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Ideal Dating And Sexual Partners For Low-Income Heterosexual African American Adolescents, Darnell Nathaniel Motley Nov 2013

Ideal Dating And Sexual Partners For Low-Income Heterosexual African American Adolescents, Darnell Nathaniel Motley

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Dating and sexual relationships among adolescents have been identified as both normative and beneficial. However, the research examining the dating and sexual relationships of African American adolescents has been narrow in scope, focusing primarily on risks of intimate partner violence, pregnancy, and STI/HIV transmission. This myopic focus has left a gap in the literature as it relates to the normative aspects of dating and sexual relationships for these youth.

The present study sought to better understand the dating and sexual partner preferences of 51 African American adolescents (male = 32, female = 19) recruited from Chicago and San Francisco. The adolescents ...


Transdisciplinary Perspectives On Pathways To Citizenship Behaviors In Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing, Christopher Beasley Nov 2013

Transdisciplinary Perspectives On Pathways To Citizenship Behaviors In Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing, Christopher Beasley

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Substance abuse and dependence is a social problem in the U .S. that continues to be difficult to adequately address (Dutra et al.. 2008; Harwood. 2000; 0 DCP, 2004; SAMHSA,2010). Services such as inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, mutual-help addiction support groups and recovery housing have attempted to redress the issue with limited effect (Jason eta l2001 ). Obviously, additional research is needed for these serv ices. In particular, additional research is needed for mechanisms by which mutual-help and recovery housing influence behavior. For example, research suggests that members who engage in helping behaviors have more favorable outcomes (Crape. Latkin, Laris ...


Mentoring Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems: A Meta-Analytic Review, David Aron Meyerson Aug 2013

Mentoring Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems: A Meta-Analytic Review, David Aron Meyerson

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Our current service delivery models are falling short of helping youth with mental health problems. Mentoring is one option that may be effective at helping us address this shortcoming. Youth mentoring theory and research have typically treated mentoring as a prevention intervention (i.e., preventing school dropout, academic decline, psychopathology development, etc.), and research has found youth mentoring to be effective in a variety of domains. The benefits of mentoring may also be applicable to youth with known mental health problems. Research has begun to tackle this question. This meta-analysis addresses the questions of the effectiveness of mentoring programs targeting ...


Exposure To Community Violence And The Trajectory Of Internalizing And Externalizing Problems In A Sample Of Low-Income Urban Youth, Jeremy Jay Taylor Aug 2013

Exposure To Community Violence And The Trajectory Of Internalizing And Externalizing Problems In A Sample Of Low-Income Urban Youth, Jeremy Jay Taylor

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Intro: The transition from childhood to adolescence is a period of increased risk for psychological problems (e.g. Keiley, & Martin, 2002). Exposure to community violence, may impact the degree to which psychological problems emerge during adolescence (Grant et al., 2004). Previous research also indicates that low-income urban youth are disproportionately exposed to severe community violence, leaving them at higher risk to experience psychopathology (Grant et al., 2004). However, recent longitudinal research suggests that this elevated risk may decline throughout the adolescent years (Murphy et al., 2000) especially for internalizing problems (J. Twenge & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 2002). The current research hypothesizes that ...


School-Level Predictors Of Student Office Disciplinary Referrals, Andrew Martinez Aug 2013

School-Level Predictors Of Student Office Disciplinary Referrals, Andrew Martinez

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Student misbehavior has become a problem gaining much warranted national attention. To monitor student behavior problems schools are increasingly relying on student office disciplinary referral (ODR) data to identify and monitor students who may be at-risk for future behavioral problems. While research has examined individual-level predictors of student disciplinary referrals, few studies have examined multilevel models, which take into account the nested nature of these data (e.g., students within schools). The current study draws upon Social Disorganization Theory to guide an investigation of student office disciplinary referrals. This study examines office disciplinary referrals among 1,501 students across 13 ...


Individual And Community Factors Associated With Thriving Among African American Adolescents In The Context Of Stressors, Adia Shani Gooden Aug 2013

Individual And Community Factors Associated With Thriving Among African American Adolescents In The Context Of Stressors, Adia Shani Gooden

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation used the transactional-ecological framework along with principles from positive youth development literature to examine naturally occurring individual and contextual factors

that promote thriving among African American adolescents. Specifically, this study examined how religiosity, religious support, racial identity, and communalism relate to thriving. This study

also assessed the negative influence of stressors on thriving in order to understand how thriving manifests in the context of risk factors. This cross-sectional study included 152 youth

participants who were surveyed at five Black churches on the south side of Chicago. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether the proposed model fit ...


Moral Principles And Political Ideology: Exploring The Mediating Role Of Abstract Value Endorsements, Anthony N. Washburn Aug 2013

Moral Principles And Political Ideology: Exploring The Mediating Role Of Abstract Value Endorsements, Anthony N. Washburn

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Much research has examined the association between political ideology and endorsement of distinct moral principles (e.g. Goren, 2005; Haidt & Graham, 2007; Haidt & Joseph, 2004). The associations that have typically been observed show that political liberals tend to endorse moral principles that place the individual at the center of concern, resulting in judgments of right and wrong based on caring for individuals and promoting fairness (individualizing foundations); while political conservatives tend to endorse moral principles that include the group as an equally worthy recipient of concern and priority (binding foundations), resulting in moral judgments based on maintaining and preserving important traditions, hierarchies, and social systems as well as caring for individuals and promoting fairness (Moral Foundations Theory, Haidt & Graham, 2007; Haidt & Joseph, 2004). However, research has also shown that endorsement of certain moral principles could be a result of adhering to specific political ideologies (i.e. liberalism versus conservatism) (Goren, 2005; Jost, Federico, & Napier, 2009). In addition, research has also shown that endorsement of abstract values, or overarching principles that guide our behavior, our judgment of others’ behavior ...


A Range-Frequency Theory Account Of The Effects Of Mood On Evaluations, Megan Marie Lombardi Aug 2013

A Range-Frequency Theory Account Of The Effects Of Mood On Evaluations, Megan Marie Lombardi

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Parducci's Range-Frequency Theory (1965) is applied to the discussion of the effect of mood on evaluations. Consistent with prior research on the effect of mood on judgment, the current study predicts that evaluations of overall satisfaction will be higher among participants experiencing happy moods and lower among those experiencing sad moods. Contrary to prior research, however, it is further hypothesized that evaluations of specific attributes will be lower for participants experiencing happy moods and higher for those experiencing sad moods, which is consistent Frequency Theory. with principles outlined in Parducci's Range-Frequency Theory.


Collateral Consequences: The Impact Of State-Level Policies On Perceived Stigma And Stigma Coping Strategies Among Ex-Offenders, Bronwyn Anne Hunter Aug 2013

Collateral Consequences: The Impact Of State-Level Policies On Perceived Stigma And Stigma Coping Strategies Among Ex-Offenders, Bronwyn Anne Hunter

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Incarcerated individuals have many needs that are not addressed while incarcerated or upon return to the community. These needs are exacerbated by the 'collateral consequences,' and 'invisible punishments' of a criminal conviction which are the state and federal social policies that limit formerly incarcerated persons opportunities for voting, employment, housing, financial benefits, and education, among others. The stigma associated with a criminal conviction may impact offender reentry and reintegration and be compounded by reentry policies. For example, studies have demonstrated that ex-offenders' perceive stigma related to the ex-offender label and that perceived stigma often leads to adverse coping strategies. Furthermore ...


Using A Resiliency Framework To Examine Natural Mentoring Relationships And The Coping Efficacy As Buffers Of The Negative Impact Of Stressors On Academic Outcomes In Urban, Low-Income Ethnic Minority Youth, Rachel M. Feuer Aug 2013

Using A Resiliency Framework To Examine Natural Mentoring Relationships And The Coping Efficacy As Buffers Of The Negative Impact Of Stressors On Academic Outcomes In Urban, Low-Income Ethnic Minority Youth, Rachel M. Feuer

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This paper used Resiliency theory to examine natural mentoring and coping efficacy as protective factors that may buffer the negative impact of stressors on academic and psychosocial outcomes in urban, low-income, Latino youth. Research has demonstrated that natural mentoring may serve a protective role for youth who are experiencing high levels of stressors, and that coping efficacy may correlate with positive outcomes. The present study used Structural Equation Modeling to test the compensatory and protective factors models of resilience to examine the ways in which stress, coping efficacy and natural mentoring interact to predict a variety of academic outcomes for ...


Identifying Barriers And Facilitators Of Successful School-Based Mental Health And Behavioral Programs Delivered In The Context Of Urban Poverty: A Qualitative Exploration Of Perspectives From Service Providers And Youth, Farahnaz K. Farahmand Aug 2013

Identifying Barriers And Facilitators Of Successful School-Based Mental Health And Behavioral Programs Delivered In The Context Of Urban Poverty: A Qualitative Exploration Of Perspectives From Service Providers And Youth, Farahnaz K. Farahmand

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to identify the barriers and facilitators of successful mental health and/or behavioral programs implemented within inner-city schools. The impetus for this study came from prior meta-analytic research which demonstrated programs being offered within inner-city schools, as a whole, showed very low effect sizes, with many of the programs offered to youth within these settings showing iatrogenic effects. The use of qualitative methods, specifically a phenomenological approach, provided an in-depth understanding of 1) service providers' experience(s) delivering mental health and/or behavioral programs in inner-city schools; and, 2) low-income, urban youths' experience(s ...


An Exploratory Investigation Of The Alcoholics Anonymous Sponsor: Qualities, Characteristics, And Their Perceived Importance, Ed Stevens Jun 2013

An Exploratory Investigation Of The Alcoholics Anonymous Sponsor: Qualities, Characteristics, And Their Perceived Importance, Ed Stevens

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Sponsorship is considered a critical element of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) recovery paradigm. Adult individuals (Mean age = 41.0 years) participated in a study to investigate the qualities and characteristics that make for an effective sponsor. These individuals (N = 231) had either experience as a sponsee or had been sponsors (n = 109). The study included three major analytical tasks: a qualitative open ended question on characteristics, a choice and ranking exercise of 20 attributes, and a conjoint analysis of hypothetical sponsors differing on five attributes across three levels. Results suggest current engagement in AA is the most critical attribute along ...


The Effects Of Sexual Orientation And Behavioral Style On Perceptions Of Men's Leadership Potential And Effectiveness, Kristin Elizabeth Mann Jun 2013

The Effects Of Sexual Orientation And Behavioral Style On Perceptions Of Men's Leadership Potential And Effectiveness, Kristin Elizabeth Mann

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This study addressed a gap in the industrial-organizational psychology research by investigating perceptions of LGBTQ leaders in the workplace. Specifically, it investigated the theory that gay men and heterosexual women experience similar scrutiny and resulting discrimination when in leadership roles. Participants were 363 psychology students who evaluated an applicant for a managerial position. Participants scored the candidate’s leadership potential (hirability) and effectiveness based upon his resume, biography, and short video interview. The candidate’s sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, control) and behavioral style (agentic/masculine, communal/feminine) were manipulated, for a resulting 2 x 3 research design. By integrating gender ...


A Comprehensive Model Of The Intragroup Work Conflict Framework: Examining Substantive Conflict, Information Exchange, Task And Relationship Conflict, And Conflict Management In Relation To Performance Effectiveness, Marc Anthony Lukasik Mar 2013

A Comprehensive Model Of The Intragroup Work Conflict Framework: Examining Substantive Conflict, Information Exchange, Task And Relationship Conflict, And Conflict Management In Relation To Performance Effectiveness, Marc Anthony Lukasik

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The current study was designed to empirically test components of the conflict dynamic within the context of groups or teams. A model was proposed in an attempt to clarify existing construct confusion and misapplication of terminologies throughout the field (e.g., task conflict) as well as to consolidate literatures (e.g., informational diversity, information exchange, task and relationship conflict perceptions, and conflict management) and ultimately clarify several contradictory empirical conclusions regarding the equivocal nature of conflict in relation to team effectiveness outcomes. Information exchange and conflict management processes were proposed to be more directly responsible for the proposed theoretical benefits ...


Exploring Community Psychology Value Congruence In Academic Setting, Olya Glantsman Mar 2013

Exploring Community Psychology Value Congruence In Academic Setting, Olya Glantsman

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Value congruence between employees and their workplace is an important dimension of an individual’s fit with a work environment. The level of congruence between the values of employees and their employing organization and the relation of value congruence to satisfaction, commitment, and willingness to recommend the organization were examined. This study focused on the relationship of value congruence between the individuals who belong to the field of community psychology and their workplace in relation to the aforementioned work-related outcomes in an academic setting. Results show that departments rated higher on community psychology values had a greater number of faculty ...