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Pruning Or Tuning? Maturational Profiles Of Face Specialization During Typical Development, Xun Zhu, Ramesh S. Bhatt, Jane E. Joseph Jun 2016

Pruning Or Tuning? Maturational Profiles Of Face Specialization During Typical Development, Xun Zhu, Ramesh S. Bhatt, Jane E. Joseph

Psychology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Face processing undergoes significant developmental change with age. Two kinds of developmental changes in face specialization were examined in this study: specialized maturation, or the continued tuning of a region to faces but little change in the tuning to other categories; and competitive interactions, or the continued tuning to faces accompanied by decreased tuning to nonfaces (i.e., pruning). Methods: Using fMRI, in regions where adults showed a face preference, a face- and object-specialization index were computed for younger children (5-8 years), older children (9-12 years) and adults (18-45 years). The specialization index was scaled to each subject's ...


Developmental Changes In Postural Stability During The Performance Of A Precision Manual Task, Jeffrey M. Haddad, Laura J. Claxton, Dawn Melzer, Joseph Hamill, Richard E. A. Van Emmerik Jan 2013

Developmental Changes In Postural Stability During The Performance Of A Precision Manual Task, Jeffrey M. Haddad, Laura J. Claxton, Dawn Melzer, Joseph Hamill, Richard E. A. Van Emmerik

Psychology Faculty Publications

Posture becomes integrated with other goal-directed behaviors early in infancy and continues to develop into the second decade of life. However, the developmental time course over which posture is stabilized relative to the base of support during a dynamic manual precision task has not been examined. Postural-manual integration was assessed in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults using a postural-manual task in which task precision (target fitting size) and postural difficulty (reaching distance to a target) were manipulated. The main dependent variable was postural time-to-contact (TtC). Results indicated systematic age effects in which TtC was shortest in the 7-year-olds, increased in the ...


In Search Of The Neurobiological Substrates For Social Playfulness In Mammalian Brains, Stephen M. Siviy, Jaak Panksepp Oct 2011

In Search Of The Neurobiological Substrates For Social Playfulness In Mammalian Brains, Stephen M. Siviy, Jaak Panksepp

Psychology Faculty Publications

Play behavior is a fundamental and intrinsic neurobehavioral process in the mammalian brain. Using rough-and-tumble play in the juvenile rat as a model system to study mammalian playfulness, some of the relevant neurobiological substrates for this behavior have been identified, and in this review this progress. A primary-process executive circuit for play in the rat that includes thalamic intralaminar nuclei, frontal cortex and striatum can be gleaned from these data. Other neural areas that may interact with this putative circuit include amygdala, ventral hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and deep tectum, as well as ascending dopamine systems which participate in all ...


Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. Debrouse Jan 2010

Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. Debrouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

The extent to which a non-sedative dose of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) is able to modify the behavioral responses toward a predator odor was assessed in juvenile rats. Play behavior was suppressed and defensive behaviors were enhanced in the presence of a collar previously worn by a cat, when tested 24 hours later in the same context as that where the exposure occurred, and when tested in a context different than that in which the exposure occurred for up to 3 hours after exposure. CDP had no effect on the ability of cat odor to suppress play when rats were tested in ...


Behavioral And Neural Representation Of Emotional Facial Expressions Across The Lifespan, Leah Somerville, Fani Negar, Erin Tone Jan 2009

Behavioral And Neural Representation Of Emotional Facial Expressions Across The Lifespan, Leah Somerville, Fani Negar, Erin Tone

Psychology Faculty Publications

Humans’ experience of emotion and comprehension of affective cues varies substantially across the lifespan. Work in cognitive and affective neuroscience has begun to characterize behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues that systematically change with age. This review examines work to date characterizing the maturation of facial expression comprehension, and dynamic changes in amygdala recruitment from early childhood through late adulthood while viewing facial expressions of emotion. Recent neuroimaging work has tested amygdala and prefrontal engagement in experimental paradigms mimicking real aspects of social interactions, which we highlight briefly, along with considerations for future research.


Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 2006

Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychology, in a general sense, is age-old, extending back across all cultures to the beginnings of recorded time. The healing arts of ancient doctors and the conceptual musings of ancient sages often pointed toward factors that would be considered psychological today. Nevertheless, psychology in its specifically modern sense dates from the second half of the nineteenth century, when a self-consciously scientific, academic, professional discipline took shape in Europe and North America. This multiplex discipline grew and flourished in particular in the United States, where more than forty experimental laboratories, associated programs of research and study, and institutionalized means of communication ...


Assisted Reproduction Versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison Of The Developmental Outcomes In Twins, Lisa Kelly-Vance, Kristine S. Anthis, Howard Needelman Jun 2004

Assisted Reproduction Versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison Of The Developmental Outcomes In Twins, Lisa Kelly-Vance, Kristine S. Anthis, Howard Needelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were spontaneously conceived with those who were conceived through assisted reproductive technology. The authors found differences in birth weight and gestational age. Infants conceived by assisted reproductive technology fared worse than did those who were spontaneously conceived. The authors found no differences between the groups in mental development at 24 months ...


Immanuel Kant And The Development Of Modern Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 1982

Immanuel Kant And The Development Of Modern Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Few thinkers in the history of Western civilization have had as broad and lasting an impact as Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). This "Sage of Konigsberg" spent his entire life within the confines of East Prussia, but his thoughts traveled freely across Europe and, in time, to America, where their effects are still apparent. An untold number of analyses and commentaries have established Kant as a preeminent epistemologist, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, aesthetician, and metaphysician. He is even recognized as a natural historian and cosmologist: the author of the so-called Kant-Laplace hypothesis regarding the origin of the universe. He is less ...