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Psychology

1977

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A Comparison Of Attitudes Toward Community Colleges With Attitudes Toward Four-Year Colleges, Robert L. Gillespie Dec 1977

A Comparison Of Attitudes Toward Community Colleges With Attitudes Toward Four-Year Colleges, Robert L. Gillespie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose. The purpose of this research was to determine if the attitudes of high school seniors toward community colleges and four-year colleges were significantly different according to socio-economic measures, and to see how they compared with their teachers'attitudes. (Abstract shortened.)


Differential Effects Of Praise Types, Ronald M. Kennedy Dec 1977

Differential Effects Of Praise Types, Ronald M. Kennedy

Student Work

Sixty-two male Caucasian undergraduate Psychology students were randomly divided into four treatment groups wherein they all performed an identical task under the direction of a "supervisor." The supervisor dispensed either non-evaluative verbal feedback, Structured Praise, Considerate Praise, or a combination of Structured and Considerate Praise to subjects in treatment conditions one through four respectively. Considerate praise is characterized as aperiodic, unlinked (to the giving of a formal performance appraisal), informal (not required by the "system"), spontaneous, generally unwritten, "from the heart" type praise while structured praise is essentially just the opposite.

The dependent variables of task quantity, task quality, task ...


The Role Of Prior Learning And Direct Reinforcement In Observational Learning And Vicarious Reinforcement, Larry D. Olsen Dec 1977

The Role Of Prior Learning And Direct Reinforcement In Observational Learning And Vicarious Reinforcement, Larry D. Olsen

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


A Study Of Stimulus Control Functions Following Discrimination Training Using A Drl Schedule Of Reinforcement, Kathleen M. Krafft Dec 1977

A Study Of Stimulus Control Functions Following Discrimination Training Using A Drl Schedule Of Reinforcement, Kathleen M. Krafft

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Developmental Changes In Cognition: An Evaluation Of A Philosophy For Children Program, Leendert Baggerman Dec 1977

Developmental Changes In Cognition: An Evaluation Of A Philosophy For Children Program, Leendert Baggerman

Student Work

The formal operational stage seems to differ considerably from earlier Piagetian stages. The first three Piagetian cognitive stages seem to develop fully in all individuals, unless there is a major cultural difference or a major psychopathology (Bruner, 1966). In contrast, there is disagreement in the literature as to whether formal operational reasoning fully develops in all normal individuals. Both Dulit (1972) and Tomlinson-Keasey (1972) found evidence that some normal individuals never attain formal operational reasoning. Others however (Jackson, 1965; Lovell, 1961) agree with Piaget (Inhelder and Piaget, 1958) that the emergence of formal operational reasoning occurs invariably between 11 and ...


The Effect Of Withdrawal From The Negative Cue On Learning A Simultaneous Discrimination, Carl Merle Johnson Dec 1977

The Effect Of Withdrawal From The Negative Cue On Learning A Simultaneous Discrimination, Carl Merle Johnson

Master's Theses

Three groups of rats learned a black-white discrimination in a Grice box. All subjects were reinforced with food pellets for correct choices. No-Retrace subjects were confined in the negative goal box after errors. Retrace subjects were allowed to withdraw after errors from the negative goal box to the choice point or start box. Take-Out subjects were manually removed from the goal box during errors immediately after inspecting the empty food dish. All subjects were trained to a criterion and then reversal training was instituted. Retrace subjects learned the original discrimination significantly slower than either No-Retrace or Take-Out subjects, which did ...


Some Effects Of Variable Duration Conditioned Stimuli In A Conditioned Suppression Procedure, Harvey E. Jacobs Dec 1977

Some Effects Of Variable Duration Conditioned Stimuli In A Conditioned Suppression Procedure, Harvey E. Jacobs

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Conditioned Reinforcement: An Attempt To Use Zimmerman Technique With Children, Priscila R. Derdyk Dec 1977

Conditioned Reinforcement: An Attempt To Use Zimmerman Technique With Children, Priscila R. Derdyk

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Training And Generalization Of Restauranting Skills: Programming Primary Reinforcement For Community Travel, Richard Aart Van Den Pol Dec 1977

Training And Generalization Of Restauranting Skills: Programming Primary Reinforcement For Community Travel, Richard Aart Van Den Pol

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Overcorrection Movements: Topographic Relation And Re-Educative Function, Pamela Roberts Dec 1977

An Analysis Of Overcorrection Movements: Topographic Relation And Re-Educative Function, Pamela Roberts

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Proximity Of Reinforcement & The Protestant Ethic Effect, Sharon Miller Dec 1977

Proximity Of Reinforcement & The Protestant Ethic Effect, Sharon Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Twelve food-deprived male rats were trained to barpress for food pellets in one of three operant chambers. The chambers were of standard size, double in length, or triple in length. After training, cod cup full of pellets was placed in the corner opposite the operant bar, and the eating behavior of the rats in this choice situation was observed. The dependent measure was the percentage of the total amount of food consumed that had been obtained by barpressing. Individual comparisons between the mean percentage of food earned over the four test sessions revealed that those rats in the longest chamber ...


Leniency Error As A Function Of The Rater's Need For Social Approval, Danny Bean Dec 1977

Leniency Error As A Function Of The Rater's Need For Social Approval, Danny Bean

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The effects of the rater's need for social approval (N-SA) on leniency error in ratings was investigated. Each of 19 supervisors rated the performance of a common set of 12 workers. Using an ANOVA procedure (Guilford, 1954) leniency error was identified. The effects of N-SA as measured by the Personal Reactions Inventory (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) and the Least Preferred Coworker (Fiedler, 1967) were partialed out of the ratings. When the ANOVA was repeated on the partialed ratings, it was hypothesized that reduced leniency error would result. Contrary to expectations, there was virtually no reduction in leniency error. The low ...


Death Anxiety And Religious Orientation, Dennis Wagner Dec 1977

Death Anxiety And Religious Orientation, Dennis Wagner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A sample of the general population from a small mid-South town was divided according to orthodoxy, devotionalism, denomination and denominational upbringing. Degree of death anxiety was assessed by the Templer Death Anxiety Scale. A multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that non-orthodox individuals or individuals having no religious affiliation had significantly lower death anxiety than their heterodox or religiously affiliated counterparts. Devotionalism, denomination and denominational upbringing were not significantly related to death anxiety. Several covariates were found to be related to death anxiety: death of a family member or friend (within one year), education, and father living or dead ...


Peer Facilitators: An Exploratory Study, Jeffrey Haskins Dec 1977

Peer Facilitators: An Exploratory Study, Jeffrey Haskins

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Seventh grade males were trained as peer facilitators ;or a group of sixth grade males (peers) as part of an experimental guidance program. Training of peer facilitators was implemented through a modified short term human relations development model. Measures of personal, social, and overall adjustment, as assessed by the California Test of Personality, were obtained for the facilitators and group members before and after the peer facilitator program. No significant pre- and post-test differences were obtained on the select personality variables for either group. A method for assessing facilitative responsiveness was developed using written peer stimulus statements. In comparison to ...


A Behavioral Systems Analysis Of Job Performance In A Food Co-Operative, Harry M. Kent Dec 1977

A Behavioral Systems Analysis Of Job Performance In A Food Co-Operative, Harry M. Kent

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Involuntarily And Voluntarily Committed Persons Compared Using Factor And Discriminant Function Analysis, Cheryl Marie Marrow Nov 1977

Involuntarily And Voluntarily Committed Persons Compared Using Factor And Discriminant Function Analysis, Cheryl Marie Marrow

Dissertations and Theses

A comparison of the voluntary and involuntary patients at Dammasch State Hospital, Wilsonville, Oregon. A representative sample of cases over time, were chosen for the year 1976, 72 voluntary and 72 involuntary patients. One-hundred and twelve variables were coded onto sheets for each patient. The variables concerned marital status, job history, history of violent acts, present living situations and relationships, as well as drug history and diagnosis and treatment in the hospital. The data were coded onto cards and a computer analysis was done using Factor and Discriminant Function Analysis. It was hypothesized the populations of persons voluntarily admitted and ...


Attitude Change Exhibited By Longwood College Students When Exposed To A Program Stimulus, Timothy Carter Brown Nov 1977

Attitude Change Exhibited By Longwood College Students When Exposed To A Program Stimulus, Timothy Carter Brown

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

No abstract provided.


Measurement Of Ambiguity Tolerance (Mat-50): Further Construct Validation, Burl Mostul Oct 1977

Measurement Of Ambiguity Tolerance (Mat-50): Further Construct Validation, Burl Mostul

Dissertations and Theses

An historical introduction is made tying authoritarianism with ambiguity tolerance. Ambiguity tolerance is a personality variable in its own right, often associated with authoritarianism yet remaining separate from it.

Ambiguity intolerance is defined as the tendency to perceive and interpret information that is marked by vague, fragmented, incomplete, inconsistent, contradictory, or unclear meaning as actual or potential sources of psychological threat. Ambiguity tolerance is defined as the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as challenging and desirable.

Efforts to measure ambiguity tolerance have met with varied success, however, it was not until Norton (197S) developed the Measurement of Ambiguity Tolerance (MAT-50 ...


Effectiveness Of Three Differential Reinforcement Techniques As A Function Of Past Reinforcement History And Present Schedule Of Reinforcement, La Rue Chappell Oct 1977

Effectiveness Of Three Differential Reinforcement Techniques As A Function Of Past Reinforcement History And Present Schedule Of Reinforcement, La Rue Chappell

Student Work

The effectiveness of three differential reinforcement techniques, extinction of the old response with reinforcement for the new response versus extinction of the old response with double reinforcement for the new response versus continuation of reinforcement for the old response with double reinforcement for the new response, in reducing lever-pressing behavior, was studied, as a function of past reinforcement history and present schedule of reinforcement. Thirty children, with a mean age of 5 years 10 months, were reinforced for tapping the assigned key on either a differential reinforcement of low rates (drl 10"') or a differential reinforcement of high rates (VR ...


The Effect Of Explanation On The Art Preferences Of Liberals And Conservatives, Joseph Fay Oct 1977

The Effect Of Explanation On The Art Preferences Of Liberals And Conservatives, Joseph Fay

Master's Theses

One hundred thirteen subjects at the University of Richmond were shown twenty-four slides of paintings from four categories of art: simple representational, simple abstract, complex representational, complex abstract. Half of the paintings in each category were accompanied by a one-paragraph explanation. Based on their scores on the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1968), subjects were divided into two groups: liberals and conservatives. Using Wilson’s (1973) theory of conservatism as the theoretical base, it was hypothesized that, for the unexplained paintings, conservatives would prefer simple art while liberals would prefer complex art.


Efficacy, Contrast Effect And Differential Effectiveness Of Two Time-Out Durations In The Treatment Of Two Autistic Children, Susan Adell Blankenbaker Sep 1977

Efficacy, Contrast Effect And Differential Effectiveness Of Two Time-Out Durations In The Treatment Of Two Autistic Children, Susan Adell Blankenbaker

Master's Theses

A single subject simultaneous treatment design, within a multiple baseline framework, was used to test the efficacy, contrast effect and differential effectiveness of two durations of time-out (TO). With two children on the autistic ward of a residential mental hospital serving as subjects, the TO procedure was demonstrated to be effective in reducing target behavior. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 minute and 5 minute TOs and limited support for the existence of a contrast effect was revealed. It was concluded that strategies for the facilitation of the use of the shortest TO interval possible should be ...


Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy Aug 1977

Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction and other relevant variables in a sample of noninstitutionalized older Americans. Recent research has related satisfaction with life to adjustment in aging. Previous studies, however, have used a variety of methods to measure life satisfaction or self-concept. This study was designed to be an analysis of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index A with selected personal and behavioral variables. 59 subjects, primarily Jewish, aged 56 to 91 were tested during their regular activity meetings at the Jewish Community Center of Richmond, Virginia. The ...


Relationship Of State-Trait Anxiety And Type Of Practice To Reading Comprehension Of College Students, Lewis R. Waid Aug 1977

Relationship Of State-Trait Anxiety And Type Of Practice To Reading Comprehension Of College Students, Lewis R. Waid

Master's Theses

Sixty male and female college students of average scholastic aptitude, 30 with high A-trait and 30 with low A-trait, were tested for reading comprehension following either massed (MP) or distributed practice (DP) with narrative reading material. Twice during the experiment the students' A-state was assessed through Spielberger's STAI A-state scale. The findings demonstrated; (a) high A-trait students responded to the experimental situation with greater elevations in A-state; (b) performance on the reading comprehension task was related to A-trait level with low A-trait students performing significantly better; (c) the A-state level of the students immediately prior to the reading comprehension ...


The Effect Of An Individualized Remediation Program On Comprehensive Final Examination Performance, Timothy N. Trainor Aug 1977

The Effect Of An Individualized Remediation Program On Comprehensive Final Examination Performance, Timothy N. Trainor

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Sucrose Concentration On Punishment Produced Suppression Of Licking Behavior In Rats, Okechukwu Igboanumma S. Ozuzu Aug 1977

The Effects Of Sucrose Concentration On Punishment Produced Suppression Of Licking Behavior In Rats, Okechukwu Igboanumma S. Ozuzu

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Role Imposed Academic Abilities On Group Induced Risk Shift With Choice Dilemma Questionnaire Items, Sang H. Han Aug 1977

Effect Of Role Imposed Academic Abilities On Group Induced Risk Shift With Choice Dilemma Questionnaire Items, Sang H. Han

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Generalization Of An Academic Response Rate Under Self And Externally Determined Reinforcement, Samuel James Gitchel Aug 1977

Generalization Of An Academic Response Rate Under Self And Externally Determined Reinforcement, Samuel James Gitchel

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Elimination Of Disruptive Bus Riding Behavior Via Token Reinforcement, Sandra J. Ferrell Aug 1977

Elimination Of Disruptive Bus Riding Behavior Via Token Reinforcement, Sandra J. Ferrell

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


A Behavioral Research-Supervising System For Masters Level Research, Michael J. Dillon Aug 1977

A Behavioral Research-Supervising System For Masters Level Research, Michael J. Dillon

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Of Verbal Abilities To Cognitive Complexity, Margaret R. Mullins Aug 1977

The Relationship Of Verbal Abilities To Cognitive Complexity, Margaret R. Mullins

Student Work

A view of the person as an individual striving to anticipate, understand, and control his environment was put forth by Kelly (1955) in his Psychology of Personal Constructs, Kelly states that the person looks at the world through "patterns or templates which he creates and then attempts to fit over the realities of which the world is composed" (p. 9). These templates or patterns are termed constructs, and result from the person’s ability to distinguish differences and similarities in the world about him and generalize them to other instances. Constructs are used to predict events and to assess the ...