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The Effects Of Litter Size On Behavioral Development And Adult Emotinoality In The Rat, Elizabeth N. Pully
The effects of the early experience variable of litter size is examined at two developmental time periods (infancy and adulthood) in the rat. The study departs from the majority of the early experience experimentation in its use of a naturally occurring independent variable in place of the typical handling and shocking procedures. Large (n = 9), medium (n = 5), small litters (n = 3) were developed by pooling rat pups at birth and then distributing them to randomly selected, lactating females. Observations of behaviors (including maternal grooming) during the preweaning stage of development disclosed substantial differences in response activity in the three ...
Learned Helplessness Through Observation: Failure To Escape Traumatic Shock As A Result Of Observing A Helpless Situation, Donald Jary
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
Twenty naïve male and female hooded rats were randomly divided into four groups of five subjects each. The Observe Helpless group was allowed to observe Helpless subjects receive signaled, inescapable electric shock, after which they were tested for effective escape response acquisition. Subjects in the Observe Naïve group were allowed to observe Naïve subjects being given escape-avoidance training using signaled presentations of electric shock, after which the Observe Helpless group was given similar escape-avoidance training. Results indicate that there were significant differences in the acquisition of effective escape responses between the Observe Helpless group and the other two groups. Possible ...