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Towards Mapping Soil Carbon Landscapes: Issues Of Sampling Scale And Transferability, Bradley A. Miller, Sylvia Koszinski, Wilfried Hierold, Helmut Rogasik, Boris Schröder, Kristof Van Oost, Marc Wehrhan, Michael Sommer Mar 2016

Towards Mapping Soil Carbon Landscapes: Issues Of Sampling Scale And Transferability, Bradley A. Miller, Sylvia Koszinski, Wilfried Hierold, Helmut Rogasik, Boris Schröder, Kristof Van Oost, Marc Wehrhan, Michael Sommer

Bradley A Miller

The conversion of point observations to a geographic field is a necessary step in soil mapping. For pursuing goals of mapping soil carbon at the landscape scale, the relationships between sampling scale, representation of spatial variation, and accuracy of estimated error need to be considered. This study examines the spatial patterns and accuracy of predictions made by different spatial modelling methods on sample sets taken at two different scales. These spatial models are then tested on independent validation sets taken at three different scales. Each spatial modelling method produced similar, but unique, maps of soil organic carbon content (SOC%). Kriging ...


Use Of Soil Maps And Surveys To Interpret Soil-Landform Assemblages And Soil-Landscape Evolution, Bradley A. Miller, Randall J. Schaetzl Jan 2016

Use Of Soil Maps And Surveys To Interpret Soil-Landform Assemblages And Soil-Landscape Evolution, Bradley A. Miller, Randall J. Schaetzl

Bradley A Miller

Soils form in unconsolidated parent materials, which make them a key link to the geologic system that originally deposited the parent material. In young soils, i.e., those that post-date the last glaciation, parent materials can often be easily identified as to type and depositional system. In a GIS, soil map units can then be geospatially tied to parent materials, enabling the user to create maps of surficial geology. We suggest that maps of this kind have a wide variety of applications in the Earth Sciences, and to that end, provide five examples from temperate climate soil-landscapes.


Comparison Of Spatial Association Approaches For Landscape Mapping Of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks, Bradley A. Miller, S. Koszinski, M. Wehrhan, M. Sommer Mar 2015

Comparison Of Spatial Association Approaches For Landscape Mapping Of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks, Bradley A. Miller, S. Koszinski, M. Wehrhan, M. Sommer

Bradley A Miller

The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) can be variable at small analysis scales, but consideration of its role in regional and global issues demands the mapping of large extents. There are many different strategies for mapping SOC, among which is to model the variables needed to calculate the SOC stock indirectly or to model the SOC stock directly. The purpose of this research is to compare direct and indirect approaches to mapping SOC stocks from rule-based, multiple linear regression models applied at the landscape scale via spatial association. The final products for both strategies are high-resolution maps of SOC ...


Impact Of Multi-Scale Predictor Selection For Modeling Soil Properties, Bradley A. Miller, Sylvia Koszinski, Marc Wehrhan, Michael Sommer Feb 2015

Impact Of Multi-Scale Predictor Selection For Modeling Soil Properties, Bradley A. Miller, Sylvia Koszinski, Marc Wehrhan, Michael Sommer

Bradley A Miller

Applying a data mining tool used regularly in digital soil mapping, this research focuses on the optimal inclusion of predictors for soil–landscape modeling by utilizing as wide of a pool of variables as possible. Predictor variables for digital soil mapping are often chosen on the basis of data availability and the researcher's expert knowledge. Predictor variables commonly overlooked include alternative analysis scales for land-surface derivatives and additional remote sensing products. For this study, a pool of 412 potential predictors was assembled, which included qualitative location classes, elevation, land-surface derivatives (with a wide range of analysis scales), hydrologic indicators ...


The Historical Role Of Base Maps In Soil Geography, Bradley A. Miller, R. J. Schaetzl Oct 2014

The Historical Role Of Base Maps In Soil Geography, Bradley A. Miller, R. J. Schaetzl

Bradley A Miller

Soil mapping is a major goal of soil science. Soil maps rely upon accurate base maps, both for positional reference and to provide environmental data that can assist in the prediction of soil properties. This paper reviews the historical development of base maps used for soil mapping, and evaluates the dependence of soil mapping on base maps. The availability of geographic technology for producing base maps has both constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. The lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic descriptions of soils to narratives, or to listings of attributes for property-based map ...


Semantic Calibration Of Digital Terrain Analysis Scale, Bradley A. Miller Feb 2014

Semantic Calibration Of Digital Terrain Analysis Scale, Bradley A. Miller

Bradley A Miller

Digital terrain analysis (DTA) provides efficient, repeatable, and quantified metrics of landscape characteristics that are important to the Earth sciences, particularly for detailed soil mapping applications. However, DTA has not been field tested to the extent that traditional field metrics of topography have been. Human assessment of topography synthesizes multiple parameters at multiple scales to characterize a landscape, based on field experience. In order to capture the analysis scale used by field scientists, this study introduces a method for calibrating the analysis scale of DTA to field assessments. This method is used to calibrate land-surface derivatives of relative elevation, profile ...


Emerging Technologies For Non-Invasive Quantification Of Physiological Oxygen Transport In Plants, P. Chaturvedi, M. Taguchi, S. L. Burrs, B. A. Hauser, W.W. A.W. Salim, Jonathan C. Claussen, E. S. Mclamore Jan 2013

Emerging Technologies For Non-Invasive Quantification Of Physiological Oxygen Transport In Plants, P. Chaturvedi, M. Taguchi, S. L. Burrs, B. A. Hauser, W.W. A.W. Salim, Jonathan C. Claussen, E. S. Mclamore

Jonathan C. Claussen

Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O2 ...


Dryland Soil Nitrogen Cycling Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen Jul 2012

Dryland Soil Nitrogen Cycling Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Management practices may influence dryland soil N cycling. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) N, surface residue N, and soil N fractions at the 0–20 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2004 to 2008 in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage practices (no-tillage [NT] and conventional tillage [CT]), two crop rotations (continuous spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] [CW] and spring wheat-barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.] hay-corn [Zea mays L.]-pea [Pisum sativum L.] [W-B-C-P]), and two cultural practices (regular [conventional seed rates and plant spacing, conventional ...


Bean And Rice Meals Reduce Postprandial Glycemic Response In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Over Study, Sharon V. Thompson, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins Apr 2012

Bean And Rice Meals Reduce Postprandial Glycemic Response In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Over Study, Sharon V. Thompson, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins

Donna Winham

Background: Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods: We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14) or diet/exercise (n=3) aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney ...


Food Benefit And Climate Warming Potential Of Nitrogen Fertilizer Uses In China, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jerry Melillo, Wei Ren, Yao Huang, Xiaofeng Xu, Mingliang Liu, Chi Zhang, Guangsheng Chen, Shufen Pan, Jiyuan Liu, John Reilly Jan 2012

Food Benefit And Climate Warming Potential Of Nitrogen Fertilizer Uses In China, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jerry Melillo, Wei Ren, Yao Huang, Xiaofeng Xu, Mingliang Liu, Chi Zhang, Guangsheng Chen, Shufen Pan, Jiyuan Liu, John Reilly

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on food security and climate change, which is lack of quantification. Here we use a carbon–nitrogen (C–N) coupled ecosystem model, to quantify the food benefit and climate consequence of agronomic N addition in China over the six decades from 1949 to 2008. Results show that N fertilizer-induced crop yield and soil C sequestration had reached their peaks, while nitrous oxide (N2O ...


Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash Dec 2011

Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash

Andrew W. Lenssen

Warm-season annual grasses may be suitable as forage crops in integrated weed management systems with reduced herbicide use. A 2-year field study was conducted to determine whether tillage system and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application method influenced crop and weed biomass, water use, water use efficiency (WUE), and forage quality of three warm-season grasses, and seed production by associated weeds. Tillage systems were zero tillage and conventional tillage with a field cultivator. The N fertilization methods were urea broadcast or banded near seed rows at planting. Warm-season grasses seeded were foxtail (Setaria italica L.) and proso (Panicum mileaceum L.) millets, and ...


Jncml-Like, An Ef-Hand Motif-Containing Gene Seasonally Upregulated In The Transition Zone Of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.), Priyanka Surana, Zhonglian Huang, Daisuke Kihara, Richard Meilan, Keith Woeste Oct 2011

Jncml-Like, An Ef-Hand Motif-Containing Gene Seasonally Upregulated In The Transition Zone Of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.), Priyanka Surana, Zhonglian Huang, Daisuke Kihara, Richard Meilan, Keith Woeste

Priyanka Surana

The economic value of a black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) tree is strongly determined by the quality and quantity of darkly colored heartwood in its stem. To understand the regulation of heartwood formation, we analyzed the region of heartwood formation in walnut stems (i.e., the transition zone, TZ) for the expression of 80 ESTs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR was performed to detect expression changes of candidate genes in the TZ and sapwood of trees harvested in summer and fall. Results revealed that the transcript of a clone containing two presumed EF-hand motifs was expressed at higher levels in ...


Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Sep 2011

Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow system, may affect dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation (sheep grazing, herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) and cropping sequence (continuous spring wheat [CSW], spring wheat–fallow [SW-F], and winter wheat–fallow [WW-F]) on soil nutrients and chemical properties in the 0- to 60-cm depth and wheat yield. The experiment was conducted in a Blackmore silt loam from 2004 to 2008 in southwestern Montana. Soil P ...


Dryland Soil Carbon Dynamics Under Alfalfa And Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen May 2011

Dryland Soil Carbon Dynamics Under Alfalfa And Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence C dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)-annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (roots) biomass C inputs and dryland soil organic C (SOC), particulate total C (PTC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM) at the 0–120 cm depth. Cropping sequences were continuous alfalfa (CA), durum-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hay (D-B), durum-foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) hay (D-M), durum-Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L.)/barley ...


Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Under Dryland Alfalfa And Durum–Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen Mar 2011

Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Under Dryland Alfalfa And Durum–Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence N dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)–annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (roots) biomass N, dryland soil total N (STN), particulate organic N (PON), microbial biomass N (MBN), potential N mineralization (PNM), NH4–N, and NO3–N contents at the 0- to 120-cm depth in northeastern Montana from 2002 to 2005. Cropping sequences were continuous alfalfa (CA), durum–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hay (D-B), durum–foxtail millet ...


Tillage Effects On Dryland Soil Physical Properties In Northeastern Montana, J. D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. G. Evans Jan 2011

Tillage Effects On Dryland Soil Physical Properties In Northeastern Montana, J. D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

We evaluated the effect of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil penetration resistance (PR), bulk density (BD), gravimetric moisture content (MC), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) during the fallow phase of a spring wheat–fallow rotation. The study was conducted on two soils mapped as Williams loam at the Froid and Sidney sites. Soil measurements were made on 19 May, 23 June, and 4 August 2005 at the Froid site and on 6 June and 8 July 2005 at the Sidney site. Tillage had no effect on either soil properties except on the PR at Sidney. However ...


Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen Jan 2011

Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Novel management practices are needed to increase dryland soil organic matter and crop yields that have been declining due to long-term conventional tillage with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the northern Great Plains, USA. The effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice were evaluated on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at the 0–20 cm depth in a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid, Typic Argiustolls) from 2004 to 2007 in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage practices [no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage ...


Measured And Predicted Temporal Changes In Soil Nitrate-N Levels From Late Summer To Early Spring In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Clain Jones, Chengci Chen, Kent Mcvay, Bob Stougaard, Mal Westcott, Joyce Eckhoff, Jennifer Weeding, Mark Greenwood Jan 2011

Measured And Predicted Temporal Changes In Soil Nitrate-N Levels From Late Summer To Early Spring In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Clain Jones, Chengci Chen, Kent Mcvay, Bob Stougaard, Mal Westcott, Joyce Eckhoff, Jennifer Weeding, Mark Greenwood

Andrew W. Lenssen

Most soil sampling is conducted from August to November in Montana because of better soil sampling conditions and because it provides more time for growers to make fertilizer decisions prior to application. Fertilizer guidelines in Montana are based on spring nitrate-N levels in the upper 2 ft because they are more indicative of growing season available N than fall nitrate-N levels. It is not known how much nitrate-N levels change between late summer and spring, nor is it known what factors affect these changes, and large changes could result in either over-application of N fertilizer or sub-optimal yields. A three-year ...


Sheep Grazing Effect On Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen In The Wheat-Fallow System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Jan 2011

Sheep Grazing Effect On Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen In The Wheat-Fallow System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Weed control by sheep grazing during fallow periods in the dryland wheat-fallow system may influence soil C and N levels. The effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation [sheep grazing (grazing), herbicide application (chemical), and tillage (mechanical)] and cropping sequence [continuous spring wheat (CSW), spring wheat-fallow (SW-F), and winter wheatfallow (WW-F)] on wheat biomass (stems + leaves) yield and soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at the 0-120 cm depth was evaluated from 2004 to 2008 in western Montana. Annualized wheat biomass yield was greater in CSW than in SW-F and WW-F from 2004 to ...


Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Influenced By Sheep Grazing In The Wheat–Fallow System, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Nov 2010

Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Influenced By Sheep Grazing In The Wheat–Fallow System, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sheep (Ovis aries) grazing during fallow for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow systems may influence soil C and N levels and grain yields by returning part of consumed crop residue to the soil through feces and urine. We evaluated the effects of fallow management (sheep grazing [grazing], herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) for weed control and soil water conservation and cropping sequence (continuous spring wheat [CSW], spring wheat–fallow [SW-F], and winter wheat–fallow [WW-F]) on soil organic carbon (SOC), inorganic carbon (SIC), total nitrogen (STN), NH4–N, and NO3–N levels at the 0- to ...


Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2010

Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The relative decomposability of corn (Zea mays L.) residues from insect (Bt)-protected hybrids and conventional hybrids cultivated under insect pressure was investigated in two studies. Above-ground biomass, residue macromolecular composition, and stalk physical strength were also measured. In the first decomposition study, chopped residues (stalks and leaves) were used from a corn rootworm-protected (Cry3Bb1) hybrid and its non-Bt near isoline that were grown in replicated plots infested with corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.). In the second study, residue (intact stalk sections) was used from three European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner)-resistant (Cry1Ab) hybrids representing different seed manufacturer/maturity ...


Yield, Quality, And Water And Nitrogen Use Of Durum And Annual Forages In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. D. Cash, P. G. Hatfield, Upendra M. Sainju, W. R. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, D. A. Griffith, G. D. Johnson Jul 2010

Yield, Quality, And Water And Nitrogen Use Of Durum And Annual Forages In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. D. Cash, P. G. Hatfield, Upendra M. Sainju, W. R. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, D. A. Griffith, G. D. Johnson

Andrew W. Lenssen

Annual spring-seeded forage crops use less water than cereal grains, including durum (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum), and may be suitable to replace summer fallow. We conducted an experiment from 2002 through 2006 comparing yield, quality, and water and N use of durum and three annual forages, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), barley interseeded with pea [Pisum sativum L. ssp. arvense (L.) Poir.], and foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] in 2-yr rotations. Durum in rotation with summer fallow and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were included. Averaged over 5 yr, alfalfa had higher forage yield and quality, water use, and N ...


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, R. T. Lartey, T.C. Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans May 2010

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, R. T. Lartey, T.C. Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract-N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were resolved ...


Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper Jan 2010

Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fields sampled, averaging 60–99% of the total adult populations. Lygus borealis (Kelton), Lygus keltoni (Schwartz) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot) were detected at much lower levels. Total lygus population density was greatest in the southwest and central regions. The northeast and southwest regions had the greatest lygus species diversity. The proportion of L. elisus ...


Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin Jan 2010

Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin

Andrew W. Lenssen

Tillage may influence the microbial populations involved in soil aggregation.We evaluated the effects of no till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT, tillage depth about 7 cm) continuous spring wheat system on culturable heterotrophic bacterial communities predominant in microaggregates (0.25e0.05 mm) and on soil-aggregating basidiomycete fungi in aggregate-size classes (4.75e2.00, 2.00e0.25, and 0.25e0.05 mm) at 0e20 cm depth of a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic Argiustolls) in dryland Montana, USA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to quantify antigenic response to basidiomycete cellwalls,was higher in NT than in CT in 4.75e2.00 ...


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans Jan 2010

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract- N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were ...


Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, Thecan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans Jan 2010

Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, Thecan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water and N fertility are primary constraints to crop production in the northern Great Plains of the USA. A field trial was initiated in 2004 to compare four crop rotations in a complete factorial of two tillage and two management systems. Rotations were continuous spring wheat (SW), pea-SW, barley hay-pea-SW, and barley hay-corn-pea-SW. Tillage systems were no till and field cultivator tillage, while management systems were conventional and ecological. Conventional management included broadcast nitrogen fertilizer, standard seeding rates, and short stubble height. Ecological management practices varied by crop, and included banded nitrogen fertilizer for cereals, increased seeding rate, delayed ...


Tillage And Cropping Sequence Impacts On Nitrogen Cycling In Dryland Farming In Eastern Montana, Usa, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg May 2009

Tillage And Cropping Sequence Impacts On Nitrogen Cycling In Dryland Farming In Eastern Montana, Usa, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg

Andrew W. Lenssen

Information on N cycling in dryland crops and soils as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence is needed to quantify soil N sequestration, mineralization, and N balance to reduce N fertilization rate and N losses through soil processes. The 21-yr effects of the combinations of tillage and cropping sequences was evaluated on dryland crop grain and biomass (stems + leaves) N, soil surface residue N, soil N fractions, and N balance at the 0–20 cm depth in Dooley sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, frigid, Typic Argiboroll) in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW ...


Dryland Crop Yields And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Robert G. Evans Mar 2009

Dryland Crop Yields And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Robert G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Novel management practices are needed to improve the declining dryland crop yields and soil organic matter contents using conventional farming practices in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence on dryland grain and biomass (stems + leaves) yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.) and soil organic matter at the 0- to 20-cm depth in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall- and spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall- and spring-tilled spring wheat-barley (1984–1999) followed ...


Comparative Pollination Biology Of Sympatric And Allopatric Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae)1, Steven J. Hall, Stacy Dewitt Smith, Pablo R. Izquierdo, David A. Baum Dec 2008

Comparative Pollination Biology Of Sympatric And Allopatric Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae)1, Steven J. Hall, Stacy Dewitt Smith, Pablo R. Izquierdo, David A. Baum

Steven J. Hall

Field studies were conducted for 15 species of Iochroma Benth. and the nested genus Acnistus Schott to quantify the diversity of pollination systems and to assess the potential contribution of pollinator behavior to the persistence of closely related species in sympatry. We combined measures of pollinator visitation and pollen deposition to estimate the importance of major groups of pollinators for each species, and we calculated proportional similarity in the pollinator assemblage among species. We found that 12 species of Iochroma, encompassing a range of flower colors and sizes, were principally pollinated by hummingbirds and, in many cases, by the same ...