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2013

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The Effects Of Nesting Environment On Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Laura Grace Rollins Dec 2013

The Effects Of Nesting Environment On Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Laura Grace Rollins

Graduate Masters Theses

Term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury are at risk for devastating neurological sequelae. The objective of this study is to determine if altering the early environment for maternal care-taking impacts the immediate and long-term sequelae of HI offspring. The Rice-Vannucci model was used to induce HI in postnatal day (PND) 7 Long-Evans pups. Litters were assigned to a closed nest (CN) or normal standard housing (SH) condition. Neurobehavioral development, cognitive ability, and stress response were assessed to establish any benefits of the CN condition. Finally, postmortem brain tissue was analyzed for morphometric markers of injury.


Racism And Anxiety In A Black American Sample: The Role Of Mediators And A Brief Mindfulness Manipulation, Jessica Rose Graham Dec 2013

Racism And Anxiety In A Black American Sample: The Role Of Mediators And A Brief Mindfulness Manipulation, Jessica Rose Graham

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

It is important to determine factors that may exacerbate the negative effects of experiences of racism on anxiety, as well as factors that might buffer racism's negative impact on anxiety in Black American samples. To examine these factors, we conducted two related studies. In study 1, 119 Black American individuals completed the Schedule of Racist Events, the five factor mindfulness questionnaire, the anxiety control questionnaire (assessing perceptions of control), the self-hatred subscale of the cross racial identity scale, and the depression anxiety and stress Scale. As hypothesized, frequency of racist experiences over the past week was significantly positively associated ...


Maternal Self-Efficacy And Perceived Stigma Among Mothers Of Children With Asd, Adhd, And Typically Developing Children, Sara D. Rosenblum-Fishman Dec 2013

Maternal Self-Efficacy And Perceived Stigma Among Mothers Of Children With Asd, Adhd, And Typically Developing Children, Sara D. Rosenblum-Fishman

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Maternal self-efficacy (a mother's beliefs about her parenting competence) is an important area of mothers' wellbeing and overall family functioning. This study examined environmental factors that are related maternal self-efficacy among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD group), mothers of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD group), and mothers of typically developing children (Typical group). Environmental factors included (a) messages of criticism or blame about one's parenting competence (parenting-related perceived stigma), (b) child problem behaviors, (c) maternal stress, and (d) social support. One hundred eighty mothers of school-age children living in the United States completed the ...


Private Flashbulb Memories: The Case Of Coming Out Memories, Gabrielle Weber Dec 2013

Private Flashbulb Memories: The Case Of Coming Out Memories, Gabrielle Weber

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Participants (N = 83) from Butler University and communities in Indianapolis, IN answered a three part questionnaire regarding their experience revealing their homosexual identity to their parents that included: a narrative, a set of probe questions, and a short demographic section. The narrative and probed recall data were scored in a similar fashion to flashbulb memory narratives with canonical features. The memory of revealing homosexuality to parents displayed flashbulb-like qualities. We found that those most confident in their probed recall answers were those with moderate arousal and few recounts. Also, those reporting moderate affect and fewer recounts had better memory elaboration ...


Anxiety Sensitivity And Its Association With Parenting Behaviors, Rebecca Graham Dec 2013

Anxiety Sensitivity And Its Association With Parenting Behaviors, Rebecca Graham

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity in the context of parenting behaviors, specifically by testing parenting behaviors as moderators or mediators of the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. Past research implies that parent anxiety sensitivity may be more related to child anxiety sensitivity (moderation) in girls and in the context of certain parenting. Alternatively, parenting behaviors may better account for the association (mediate) between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. To test the hypotheses 191 families (n = 255 youth aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety ...


Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez Dec 2013

Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Hispanic students are falling behind their peers in reading fluency and are struggling to close the gap. This study examined the reading fluency influence on 73 Hispanic second and third grade students while receiving reading fluency support from middle school Hispanic tutors. These students were compared to Hispanic second and third grade students not receiving tutoring reading support. All students were assessed before the tutors gave reading support, mid-year and after the reading support finished using a school district fluency measurement. Findings found that students made rapid growth in reading fluency from the beginning of the tutoring support to mid-year ...


Hurricane-Exposed Youth And Psychological Distress: An Examination Of The Role Of Social Support, Donice M. Banks Dec 2013

Hurricane-Exposed Youth And Psychological Distress: An Examination Of The Role Of Social Support, Donice M. Banks

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hurricane exposure places youth at risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, while social support may contribute to resilience following disasters. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1098) and a longitudinal sample followed over a six-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers as well as to higher levels of psychological distress. Higher levels of family and peer social support ...


The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh Dec 2013

The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. An unstable CAG expansion within the gene normally encoding for the Huntingtin protein is responsible. The expanded mutant form of Huntingtin and the putative protein co-factor Rhes interact and cause cell death within the striatum. We hypothesized chronic treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, would disrupt the biosynthetical pathway which gives both Rhes and its target cells binding sites and render Rhes inactive. Healthy and HD mice were treated with simvastatin or a vehicle. Animals’ motor behavior was assessed with three separate tests ...


The Interaction Of Post-Partum Depression And Maternal Knowledge Of Infant Development On Change In Sensitive And Responsive Parenting During Early Infancy, Julie Weiss Dec 2013

The Interaction Of Post-Partum Depression And Maternal Knowledge Of Infant Development On Change In Sensitive And Responsive Parenting During Early Infancy, Julie Weiss

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Sensitive and responsive parenting during early infancy is highly understudied, particularly in families with a low socioeconomic status. Longitudinal data from 41 mothers and their 4 to 16 week old infants found that accurate maternal knowledge of infant development positively affected parenting contemporaneously and over time while depression did not affect parenting in this sample. Implications for intervention and research are discussed.


Philosophy And Counseling: A Case Study, Matthew Wegmann Dec 2013

Philosophy And Counseling: A Case Study, Matthew Wegmann

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Philosophical tenets have been at the heart of the counseling process since its inception. This study explores the factors present within a graduate-level counseling class that directly teaches these philosophical foundations through an exploration of dialectics and its impact on the medium of conversation. Interviews were conducted with both the professor that created the class as well as its current instructor along with focus groups of both current program students and program alumni. The fundamental aim was to understand the processes at work within the class and their influence on its students. The results suggest that by bringing the students ...


A Multi-Gene By Environment Perspective Of Adhd Symptomatology In Young Children, Amber L. Allison Dec 2013

A Multi-Gene By Environment Perspective Of Adhd Symptomatology In Young Children, Amber L. Allison

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable disorder, which has detrimental effects on childhood development and is associated with maladaptive functioning in adulthood. Despite this, we are far from an understanding of the etiology and possible trajectories of ADHD, possibly due to investigations focusing on the contribution of single genes. In fact, single genes are likely not influential enough to alter behavior, but the additive effect of many genes may predispose an individual toward certain behaviors. Further, environmental input can activate or suppress genetic expression, thereby leading to vast individual differences in both normative behavior and psychopathological illness, including ...


The Association Between Hostile Attribution Bias, Social Intelligence, And Relational Aggression In Detained Boys, Gregory M. Fassnacht Dec 2013

The Association Between Hostile Attribution Bias, Social Intelligence, And Relational Aggression In Detained Boys, Gregory M. Fassnacht

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Research on factors that contribute to the forms and functions of aggression (reactive, proactive, relational, and overt) is important for informing intervention efforts with aggressive youth. Previous research shows that aggressive youth often have cognitive and social deficits associated with their aggressive behavior. For example, aggressive youth may exhibit deficits in social variables such as social intelligence (i.e., the understanding of behaviors of people and ability to predict outcomes of situations). Hypothetically, this lack of social intelligence may be related to how youth interpret social situations, and could conceivably lead to hostile attributional bias, or the tendency to interpret ...


Assessing Risk In Adolescent Offenders: A Comparison Of Risk Profiles Versus Summed Risk Factors, Katherine A. Gottlieb Dec 2013

Assessing Risk In Adolescent Offenders: A Comparison Of Risk Profiles Versus Summed Risk Factors, Katherine A. Gottlieb

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Research supports interventions for high-risk juvenile offenders to reduce recidivism. Methods for assessing delinquent risk vary, however. Aggregate risk scores (i.e. number of risk factors) and specific risk profiles (i.e. types of risk factors) are both empirically supported techniques. This study compared aggregate scores versus profiles for predicting measures of criminal severity among detained adolescents (n=292). Twenty-four risk factors from the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) were summed to calculate aggregate scores. Using latent class analysis (LCA), profiles were identified based on scores from the following theoretically important SAVRY risk factors: Risk Taking/Impulsivity ...


Hostile Attributional Bias In Aggression And Anxiety: The Role Of Perceived Provocateur Motivation, Melissa M. Kunimatsu Dec 2013

Hostile Attributional Bias In Aggression And Anxiety: The Role Of Perceived Provocateur Motivation, Melissa M. Kunimatsu

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Although internalizing and externalizing problems are often considered in isolation from one another, the frequently co-occur in individuals leading to unique behavior profiles. The current study examined the associations between the forms, functions, and subtypes of aggression, anxiety, hostile attributional bias (HAB), and perceived (proactive or reactive) provocateur motivation in a sample of youth (mean age = 13.84 years, 51% male, 37.5% Caucasian). Results indicated that only reactive relational aggression significantly predicted anxiety, while relational and reactive aggression did not. HAB was not significantly associated with either anxiety or any type of aggression. Perceived proactive provocateur motivation was significantly ...


Big Five Personality Traits, Pathological Personality Traits, And Psychological Dysregulation: Predicting Aggression And Antisocial Behaviors In Detained Adolescents, Katherine S. L. Lau Dec 2013

Big Five Personality Traits, Pathological Personality Traits, And Psychological Dysregulation: Predicting Aggression And Antisocial Behaviors In Detained Adolescents, Katherine S. L. Lau

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This study tested the utility of three different models of personality, namely the social and personality model, the pathological personality traits model, and the psychological dysregulation model, in predicting overt aggression, relational aggression, and delinquency in a sample of detained boys (ages 12 to 18; M age = 15.31; SD = 1.16). Results indicated that the three personality approaches demonstrated different unique associations with aggression and delinquency. The psychological dysregulation approach, composed of behavioral dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and cognitive dysregulation, emerged as the overall best predictor of overt aggression, relational aggression, and delinquency. After controlling for the Big Five personality ...


Coupling Of The Hpa And Hpg Axes, Andrew Dismukes Dec 2013

Coupling Of The Hpa And Hpg Axes, Andrew Dismukes

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) and –Gonadal (HPG) axes have been considered mutually inhibitory; however, emerging evidence supports the proposition that this might not necessarily be the case. This idea is termed “coupling,” in which the HPA-HPG axis are mutually activated or deactivated. Coupling is examined across three data sets with different time-courses of stress exposure, and results demonstrate HPA-HPG co-activation occurs. Furthermore, stress exposure influences this relationship. The discussion shows how it is physiologically possible to have positive coupling or co-activation between these axes according to complex regulatory feedback systems and overlapping neural structures. Findings are interpreted developmentally, because adolescence may ...


Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski Dec 2013

Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research (Madera & Hebl, 2011) has found that visible stigmas can lead to discrimination against stigmatized individuals in the form of lower job applicant ratings. Tattooed individuals may be one group that faces such discrimination. People with tattoos are perceived less positively than non-tattooed people (Martin & Dula, 2010; Resenhoeft, Villa, & Wiseman, 2008), which may be the result of a tattoo stigma. Pryor & Reeder (2011) suggested that one hallmark of stigmas is that they evoke implicit negative attitudes. In a pilot study, participants implicitly and explicitly evaluated tattooed and non-tattooed individuals, and a tattoo stigma was supported. In the present study, tattooed (vs. non-tattooed) applicants were rated lower on overall effectiveness. However, unlike Madera & Hebl (2011), the present study did not find memory to mediate the tattoo condition-effectiveness ratings relationship. Implicit tattoo-related attitudes, explicit tattoo-related attitudes, and participant gender were found to moderate the relationship between ...


An Intervention To Increase Ioa And Objectivity In Supervisors At Woodsedge Learning Center, Karli Silverman Dec 2013

An Intervention To Increase Ioa And Objectivity In Supervisors At Woodsedge Learning Center, Karli Silverman

Honors Theses

The purpose of my research was to increase interobserver agreement (IOA) and objectivity in supervisors at WoodsEdge Learning Center. We questioned whether or not designing and implementing a new grading sheet would lead to this outcome. Our methodology consisted of internet research regarding interventions to increase these measurements, followed by task analyses of the behaviors that should occur when tutors provided discrete trial training (DTT), surveys regarding the quality of feedback received at WoodsEdge, visits to various early intervention centers, and ended with the creation and multiple revisions of a new grading sheet. My involvement with this intervention ended before ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection, Jodi Michelle Heaps Dec 2013

Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection, Jodi Michelle Heaps

Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated that infection with both human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with impaired cognitive function. It is unclear whether co-infection is associated with neuroimaging markers of brain dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to compare HIV+ individuals, HIV/HCV+ individuals, and seronegative controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the microstructural integrity of white matter tissue. Methods: Twenty-five HIV+ patients, 25 HIV/HCV+ patients, and 25 seronegative controls matched for age were included in the study. All participants completed an MRI session, neuropsychological testing, and an evaluation of clinical ...


“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi Dec 2013

“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi

Theses and Dissertations

Ample research shows that revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment and retaliation is an important factor driving youth violence. Still, in environments with limited institutionalized interventions revenge might be an indispensable tool to maintain social equilibrium. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50 (30 Boys) revenge scenarios from a larger longitudinal study (N=358 dyads of youth/maternal caregiver) expands existing one-dimensional knowledge of revenge from closed-answer vignettes to the rich real world experience of 10-16 year old youth from an urban community sample. Key findings showed significant qualitative differences in both cognition and emotions of revenge scenarios. Ten distinct patterns ...


Comparison Of Psychogenic Movement Disorder Patients With Non-Epileptic Seizures And Other Hyperkinetic Motor Manifestations: An Integrated Model Of Psychosocial And Neuropsychological Functioning, Bonnie Michelle Scott Dec 2013

Comparison Of Psychogenic Movement Disorder Patients With Non-Epileptic Seizures And Other Hyperkinetic Motor Manifestations: An Integrated Model Of Psychosocial And Neuropsychological Functioning, Bonnie Michelle Scott

Psychology and Counseling Theses

Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) represent a complex and severe form of psychopathology, which even after a century of research remains poorly understood. As previous investigations have neglected to differentiate symptom phenotypes and have approached assessment from the perspective of cognitive dysfunction apparent in PMD patient's neurological counterparts, the current study aimed to examine the neurocognitive performance and psychological profiles of PMD patients with hyperkinetic motor manifestations guided by a theoretical lens of frontal lobe pathology and informed by previous neuroimaging studies with this patient population. Subsequent to diagnostic confirmation of their condition by means of video-electroencephalographic monitoring or adherence ...


Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian Dec 2013

Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects motivation plays in determining the success of a student in post secondary education. The relationship between high school GPA (HSGPA), SAT Scores, college GPA (CGPA), and motivation factors were examined. Motivation was measured on the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) developed by Paul Pintrich and Elizabeth de Groot. Ninety-two participants responded to the survey. Results corroborated findings from previous research. SAT scores correlate with CGPA; relationships were also observed across several other factors, including HSGPA and CGPA, SAT and Motivation, and HSGPA and SAT scores.


Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers Dec 2013

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers

Dissertations and Theses

This study sought to examine whether participation in physical activity affects the ability to correctly classify body size, based on body mass index classifications. Secondarily, this study determined whether adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size overestimated or underestimated their size. Self-report data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to examine relationships between self-perception of body size and physical activity, television viewing time, computer/video game use, physical education class time, and extracurricular sports activities. Significance was set to p<0.05. Physical activity was the only statistically significant independent variable (p=0.058, OR = 1.060). Although physical activity was shown to be statistically significant, it did not appear to meaningfully increase the ability of youth to correctly classify body size. Secondary analysis showed that adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size were more likely to underestimate their body size. Females more frequently underestimated their body size (females=673; males=384).


The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of schools use punitive and reactive strategies to deal with maladaptive behaviors. This descriptive study was a replication of Wilmott (2012) and occurred in a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) high school. Professional development was provided to 22 teachers from a high school located in the western United States. This included 61% males and 39% females. Measures included the frequency of praise notes and ODRs, the quality of praise notes based on a praise note rubric, and a social validity questionnaire. The ODR and praise note frequencies were compared using the Spearman correlational coefficient that resulted in a ...


Coping Styles Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness And Comorbid Ptsd, Shannon Ashley Mcneill Dec 2013

Coping Styles Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness And Comorbid Ptsd, Shannon Ashley Mcneill

Dissertations

There is little known about the mechanisms by which persons with SMI cope with their stress, and virtually no research is available on the influence of comorbid PTSD (SMI-PTSD) on coping within the SMI population. The current study examined coping strategies utilized by individuals with SMI versus those with SMI-PTSD, while also investigating the role of PTSD symptom severity, overall psychological distress, and substance use on coping strategy usage. Participants included adults (N = 90) recruited through a metropolitan community mental health center, all describing current symptoms of an SMI, 48 of whom met criteria for SMI-PTSD. Results of this study ...


The Implication Of Patient-Based Interventions Leading To A More Effective Treatment Of Anticipatory Nausea & Vomiting In Cancer Patients, Katelyn Delaney Dec 2013

The Implication Of Patient-Based Interventions Leading To A More Effective Treatment Of Anticipatory Nausea & Vomiting In Cancer Patients, Katelyn Delaney

Honors Theses

In the last thirty years, greater attention has been drawn to the aggressive methods of cancer treatment and the aversive conditioned symptoms they come to elicit. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is one such aversive conditioned side effect and is significantly prevalent in cancer patients who undergo treatments like chemotherapy. In response to the ineffectiveness of pharmacological interventions to control these symptoms, behavioral intervention methods have grown as a topic of research. The implications of these behavioral interventions (including cognitive/attentional distraction, meditation and systematic desensitization) have proven effective in the treatment of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting and reducing patient ...


Role Breadth And Ocb: An Investigation Of Antecedents And Consequences, Kimberly M. Perry Dec 2013

Role Breadth And Ocb: An Investigation Of Antecedents And Consequences, Kimberly M. Perry

Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to further investigate how organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is conceptualized through the psychological mechanisms relating to OCB role definition, outcomes of OCB role definition, and the structure of OCB definition ratings. Previous research on OCB has suggested that organizational members have different perspectives, such that supervisors have a broader role definition than do their subordinates (Morrison, 1994). Study 1 tested a theoretical model using SEM that included the underlying psychological processes that relate to role breadth as well as individual-level and organizational-level outcome variables. The results supported a significant positive relationship between employee rated OCB definition ...


Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn Dec 2013

Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn

Theses and Dissertations

Despite theoretical support for the role of the family in providing a foundation to protect youth against risks for aggression, there is little published literature examining a protective influence. This study examined family functioning and perceived parental messages about fighting and nonviolence as moderators of the relation between risk factors and adolescent aggression. The specific risk factors included affiliating with a delinquent group of peers, attending a school with norms that support aggression, and witnessing violence within the community. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected from a high-risk sample of 537 adolescents in 2 cohorts from 18 schools. Adolescents ...


Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji Dec 2013

Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Existing research has shown that gender stereotypes regarding characteristics of men and women influence others' perceptions of their fit with organizational roles, including leadership roles (cf. Eagly & Karau, 2002). However, little research has examined stereotypes regarding other demographic characteristics (e.g., race, sexual orientation) and how they may interact with gender stereotypes to influence leadership evaluations. The current study examined whether leader gender and sexual orientation interact to influence subordinates' evaluations of leader effectiveness, likability, and boss desirability using an experimental design. In addition to examining whether leader gender and sexual orientation interacted to predict leader evaluations, the present ...


Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...