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Promoting Critical Consciousness: The Role Of Positive Youth Development Programming, Mackenzie Jaclyn Hart Jul 2020

Promoting Critical Consciousness: The Role Of Positive Youth Development Programming, Mackenzie Jaclyn Hart

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the role of positive youth development programming and individual-level characteristics in promoting critical reflection (CR) in youth and adolescent participants. CR refers to the analytical component of critical consciousness (CC), or the exercise of challenging institutional practices that systemically marginalize or oppress certain subgroups. Survey and interview data were analyzed from at-risk high school students (N=250) participating in an after-school program across six sites in urban areas in the United States. Multiple regression models were used to predict the development of CR, and interviews were examined to look for themes related to quantitative findings. Results support ...


America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay Jun 2020

America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Are violent video games harming America’s youth? Is it possible a series of interconnected circuit boards can influence children (or even adults) to become, themselves, violent? If so, how should our society-- and government-- respond?

To properly answer this last query, violent video games must be viewed through the lens of the First Amendment. Simply put: do games depicting grotesque acts of depravity so profound as to negatively influence the psyche warrant the full constitutional protections ordinarily guaranteed under the mantle of free speech and expression? Are these guarantees without limit? If not, how far may the government go ...


Wombs, Wizards, And Wisdom: Bilbo's Journey From Childhood In The Hobbit, Rory W. Collins May 2020

Wombs, Wizards, And Wisdom: Bilbo's Journey From Childhood In The Hobbit, Rory W. Collins

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

In The Hobbit, J. R. R. Tolkien constructs middle-aged Bilbo Baggins as a sheltered and emotionally immature ‘child’ during the opening chapters before tracing his development into an autonomous, self-aware adult as the tale progresses. This article examines Tolkien’s novel qua bildungsroman through both a literary lens—considering setting, dialogue, and symbolism, among other techniques—and via a psychological framework, emphasizing an Eriksonian conception of development. Additionally, Peter Jackson’s three-part film adaptation of The Hobbit is discussed throughout with ways that Jackson succeeds and fails at portraying Bilbo’s childlike attributes noted. I argue that Tolkien presents a ...


An Examination Of Employee Coachability And Managerial Coaching In Organizations, Jake Alexander Weiss Mar 2020

An Examination Of Employee Coachability And Managerial Coaching In Organizations, Jake Alexander Weiss

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Volatile, complex, and ambiguous work environments require organizations to focus on continuous employee development and performance improvement across all organizational levels. As a result, organizational development (OD) practices for employee development rapidly increased throughout the past decade. One such vital individualized training intervention – organizational coaching – facilitates continuous behavioral change, development, and performance improvement across employees (Joo et al., 2012). Researchers, like practitioners, though, often examine coaching in isolation, focusing on the coach without considering the impact those being coached (i.e., coachees) have on the success of the coaching process. Coachees’ ability to seek, thoughtfully consider, act, and change behavior ...


A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov Mar 2020

A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The aging of the world’s population has become a grand societal challenge, which requires an urgent response from researchers, professionals, and the wider society. One way to respond to this challenge is by supporting individuals in sustaining longer and healthier working lives, that is, age successfully. Although the advantages of promoting and enabling successful aging at work have been widely acknowledged, no single instrument for measuring this construct has been published so far. We develop and test in three consecutive samples a two-dimensional successful aging at work scale. This novel instrument is rooted conceptually in the most recent theoretical ...


Age, Access, And Sweets-Motivation, Gehan Senthinathan Jan 2020

Age, Access, And Sweets-Motivation, Gehan Senthinathan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Availability can have profound influence on the consumption of foods and drinks. The 2-phase intermittent-continuous protocol (ICP) examines sucrose solution intake in two groups of rats and finds intermittent access significantly increases intake. In Phase I, rats receive intermittent or continuous access to a 4% sucrose solution, and with adults this results in a long-term elevation (a doubling) in the intermittent group. In Phase II, when rats are shifted to common sucrose schedule, this difference is maintained. Adult rats given 16% sucrose in Phase I do not differ in consumption, but in Phase II with 4% sucrose, an unexpressed elevation ...


To Empathize Or Iempathize: Social Networking And Adolescent Female Friendships, Jennifer A. Schonberg Jan 2020

To Empathize Or Iempathize: Social Networking And Adolescent Female Friendships, Jennifer A. Schonberg

Dissertations & Theses

Through qualitative methodology, this dissertation aimed to explore adolescent girls’ use of social networking sites (SNS) and the impact these sites could be having on girls’ development of empathy and their ability to address conflict in their friendships. The topic is introduced by outlining the relevant statistics and through highlighting some of the negative and positive influences of SNS use on adolescent female life. Carol Gilligan’s theory of moral development is explained and used to frame the research questions for this phenomenological research study. Section One of this dissertation reviews the current literature on this topic, including how social ...


Play's Role In The Development Of Antisocial Behavior, Cheyenne Vazquez Jan 2020

Play's Role In The Development Of Antisocial Behavior, Cheyenne Vazquez

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper is a literature review which examines the relationship between play and prosocial behavior. More specifically, it examines its inverse, questioning whether a lack of play in early childhood may be correlated to the development of antisocial behavior later in life. Comparing research from an abundance of psychologists, criminologists, and sociologists, this paper answers various questions pertaining to play and prosocial behavior: What happens if play is inhibited in childhood? Would different reasons for play to be inhibited result in different results (i.e. abusive childhoods, desperate situations such as homelessness and poverty, chronic illness, etc.)? Is a lack ...


The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker Dec 2019

The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adolescence is a dynamic period of social, cognitive, and biological changes. In particular, working memory, the ability to actively encode and maintain information over a short period of time, develops early in childhood and gradually increases in capacity and stability during adolescence. The precise neurophysiological mechanism by which working memory capacity increases during adolescence is unclear. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of cortical gamma-band (> 30 Hz) oscillations—which are associated with working memory in adults—for the development of working memory capacity in adolescents, and to identify the extent to which the temporal profile of ...


Dimensions Of Symptom Presentation And Scholarly Representation Of Young Females With Fragile X Syndrome, Andrew N. Snell Oct 2019

Dimensions Of Symptom Presentation And Scholarly Representation Of Young Females With Fragile X Syndrome, Andrew N. Snell

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

No abstract provided.


How Does The Brain Represent Digits? Investigating The Neural Correlates Of Symbolic Number Representation Using Fmri-Adaptation, Celia Goffin Oct 2019

How Does The Brain Represent Digits? Investigating The Neural Correlates Of Symbolic Number Representation Using Fmri-Adaptation, Celia Goffin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

How does the brain represent numerical symbols (e.g., Arabic digits)? Activity in left parietal regions correlates with symbolic number processing. Research with functional resonance imaging adaptation (fMRI-A) indicates that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) exhibits a rebound (increase in activation) effect when a repeatedly presented number is followed by a new number. Importantly, this rebound effect is modulated by numerical ratio as well as the difference between presented numbers (distance). This ratio-dependent rebound effect could reflect a link between symbolic numerical representation and an approximate number system (ANS). In this doctoral dissertation, fMRI-A is used to investigate mechanisms underlying symbolic ...


Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Climate change is warming the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. Under predicted end-of-century temperatures, many teleosts show impaired development and altered critical behaviors, including behavioral lateralisation. Since laterality is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, changes in the strength and direction of lateralisation suggest that rapid climate warming might impact brain development and function. However, despite the implications for cognitive functions, the potential effects of elevated temperature in lateralisation of elasmobranch fishes are unknown. We incubated and reared Port Jackson sharks at current and projected end-of-century temperatures and measured preferential detour responses to left or right. Sharks incubated ...


Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram Jul 2019

Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life.

Methods

In two independent prospective cohorts in ...


The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral Jun 2019

The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Forming categories is a core part of human cognition, allowing us to make quickly make inferences about our environment. This thesis investigated some of the major theoretical interpretations surrounding the neural basis of visual category development. In adults, there are category-selective regions (e.g. in ventral temporal cortex) and networks (which include regions outside traditional visual regions—e.g. the amygdala) that support visual categorization. While there has been extensive behavioural work investigating visual categorization in infants, the neural sequence of development remains poorly understood. Based on behavioral experiments, one view holds that infants are initially using subcortical structures to ...


Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Neurological Development And Mental, Physical Health In Adulthood, Sara Mckissick Jun 2019

Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Neurological Development And Mental, Physical Health In Adulthood, Sara Mckissick

D.U.Quark

Unfortunately, childhood maltreatment and trauma are prevalent in society. As awareness grows, so does the research on the long-term effects early exposure to traumatic events has on the developing person. Socioeconomic hardships, psychopathologies, and cognitive deficiencies correlate with early childhood adverse experiences. This review will compare normal neurological activity and development to that of children who have experienced childhood trauma. It will also further explore various factors such as the level of trauma, the onset of exposure, duration or recurrence of trauma experienced. Finally, this review will examine the effects that manifest themselves in adulthood to further understand the detrimental ...


Digital Childhood: How Mobile Devices Impact Child Development And Adolescent Behavior, Brenna Pinnock Jun 2019

Digital Childhood: How Mobile Devices Impact Child Development And Adolescent Behavior, Brenna Pinnock

Global Honors Theses

A new wave of smart and modern technology has integrated into lives and homes of families everywhere, thus the effects of early and continual exposure to this technology remain unknown. This is a global problem as many people around the world have access to this technology and interact with it in different ways. Whether it’s embracing it for future generations like Japan, or helping the newer generations with their overuse, almost addiction like tendencies with these devices like in South Korea. Around the world children are engaging with these devices at a young age and it’s found to ...


The Influence Of Team Cohesion And Contextual Performance On Project Team Performance Over Time, Melissa Vazquez Jun 2019

The Influence Of Team Cohesion And Contextual Performance On Project Team Performance Over Time, Melissa Vazquez

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Theory and empirical research suggest that team cohesion and contextual performance relate to team performance. However, while general support exists for a team cohesion and contextual performance relationship, less is known about the how the relationship evolves over time. This study aimed to examine the extent to which team cohesion and contextual performance reciprocally relate over time. Data were collected from 245 individuals comprising 40 student project teams engaged in the Capsim business simulation over a 10-week quarter. Results supported hypothesis 1; based on a cross-lagged path model, a stronger relationship exists between contextual performance at time point 1 and ...


“Get Tough!”: A Case Study On The Development Of The Sport Ethic In Youth Lacrosse, Ross Budziszewski May 2019

“Get Tough!”: A Case Study On The Development Of The Sport Ethic In Youth Lacrosse, Ross Budziszewski

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

While participation in youth sport is often linked with positive psychosocial and physical outcomes (Holt et al., 2017), this context can also cultivate ideals that lead to the development of unethical beliefs as well as unsafe sport practices (Al-Yaarbi & Kavussanu, 2017). The sport ethic is described as the deviant overconformity by an athlete to fit societal expectations of a sport’s high-performance culture (Hughes & Coakley, 1991). Strong beliefs in the sport ethic can lead to moral disengagement, antisocial behavior, and viewing sport like warfare (Shields, Funk, & Bredemeier, 2015). Although the sport ethic has been examined in competitive adult sport (Coakley ...


A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Exploration Of Practitioner Use, Development, And Satisfaction Of Theoretical Paradigms In Sport Psychology, Christopher E. Bilder May 2019

A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Exploration Of Practitioner Use, Development, And Satisfaction Of Theoretical Paradigms In Sport Psychology, Christopher E. Bilder

Dissertations, 2014-2019

The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to identify the use, development, and perceived satisfaction of current theoretical paradigms by sport psychology practitioners. Participants for the quantitative portion of the study were 170 (95 women, 65 men) sport psychology practitioners.

Results of a frequency analysis revealed that most practitioners use an integrative paradigm type, and the most commonly used paradigms were CBT, ACT, and humanistic. A descriptive analysis revealed that theoretical paradigms are developed across all developmental levels. Independent between-groups ANOVAs indicated that primary training background significantly impacted the principles perceived to be necessary (i.e., sport ...


First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith May 2019

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


A Study Of Beluga (Delphinapterus Leucas) Vocal Ontogeny, Audra Elizabeth Ames May 2019

A Study Of Beluga (Delphinapterus Leucas) Vocal Ontogeny, Audra Elizabeth Ames

Dissertations

There is a shortage of literature regarding beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) vocal ontogeny, as presently, there has only been one published study on the vocal development of beluga calves, despite the value of ontogenetic studies for our understanding of sound-centered species. Here I offer the second longitudinal study of beluga vocal development. Using a calibrated digital hydrophone with a sampling rate of 256 kHz, I studied the vocal progression of a male beluga calf in early life. From his first day, the calf produced broadband pulse trains with upper frequency limits extending past the study’s Nyquist frequency (128 kHz); higher ...


Assessing Readiness For A Physical Activity Intervention In Positive Youth Development Afterschool Programs, Brittany Skiles Cook Apr 2019

Assessing Readiness For A Physical Activity Intervention In Positive Youth Development Afterschool Programs, Brittany Skiles Cook

Theses and Dissertations

Physical inactivity has been identified as a primary health threat to youth, and existing afterschool programs (ASP) are a promising context for implementing physical activity (PA) interventions. However, few PA interventions have been effective and generalizability of programs has been poor. Assessing organizational readiness during the testing of a PA intervention can help inform generalizability and sustainability. The R=MC2 heuristic separates readiness into motivation, innovation-specific capacity, and general capacity, each of which are further divided into subcomponents. The current multiple-case study pilot tests the feasibility and effectiveness/efficacy of a readiness assessment tool based on R=MC2 developed for ...


A Mixed Methods Exploration Of Practitioner Knowledge Of Autism And Lactation Within The Context Of Maternal Experiences, Leslie June Dooley Jan 2019

A Mixed Methods Exploration Of Practitioner Knowledge Of Autism And Lactation Within The Context Of Maternal Experiences, Leslie June Dooley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, one out of every 59 infants born in the United States will be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at some point in their future (Baio, 2018). Families may face unique challenges related to atypical infant behaviors and feeding patterns before diagnosis of ASD occurs. There is wide variation of symptoms among children with ASD, yet, children with ASD are five times more likely to have both behavioral and skill-based feeding issues. However, little is known about when feeding issues begin, how atypical behaviors impact infant caretaking needs, and whether practitioners have sufficient training to identify infants for ...


Is It Who Am I Or Who Do You Think I Am? Identity Development Of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders, Danielle N. Treiber Jan 2019

Is It Who Am I Or Who Do You Think I Am? Identity Development Of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders, Danielle N. Treiber

Dissertations & Theses

The purpose of this study was to unearth how adolescents with substance use disorders achieve the task of identity formation and the construction of self-concept in the midst of the drug culture and society that exists. It sought to uncover the social constructs designed to ignore and/or remove human complexities and allow an intersectional approach to be brought to a study on this population. Historically, there has been a failure to investigate the underlying social attitudes and behaviors that impact the very delicate and vulnerable process of finding self. Psychosocial and relational adjustment are strongly influenced by the extent ...


Predicting Outcomes Of American Youths' Shift Toward E-Cigarette Use, D J. Resendez Jan 2019

Predicting Outcomes Of American Youths' Shift Toward E-Cigarette Use, D J. Resendez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There has been a shift toward e-cigarette use and away from tobacco smoking among American youth. Despite effects of ongoing public health campaigns that bring attention to the harmful effects of tobacco and nicotine use generally, youths might not perceive e-cigarette use to be unhealthful in terms of psychological functioning. This study was an investigation of the impact of the method of tobacco use (cigarette or e-cigarette), past cessation attempts, cravings or needs to use tobacco, and serious cognitive difficulties, upon youths' intentions concerning future tobacco usage. The conceptual framework was based upon the self-medication hypothesis, biopsychosocial model, and social ...


Patience As A Development Virtue And Common Therapeutic Factor, Vaughn E. Worthen Ph.D. Dec 2018

Patience As A Development Virtue And Common Therapeutic Factor, Vaughn E. Worthen Ph.D.

Issues in Religion and Psychotherapy

This article provides an overview of patience and its associated constructs by examining its role in five domains: (a) confidence and control; (b) distress tolerance; (c) relationship development, maintenance, and repair; (d) character development; and (e) spiritual maturation. It highlights initial evidence that patience contributes to increased self-regulation and impulse control, distress tolerance, self-compassion, mindfulness, empathy in relationships, perspective taking, use of cognitive reappraisals, prosocial ori- entation, character development, and spiritual maturation. Patience helps with coping with anxiety and depression, aids with handling uncertainty, facilitates relationship maintenance and repair, and sustains the ability to manage the ambiguities present during faith ...


The Role Of Dialect Words In Children’S Social Decisions, Madison Rose Myers-Burg Dec 2018

The Role Of Dialect Words In Children’S Social Decisions, Madison Rose Myers-Burg

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research suggests that young children are capable of distinguishing between phonetically dissimilar spoken accents, yet have difficulty distinguishing between phonetically similar accents (Wagner, Clopper, & Pate, 2013). The present study aimed to determine whether the presence of dialect-specific vocabulary enhances young children’s ability to categorize speakers. Participants completed four training trials in which they were familiarized with photos of two children: one of whom used American English labels for test objects and one of whom used British English labels. After training trials, participants completed eight test trials in which they were asked to infer which target child would use ...


Breakups And Betrayals In Emerging Adulthood: A Developmental Perspective Of Relationship Dissolution And Infidelity, Jerika C. Norona Aug 2018

Breakups And Betrayals In Emerging Adulthood: A Developmental Perspective Of Relationship Dissolution And Infidelity, Jerika C. Norona

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation includes two studies that focus on romantic experiences in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), romantic dissolution (Study 1) and extradyadic intimacy (Study 2), and their relationship with developmental and individual factors. Each study uses two unique community samples of emerging adults who have attended college as well as those who have not attended college in the past. Importantly, both studies examine romantic dissolution and extradyadic intimacy from a developmental perspective, taking into account the salient developmental tasks of independence and interdependence faced by young people. Additionally, individual factors, including perceptions of emerging adulthood (Study 1), attachment style (Study 2 ...


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor Aug 2018

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Individual Differences In Relational Learning And Analogical Reasoning: A Computational Model Of Longitudinal Change, Leonidas A. A. Doumas, Robert G. Morrison, Lindsey E. Richland Jul 2018

Individual Differences In Relational Learning And Analogical Reasoning: A Computational Model Of Longitudinal Change, Leonidas A. A. Doumas, Robert G. Morrison, Lindsey E. Richland

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Children’s cognitive control and knowledge at school entry predict growth rates in analogical reasoning skill over time; however, the mechanisms by which these factors interact and impact learning are unclear. We propose that inhibitory control (IC) is critical for developing both the relational representations necessary to reason and the ability to use these representations in complex problem solving. We evaluate this hypothesis using computational simulations in a model of analogical thinking, Discovery of Relations by Analogy/Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogy (DORA/LISA; Doumas et al., 2008). Longitudinal data from children who solved geometric analogy problems repeatedly ...