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Gwas And Wgcna Uncover Hub Genes Controlling Salt Tolerance In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedlings, Langlang Ma, Minyan Zhang, Jie Chen, Chunyan Qing, Shijiang He, Changying Zou, Guangsheng Yuan, Cong Yang, Hua Peng, Guangtang Pan, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yaou Shen Apr 2021

Gwas And Wgcna Uncover Hub Genes Controlling Salt Tolerance In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedlings, Langlang Ma, Minyan Zhang, Jie Chen, Chunyan Qing, Shijiang He, Changying Zou, Guangsheng Yuan, Cong Yang, Hua Peng, Guangtang Pan, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yaou Shen

Agronomy Publications

Salt stress influences maize growth and development. To decode the genetic basis and hub genes controlling salt tolerance is a meaningful exploration for cultivating salt-tolerant maize varieties. Herein, we used an association panel consisting of 305 lines to identify the genetic loci responsible for Na+- and K+-related traits in maize seedlings. Under the salt stress, seven significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified using a genome-wide association study, and 120 genes were obtained by scanning the linkage disequilibrium regions of these loci. According to the transcriptome data of the above 120 genes under salinity treatment, we conducted a weighted gene ...


Key Factors Involved In Reduction Of Damage To Sunflower By The European Sunflower Moth In China Through Late Planting, Yunxia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Lizhi Luo, Chenguang Liu, Yongjun Wang, Shuangping Liu, Zongze Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xingfu Jiang Apr 2021

Key Factors Involved In Reduction Of Damage To Sunflower By The European Sunflower Moth In China Through Late Planting, Yunxia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Lizhi Luo, Chenguang Liu, Yongjun Wang, Shuangping Liu, Zongze Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xingfu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The European sunflower moth, Homoesoma nebulellum (Denis et Schiffermüller), emerged as a major new pest in Bayannur, China, in 2006. Insecticidal control with a single application is problematic because timing is critical, and multiple applications increase production and environmental costs. Management of H. nebulellum by planting date adjustment can be effective, but the optimal time window for late planting is unknown. Natural levels of H. nebulellum infestation were compared among sunflowers planted on five dates from April 25 to June 5 in two years, and the relationship between timing of adult abundance and flowering assessed. Delaying planting of sunflower from ...


High Mortality Rates For Bean Leaf Beetle In Northern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

High Mortality Rates For Bean Leaf Beetle In Northern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Bean leaf beetle adults (Photo 1) are susceptible to cold weather and most will die when air temperatures fall below 14°F (-10°C). However, they have adapted to winter by protecting themselves from harsh temperatures under plant debris and loose soil. Each spring, adult beetles emerge from their overwintering habitat and migrate to available hosts, such as alfalfa, tick trefoil, and various clovers. As the season progresses, bean leaf beetles move to preferred hosts, like soybean. While initial adult activity can begin before soybean emergence, peak abundance often coincides with early-vegetative soybean.


Termination Timing Of Cereal Rye Cover Crop For Improved Weed Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha Apr 2021

Termination Timing Of Cereal Rye Cover Crop For Improved Weed Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha

Integrated Crop Management News

Current cooler weather conditions are posing challenges for growers with a cereal rye cover crop to get it terminated. However, for growers planning to plant soybeans into the rye cover crop, there may be a perk to letting the rye cover crop accumulate more biomass. That perk being the cover crop biomass can help with weed suppression. The ability of cereal rye to suppress weeds is directly related to the biomass accumulation at the time of termination.


Spring Forage Management Considerations, Aaron Saeugling, Rebecca K. Vittetoe Apr 2021

Spring Forage Management Considerations, Aaron Saeugling, Rebecca K. Vittetoe

Integrated Crop Management News

Pasture and forages stands have really started to green-up. Here are some fertilizer and weed management considerations and recommendations to help make the most out of pasture and forage stands this year.


Check Fieldwatch® Before Pesticide Applications, Elizabeth Danielson Apr 2021

Check Fieldwatch® Before Pesticide Applications, Elizabeth Danielson

Integrated Crop Management News

Prepare for a safe pesticide application season by checking the FieldWatch® registry before making pesticide applications. The FieldWatch® registry provides easy-to-use, accurate, and secure online tools to enhance communications and awareness between crop producers, beekeepers, and pesticide applicators.FieldWatch® features a voluntary mapping tool through Google Maps™ that shows pesticide applicators the locations of registered sensitive crops and beehives so they can make informed decisions regarding pesticide applications. Taking the time to review what is near a field prior to applications helps prevent off-target application problems and helps commercial applicators comply with the Iowa Bee Rule.


To Terminate Or Not To Terminate?, Robert G. Hartzler Apr 2021

To Terminate Or Not To Terminate?, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Current cool temperatures increase the risk of failures in terminating cover crops. While cereal rye continues to grow during these conditions, activity of herbicides is reduced. Translocation of glyphosate to growing points is reduced under cool temperatures, slowing activity and increasing the potential for control failures. It is generally recommended to avoid applications when nighttime temperatures fall below 40 F, and we prefer temperatures at application to be at least in the mid-50s with clear skies. Based on current forecasts, herbicide applications to terminate in many areas of the state should be delayed until more favorable conditions exist.


Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar application to the soil can improve soil quality and nutrient leaching loss from swine manure adapted soils. Our working hypothesis was that the biochar-incubated with manure could be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application. The manure-biochar application to the soil would decrease nutrient leaching from manure and increase plant-available nutrients. The study objectives were to 1) assess the physicochemical properties of the manure-biochar mixture after lab incubation and 2) evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and other major and minor nutrients in comparison to conventional manure application to soil. Three biochars ...


Alfalfa Weevils Active Throughout Southern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

Alfalfa Weevils Active Throughout Southern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Adult alfalfa weevils become active and start laying eggs as soon as temperatures exceed 48°F. Like other insects, the development of alfalfa weevil depends on temperature, and we can use accumulation of growing degree days (GDD) to predict activity. Alfalfa weevil egg hatching begins when 200-300 GDD (base 48°F) have accumulated since January 1.


Seedcorn Maggots Get An Early Start, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

Seedcorn Maggots Get An Early Start, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Seedcorn maggot is a seed and seedling pest of corn and soybean. The larvae, or maggots, feed on germinating corn and soybean seeds or seedlings (Photo 1). Feeding can delay development or kill the plant. Plant injury is especially prevalent during cool and wet springs when plants are growing slowly. Infestations tend to be field-wide instead of in patches like for many other pests. To confirm seedcorn maggot injury, check field areas with stand loss and look for maggots, pupae and damaged seeds (hollowed out seeds or poorly developing seedlings).


Preemergence Herbicides, Dry Soils And Rain, Robert G. Hartzler Apr 2021

Preemergence Herbicides, Dry Soils And Rain, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

The potential for continued dry weather across the state raises concerns about the impact of dry soils on preemergence herbicides. Preemergence herbicides kill weeds by being absorbed into the seed as the seed imbibes water. To be effective, the herbicide must be located within the soil profile at the depth where weed seeds germinate (primarily the upper inch of soil). In addition, there must be sufficient water to keep the herbicide dissolved in soil water. Both factors can be adversely affected by limited rain early in the season.


Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro- and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak ...


Broadening The Impact Of Plant Science Through Innovative, Integrative, And Inclusive Outreach, Joanna Friesner, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Et Al. Apr 2021

Broadening The Impact Of Plant Science Through Innovative, Integrative, And Inclusive Outreach, Joanna Friesner, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Et Al.

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Population growth and climate change will impact food security and potentially exacerbate the environmental toll that agriculture has taken on our planet. These existential concerns demand that a passionate, interdisciplinary, and diverse community of plant science professionals is trained during the 21st century. Furthermore, societal trends that question the importance of science and expert knowledge highlight the need to better communicate the value of rigorous fundamental scientific exploration. Engaging students and the general public in the wonder of plants, and science in general, requires renewed efforts that take advantage of advances in technology and new models of funding and knowledge ...


Gmnf-Yc4-2 Increases Protein, Exhibits Broad Disease Resistance And Expedites Maturity In Soybean, Seth O’Conner, Wenguang Zheng, Mingsheng Qi, Yuba Kandel, Robert Fuller, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li Mar 2021

Gmnf-Yc4-2 Increases Protein, Exhibits Broad Disease Resistance And Expedites Maturity In Soybean, Seth O’Conner, Wenguang Zheng, Mingsheng Qi, Yuba Kandel, Robert Fuller, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The NF-Y gene family is a highly conserved set of transcription factors. The functional transcription factor complex is made up of a trimer between NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC proteins. While mammals typically have one gene for each subunit, plants often have multigene families for each subunit which contributes to a wide variety of combinations and functions. Soybean plants with an overexpression of a particular NF-YC isoform GmNF-YC4-2 (Glyma.04g196200) in soybean cultivar Williams 82, had a lower amount of starch in its leaves, a higher amount of protein in its seeds, and increased broad disease resistance for bacterial, viral, and ...


Interdisciplinary Strategies To Enable Data-Driven Plant Breeding In A Changing Climate, Aaron Kusmec, Zihao Zheng, Sotirios Archontoulis, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Jianming Yu, Patrick S. Schnable Mar 2021

Interdisciplinary Strategies To Enable Data-Driven Plant Breeding In A Changing Climate, Aaron Kusmec, Zihao Zheng, Sotirios Archontoulis, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang, Jianming Yu, Patrick S. Schnable

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This perspective lays out a framework to enable the breeding of crops that can meet worldwide demand under the challenges of global climate change. Past work in various fields has produced multiple prediction methods to contribute to different plant breeding objectives. Our proposed framework focuses on the integration of these methods into decision-support tools that quantify the effects on multiple objectives of decisions made throughout the plant breeding pipeline. We discuss the complementarities among these methods with an emphasis on integration into tools that utilize operations research and systems approaches to help plant breeders rapidly and optimally design new cultivars ...


Multiple Resource Limitations Explain Biomass-Precipitation Relationships In Grasslands, Siddharth Bharath, Peter B. Adler, Philip A. Fay, Eric W. Seabloom, Yann Hautier, Lori Biederman, Miguel N. Bugalho, Maria Caldeira, Anu Eskelinen, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca Mcculley, John Morgan, Sally A. Power, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schuetz, Carly J. Stevens, Timothy Ohlert, Risto Virtanen, Elizabeth T. Borer Mar 2021

Multiple Resource Limitations Explain Biomass-Precipitation Relationships In Grasslands, Siddharth Bharath, Peter B. Adler, Philip A. Fay, Eric W. Seabloom, Yann Hautier, Lori Biederman, Miguel N. Bugalho, Maria Caldeira, Anu Eskelinen, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca Mcculley, John Morgan, Sally A. Power, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schuetz, Carly J. Stevens, Timothy Ohlert, Risto Virtanen, Elizabeth T. Borer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Interannual variability in grassland primary production is strongly driven by precipitation, nutrient availability and herbivory, but there is no general consensus on the mechanisms linking these variables. If grassland biomass is limited by the single most limiting resource at a given time, then we expect that nutrient addition will not affect biomass production at arid sites. We conducted a distributed experiment manipulating nutrients and herbivores at 44 grassland sites in 8 regions around the world, spanning a broad range in aridity. We estimated the effects of 5-11 years of nutrient addition and herbivore exclusion treatments on precipitation sensitivity of biomass ...


Best Management Practice For Spatial Layout Of Field Trials, Ryan W. Bergman Mar 2021

Best Management Practice For Spatial Layout Of Field Trials, Ryan W. Bergman

Integrated Crop Management News

If you are planning on conducting field trials this growing season, how you set up the field trial can determine the accuracy of your yield data at harvest. To reap the full benefits of gathering yield data to improve crop management and influence input decisions, it should be part of your management plan year-round.


Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Nick E. Christians Feb 2021

Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Nick E. Christians

Agronomy Publications

Soil health and sustainable management practices have garnered much interest within the turfgrass industry. Among the many practices that enhance soil health and sustainability are applying soil additives to enhance soil biological activity and reducing nitrogen (N) inputs—complimentary practices. A two-year study was conducted to investigate if reduced N fertilizer rates applied with humic substances could provide comparable turfgrass quality as full N rates, and whether humic fertilizers would increase biological aspects of soil health (i.e., microbial biomass and activity). Treatments included synthetic fertilizer with black gypsum (SFBG), poly-coated humic-coated urea (PCHCU; two rates), urea + humic dispersing granules ...


Psonic: Ploidy-Aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified Via Collinearity, Justin L. Conover, Joel Sharbrough, Jonathan F. Wendel Feb 2021

Psonic: Ploidy-Aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified Via Collinearity, Justin L. Conover, Joel Sharbrough, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

With the rapid rise in availability of high-quality genomes for closely related species, methods for orthology inference that incorporate synteny are increasingly useful. Polyploidy perturbs the 1:1 expected frequencies of orthologs between two species, complicating the identification of orthologs. Here we present a method of ortholog inference, Ploidy-aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified via Collinearity (pSONIC). We demonstrate the utility of pSONIC using four species in the cotton tribe (Gossypieae), including one allopolyploid, and place between 75-90% of genes from each species into nearly 32,000 orthologous groups, 97% of which consist of at most singletons or tandemly duplicated genes ...


The Look Ahead Trace Back Optimizer For Genomic Selection Under Transparent And Opaque Simulators, Fatemeh Amini, Felipe Restrepo Franco, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang Feb 2021

The Look Ahead Trace Back Optimizer For Genomic Selection Under Transparent And Opaque Simulators, Fatemeh Amini, Felipe Restrepo Franco, Guiping Hu, Lizhi Wang

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Recent advances in genomic selection (GS) have demonstrated the importance of not only the accuracy of genomic prediction but also the intelligence of selection strategies. The look ahead selection algorithm, for example, has been found to significantly outperform the widely used truncation selection approach in terms of genetic gain, thanks to its strategy of selecting breeding parents that may not necessarily be elite themselves but have the best chance of producing elite progeny in the future. This paper presents the look ahead trace back algorithm as a new variant of the look ahead approach, which introduces several improvements to further ...


2020 Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa, Alison E. Robertson Feb 2021

2020 Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

This article summarizes 2020 corn foliar fungicide trials that were done at six locations in Iowa: ISU Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm (NWRF), Sutherland; Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm (NERF), Nashua; Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (NRF), Kanawha; Southwest Research and Demonstration Farm (SWRF), Lewis; Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville; and the Ag Engineering and Agronomy Farm (AEA) near Boone.


Slim Shady Is A Novel Allele Of Phytochrome B Present In The T-Dna Line Salk_015201, Linkan Dash, Robert E. Mcewan, Christian Montes, Ludvin Mejia, Justin W. Walley, Brian P. Dilkes, Dior R. Kelley Feb 2021

Slim Shady Is A Novel Allele Of Phytochrome B Present In The T-Dna Line Salk_015201, Linkan Dash, Robert E. Mcewan, Christian Montes, Ludvin Mejia, Justin W. Walley, Brian P. Dilkes, Dior R. Kelley

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Auxin is a hormone that is required for hypocotyl elongation during seedling development. In response to auxin rapid changes in transcript and protein abundance occur in hypocotyls and some auxin responsive gene expression is linked to hypocotyl growth. To functionally validate proteomic studies, a reverse genetics screen was performed on mutants in auxin-regulated proteins to identify novel regulators of plant growth. This uncovered a long hypocotyl mutant, which we called slim shady, in an annotated insertion line in IMMUNOREGULATORY RNA-BINDING PROTEIN (IRR). Overexpression of the IRR gene failed to rescue the slim shady phenotype and characterization of a second T-DNA ...


2020 Summary Of Herbicide Evaluations For Marestail (Horseweed) Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha Feb 2021

2020 Summary Of Herbicide Evaluations For Marestail (Horseweed) Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha

Integrated Crop Management News

Marestail is one of the most widespread and troublesome weeds in Iowa croplands. It can grow to a height of 1.5 to 6 feet, produce up to 200,000 seeds, and can reduce soybean yields up to 80% if not controlled (Figure 1). Marestail seeds are light and disperse across landscapes with winds. Seeds have little dormancy and can germinate soon after seed shed. In general, 75% of seedlings germinate in fall, remain in rosette-stage until spring, begin stem elongation in April, and start flowering in July. About 25% of seeds germinate in the spring. Due to these unique ...


Agricultural Innovation And Adaptation To Climate Change: Insights From Genetically Engineered Maize, Seungki Lee, Yongjie Ji, Giancarlo Moschini Feb 2021

Agricultural Innovation And Adaptation To Climate Change: Insights From Genetically Engineered Maize, Seungki Lee, Yongjie Ji, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

Climate change is one of the major threats to the global food supply, and adaptation by technological progress is believed to be essential. What is the scope of the required innovation tasks? To address this question, we estimate the yield gain in US maize production due to a major novel technology: genetically engineered (GE) varieties. Next, the yield model is used to extrapolate future expected yields given climate change projections from twenty large-scale models and two warming scenarios. We find that climate change entails significant yield shortfalls. The scale of these yield gaps, by the end of the century, ranges ...


Increasing Effects Of Chronic Nutrient Enrichment On Plant Diversity Loss And Ecosystem Productivity Over Time, Eric W. Seabloom, Lori Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al. Feb 2021

Increasing Effects Of Chronic Nutrient Enrichment On Plant Diversity Loss And Ecosystem Productivity Over Time, Eric W. Seabloom, Lori Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Human activities are enriching many of Earth’s ecosystems with biologically limiting mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In grasslands, this enrichment generally reduces plant diversity and increases productivity. The widely demonstrated positive effect of diversity on productivity suggests a potential negative feedback, whereby nutrient‐induced declines in diversity reduce the initial gains in productivity arising from nutrient enrichment. In addition, plant productivity and diversity can be inhibited by accumulations of dead biomass, which may be altered by nutrient enrichment. Over longer time frames, nutrient addition may increase soil fertility by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient ...


Direct Agroinoculation Of Maize Seedlings By Injection With Recombinant Foxtail Mosaic Virus And Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Infectious Clones, Bliss M. Beernink, Katerina L. Holan, Ryan R. Lappe, Steven A. Whitham Feb 2021

Direct Agroinoculation Of Maize Seedlings By Injection With Recombinant Foxtail Mosaic Virus And Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Infectious Clones, Bliss M. Beernink, Katerina L. Holan, Ryan R. Lappe, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Agrobacterium-based inoculation approaches are widely used for introducing viral vectors into plant tissues. This study details a protocol for the injection of maize seedlings near meristematic tissue with Agrobacterium carrying a viral vector. Recombinant foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) clones engineered for gene silencing and gene expression were used to optimize this method, and its use was expanded to include a recombinant sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) engineered for gene expression. Gene fragments or coding sequences of interest are inserted into a modified, infectious viral genome that has been cloned into the binary T-DNA plasmid vector pCAMBIA1380. The resulting plasmid constructs ...


Expansion Within The Cyp71d Subfamily Drives The Heterocyclization Of Tanshinones Synthesis In Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Ying Ma, Guanghong Cui, Tong Chen, Xiaohui Ma, Ruishan Wang, Baolong Jin, Jian Yang, Liping Kang, Jinfu Tang, Changjiangsheng Lai, Yanan Wang, Yujun Zhao, Ye Shen, Wen Zeng, Reuben J. Peters, Xiaoquan Qi, Juan Guo, Luqi Huang Jan 2021

Expansion Within The Cyp71d Subfamily Drives The Heterocyclization Of Tanshinones Synthesis In Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Ying Ma, Guanghong Cui, Tong Chen, Xiaohui Ma, Ruishan Wang, Baolong Jin, Jian Yang, Liping Kang, Jinfu Tang, Changjiangsheng Lai, Yanan Wang, Yujun Zhao, Ye Shen, Wen Zeng, Reuben J. Peters, Xiaoquan Qi, Juan Guo, Luqi Huang

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Tanshinones are the bioactive nor-diterpenoid constituents of the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These groups of chemicals have the characteristic furan D-ring, which differentiates them from the phenolic abietane-type diterpenoids frequently found in the Lamiaceae family. However, how the 14,16-epoxy is formed has not been elucidated. Here, we report an improved genome assembly of Danshen using a highly homozygous genotype. We identify a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D) tandem gene array through gene expansion analysis. We show that CYP71D373 and CYP71D375 catalyze hydroxylation at carbon-16 (C16) and 14,16-ether (hetero)cyclization to form the D-ring, whereas CYP71D411 catalyzes upstream ...


Isu Scn-Resistant Soybean Variety Trial Program Results For 2020, Gregory L. Tylka Jan 2021

Isu Scn-Resistant Soybean Variety Trial Program Results For 2020, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University evaluates nematode control and yield performance of soybean varieties with resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in SCN-infested fields throughout Iowa each year. The work is supported by the soybean checkoff through the Iowa Soybean Association.


Summary Of 2020 Insecticide Evaluations For Soybean Pests, Erin W. Hodgson, Ashley Dean Jan 2021

Summary Of 2020 Insecticide Evaluations For Soybean Pests, Erin W. Hodgson, Ashley Dean

Integrated Crop Management News

Each year, the ISU Soybean Research Laboratory conducts insecticide efficacy evaluations for soybean aphid, and two emerging pests, Japanese beetle and soybean gall midge, were added in 2019. Details about pest biology, research plot design, sampling methods, and additional results can be found here.


Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Extensive Lysine Ubiquitination In The Arabidopsis Root Proteome And Uncovers Novel Transcription Factor Stability States, Gaoyuan Song, Damilola Olatunji, Christian Montes, Natalie M. Clark, Yunting Pu, Dior R. Kelley, Justin W. Walley Jan 2021

Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Extensive Lysine Ubiquitination In The Arabidopsis Root Proteome And Uncovers Novel Transcription Factor Stability States, Gaoyuan Song, Damilola Olatunji, Christian Montes, Natalie M. Clark, Yunting Pu, Dior R. Kelley, Justin W. Walley

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Protein activity, abundance, and stability can be regulated by posttranslational modification including ubiquitination. Ubiquitination is conserved among eukaryotes and plays a central role in modulating cellular function and yet we lack comprehensive catalogs of proteins that are modified by ubiquitin in plants. In this study, we describe an antibody-based approach to enrich peptides containing the di-glycine (diGly) remnant of ubiquitin and coupled that with isobaric labeling to enable quantification, from up to 16-multiplexed samples, for plant tissues. Collectively, we identified 7,130 diGly-modified lysine residues sites arising from 3,178 proteins in Arabidopsis primary roots. These data include ubiquitin proteasome ...