging And Associative And Inductive Reasoning Processes In Discrimination Learning, Courtney Ortz Jun 2006

Aging And Associative And Inductive Reasoning Processes In Discrimination Learning, Courtney Ortz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate how associative and inductive reasoning processes develop over trials in feature positive (FP) and feature negative (FN) discrimination learning. Younger and older adults completed initial and transfer tasks with either consistent or inconsistent transfer. Participants articulated a rule on every trial. The measure of discrimination learning was the number of trials it took participants to articulate the exact rule. In the initial task, older adults articulated the rule more slowly than younger adults in FP discrimination and took marginally more trials to articulate the rule in FN discrimination than younger adults. Age ...


A Comparison Of Two Measures Of Oral Reading Fluency, Kara Bletzinger May 2006

A Comparison Of Two Measures Of Oral Reading Fluency, Kara Bletzinger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Reading fluency is an important part of the process of learning to read. It is commonly assessed by the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) techniques; however, a new assessment method emerged in the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement- Third Edition (WJ-III). Only one previous study had examined the validity of the Reading Fluency test from the WJ-III by comparing it to established CBM measures of reading fluency for a sample of third-grade students. The resulting correlation between the two measures supported the validity of the WJIII Reading Fluency test, but it was unclear as to the two tests' relationship across grade ...


When And Where I Enter: Social Determinants Of Mental Health Services Use Among African American Women, Shonreh Doss May 2006

When And Where I Enter: Social Determinants Of Mental Health Services Use Among African American Women, Shonreh Doss

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

African Americans utilize mental health services significantly less frequently than do White-Americans. This study examined the social factors that work to influence the decision to seek services outside of the social circle. Using the National Survey of Black Americans, 4th wave, factors were examined using logistic regression analysis to test the likelihood of accessing the sick role. In addition to the sick role, regression analysis was used to determine the sick role's effect on the decision to seek outside care. Controlling for education, perceived racism, religiosity and employment problems, the findings suggest that life control and socioeconomic status factors ...


Gender, Occupational Position, And Incivility: The Role Of Status On Rude Behaviors At Work, Sherri Settle May 2006

Gender, Occupational Position, And Incivility: The Role Of Status On Rude Behaviors At Work, Sherri Settle

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined the role of status (i.e., occupational position and gender) in the frequency and experience of workplace incivility. Participants were 89 university students over the age of 20 who currently were employed and completed measures assessing their experiences of incivility at work, the instigator of the incivility, and jobrelated outcomes (i.e., turnover intent, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment). Consistent with hypotheses, supervisors were more likely to be instigators of incivility than coworkers. Participants also reported lower job satisfaction when the instigator was a supervisor, and lower organizational commitment and higher turnover intent when the instigator was ...


A Survey Of Teaming And Assessment Practices Of Practitioners Trained In Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment, Breanna Bartley May 2006

A Survey Of Teaming And Assessment Practices Of Practitioners Trained In Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment, Breanna Bartley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This research project is an electronic survey of Western Kentucky University graduates of an OSEP funded personnel preparation project (Project TEAM) from the years 1993-2000. The program trained graduate students in transdisciplinary play based assessment from the disciplines of psychology, speech/language pathology, and Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education (IECE) through a series of coursework, seminars and an internship. Transdisciplinary play based assessment (TPBA) is recommended by experts and learned societies in the early childhood field and is considered to be child friendly, provides a holistic view of the child and promotes communication and collaboration between the professionals and family (Linder ...


An Assessment Of School Adjustment In Head Start Children, Rachel Waford May 2006

An Assessment Of School Adjustment In Head Start Children, Rachel Waford

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of the current study was to pilot test measures of cognitive-linguistic achievement and socioemotional competence to create an all encompassing model of school adjustment in a sample of Head Start children (N = 36). Past research examining school adjustment in low-income children has failed to address all of the components of school adjustment while often employing the same reporter (the teacher) for both predictor and outcome measures. Cognitive-linguistic measures included four subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement and two assessments of phonological awareness (rhyming and alliteration). Emotion regulation measures included teacherreported emotionality and emotion regulation, parent-reported emotionality and ...


Assessing The Parent Involvement Component Of A Head Start Program, Stephanie Wilkerson May 2006

Assessing The Parent Involvement Component Of A Head Start Program, Stephanie Wilkerson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Head Start, a federally funded preschool program that provides a diverse array of services to children ages three to five years, strongly emphasizes the importance of parent involvement in its program. The purpose of the present study was to examine Head Start parents' perceptions of the parent involvement component of a regional Head Start program. Specifically, this study assessed barriers to parent involvement with the program, parent participation and satisfaction with the program, and whether or not parents were aware of the various aspects of the Head Start parent involvement component. This study also compared satisfaction ratings of parents who ...


Developmental And Gender Patterns In Social Information Processing: Social Problem-Solving And Social Goals, April Bowersox May 2006

Developmental And Gender Patterns In Social Information Processing: Social Problem-Solving And Social Goals, April Bowersox

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of development and gender in first- through fifth-grade children's (N = 514) social information processing, as well as the role emotion plays in these patterns. Developmental patterns and goal selection have been relatively understudied in past social information processing literature. Videotaped ambiguous provocations were presented in which provocateur's emotion displays were manipulated (two each of happy, angry, and sad); children imagined being the provocateur's victim. Results revealed age and gender differences in children's goal selection and social problem-solving. Provocateur's emotion displays were also found to Influence goal ...


A Realistic Job Preview For Deputy Jailer Applicants, Joseph Dunn May 2006

A Realistic Job Preview For Deputy Jailer Applicants, Joseph Dunn

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A common method for reducing turnover in organizations is the implementation of a realistic job preview (RJP). Unlike typical job descriptions that might be seen in newspapers, on the Internet, or on television, the differentiating characteristic of an RJP is that both positive and negative aspects of the job are presented to the prospective employee such that the applicant has a very realistic idea of the nature of the job. An RJP in both an audio-visual format and a written brochure was developed for deputy jailer applicants at the Warren County Regional Jail in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Consistent with hypotheses ...


An Examination Of The Similarities Between Same-Grade Friends And Different-Grade Friends, Brenna Kelley May 2006

An Examination Of The Similarities Between Same-Grade Friends And Different-Grade Friends, Brenna Kelley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity between same-grade and different-grade friendship pairs compared to randomly paired children in the same grade and in different grades. Previous research has focused primarily on examining same-grade children's friendships and has not examined friendships of children differing in grade. This study examined similarities between same- and different-grade friends on teacher-rated behaviors and peer relations variables. Children in 78 ungraded primary classrooms (N = 908) participated in a socio-metric interview and were rated by their teachers using the Teacher-Child Rating Scale (T-CRS, Hightower, 1986). Friendship pairs were composed of children who ...


Physical Abilities Testing: A Review Of Court Cases, 1992-2006, Paula Starling May 2006

Physical Abilities Testing: A Review Of Court Cases, 1992-2006, Paula Starling

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Selection procedures are designed with the goal to select the most qualified applicant for the job. A variety of selection tests are used in organizations today, including physical ability tests, which are often used in police agencies and fire departments. A total of 22 physical ability testing cases at the Appellate and Supreme Court level were identified to be included as part of a review to examine the outcome of litigation. Of the 22 cases, only 6 cases involved a female plaintiff, while 1 involved a Hispanic plaintiff. There were five race-based claims and nine gender-based claims (three of the ...


Using The Dynamic Indicators Of Basic Early Literacy Skills To Identify Students At-Risk For Reading Difficulties, Rachael Sloan May 2006

Using The Dynamic Indicators Of Basic Early Literacy Skills To Identify Students At-Risk For Reading Difficulties, Rachael Sloan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Reading is an essential skill that facilitates the development of later academic skills. Research has shown that phonological awareness at a young age is a strong predictor of later reading skills. As such, it is important to identify students who struggle with reading and phonological awareness at a young age. It is equally important that the tools used to identify early reading difficulties are appropriate and accurate for a given school district. The purpose of the current project was to examine the published benchmarks for the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in the identification of students as ...


An Examination Of The General Mobility Of Older Adults Based On Late-Life Depression And Its Treatment, Heather Kossick May 2006

An Examination Of The General Mobility Of Older Adults Based On Late-Life Depression And Its Treatment, Heather Kossick

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Older adults experience a variety of cognitive and physical declines as they age. Consequently, these changes can impact mobility and mental health (i.e., depression). Studies have suggested a relationship between driving habits changes (in particular, driving cessation) and depression (Fonda, Wallace & Herzog, 2001; Marottoli et al., 1997). Very little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between depression and other mobility changes in treated and untreated community dwelling older adults. Older drivers who ranged in age from 65 to 91 with a mean age of 73 completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff, 1977), Life Space Questionnaire ...


Workplace Incivility And The Low-Status Target, Sonia Winhorst Apr 2006

Workplace Incivility And The Low-Status Target, Sonia Winhorst

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The goal of the present research was to discover if employees in low-status social groups (i.e., women, people of color, sexual minorities, and non-Christians) experience more incivility in the workplace compared to their high-status counterparts. Data come from four different samples of working adults: employees from a property management company (N = 90), employees of a northwestern university (N = 1,843), a national sample of law school faculty (N = 1,256), and employed students from a southern university (N = 243). Participants in all studies completed measures of demographics and personal experiences of incivility at work. A series of t-tests revealed ...


A Modified Therapeutic Community: Reducing Violence In A Medium Security Prison, Lee Maglinger Feb 2006

A Modified Therapeutic Community: Reducing Violence In A Medium Security Prison, Lee Maglinger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study explores the impact a modified therapeutic community has on institutional disorder. Treatment programs are normally evaluated by their ability to prevent recidivism and relapse. This study examines the efficacy of a modified therapeutic community in reducing the number and severity of write-ups of its clients in a medium security male prison. The study describes research findings regarding the relationship between the write-ups of clients in a modified therapeutic community compared with the write-ups of inmates in a non-treatment unit. To carry out this study, the author reviewed the write-up records from the treatment program and a non-treatment unit ...