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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

1999

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The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick Dec 1999

The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick

Master's Theses

Sexual orientation is generally assessed as a dichotomous variable, rather than a continuous variable. According to this classification the concept of bisexuality does not exist and there is a dearth of research for the construct. Some theorists believe that this lack of knowledge has led to fear and discrimination of bisexual individuals (Ochs, 1996; Rust, 1993). Biphobia, defined as negative attitudes about bisexuality and bisexual individuals, is a psychological construct that is not well understood. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in bisexuality and biphobia but there are currently limited empirical investigations examining the constructs. And, no scale ...


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian Dec 1999

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian

Master's Theses

Despite the reported relatively high binding affinity of 7-OH-DPAT to dopamine D3 receptors, results of recent investigations with the highly selective 03 receptor antagonist, PNU-99194A have questioned the importance of 03 receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of 7-OH-DPAT. In the present study, sixteen male Sprague- Dawley rats (N=8/group) were trained to discriminate (+)- 7-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, sc) from saline in a two-lever operant procedure using a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of water reinforcement. After stable performance was established, substitution tests were conducted with the D3-prefering agonist, (+)-PD-128907 and the psychostimulant cocaine. Additionally, antagonism were ...


Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette Dec 1999

Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette

Dissertations

Perceptions of clinical supervision of 175 majority and minority counseling psychology doctoral students selected from a national pool was the study’s focal point. Instruments used were the Revised Relational Inventory (RRI; Barrett- Lennard, 1962; Schacht, Howe, & Berman, 1988) and the Supervision Perception Form-Trainee (SPF-T) developed by Heppner and Roehlke (1984). Participants were instructed to based their ratings on their last supervision experience. Data were collected and scored on the five subscales o f the RRI (Congruence, Empathetic Understanding, Regard, Unconditionality, and Willingness to be Known) and the two subscales of the SPF-T (Willingness to Learn and Supervisory Impact).

A ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty Dec 1999

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty

Dissertations

Many researchers and practitioners have reported dramatic learning gains that they attribute to the fluency procedure, often citing rate of response as a critical feature. Others have been unsuccessful at demonstrating these claims empirically. A variety of differences between methods and procedures that may account for the different outcomes are discussed in this paper. In particular is the difference in outcomes when topography-based as opposed to selection-based responses were targeted for training. Fluency practitioners, and the researchers who have obtained similar positive outcomes, have for the most part used topography-based forms of response during the drill and practice sessions, or ...


Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell Dec 1999

Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell

Dissertations

The past 20 years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of published studies comparing inpatient with outpatient substance dependence treatment The majority of these studies have reported no benefit for those recipients receiving more intensive treatment However, the outpatient treatment investigated in these studies has typically been day treatment often involving 27 hours a week of participation, and not intensive outpatient treatment (IOP), which involves 12 or fewer hours of participation per week. Additionally, few published studies have compared alcohol and cocaine dependent populations. This study was designed to compare effectiveness of the residential and intensive outpatient levels ...


The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath Dec 1999

The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath

Dissertations

The purpose o f this study was to learn more about the validity o f the ADHD portion of the NIMH-DISCIV. In order to accomplish this goal, 58 youth participants were divided into three groups: (1) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon both the youth and the caretaker versions of the DISC; (2) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon the caretaker DISC, but not according to the youth DISC; and (3) subjects who did not meet criteria for ADHD according to either the youth or the caretaker DISC. Subjects in these groups were compared across parent ...


Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil Dec 1999

Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil

Dissertations

The present study investigated the underlying cognitive elements of social anxiety in elderly and young adult samples. The young adult participants in this study were 99 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university, recruited through scheduled undergraduate classes from both the Communication and Education Departments. Fifty elderly participants from two independent living senior residence centers were recruited through organizational meetings and contacts coordinated through the housing director or the wellness director. One senior residential center was located in the Midwest, while the other was in the Southeast. The study employed well recognized self-report cognitive measures to assess social anxiety: the Fear ...


Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson Dec 1999

Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson

Dissertations

Perceptions and experiences among married African American couples residing in the Southeastern United States were examined in terms of the performance of tasks and childcare giving in dual-career households. A qualitative approach was used in this study and was guided by conceptual frameworks of cultural variations that include behaviors, attitudes, values, and beliefs. In-depth interviews conducted in the couples’ homes were used for data collection. The research population included 15 married African American couples affiliated with a Greek fraternal organization located in the Southeast. The couples were selected using purposeful sampling.

Participant perceptions of the division of labor roles in ...


The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson Dec 1999

The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among White female graduate students in counseling psychology. Participants were 67 White female students enrolled in either the master’s or doctoral level counseling psychology programs in a large Midwestern university. Subjects were administered four instruments. Participants’ self-perceived competencies in multicultural counseling were measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) and racial attitudes were measured by the Attitudes Toward Blacks Scale (ATB, Brigham, 1993). Demographic information as well as subjects’ level of participation in several activities ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short Dec 1999

Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short

Dissertations

The effects of a positive peer reporting procedure on social status and social interactions were assessed. Children who are socially rejected seem to be disliked by their peers due to their high frequency of negative behaviors and low frequency of positive behaviors. Therefore, to decrease the negative behaviors and increase the positive behaviors, rejected children were asked to make positive comments about their peers. Participants included 4 children, ages 10-15 years. A multiple baseline across subjects design was utilized. Collection of baseline data began immediately following the confirmation of consent and eligibility for the child to participate. Initial baseline data ...


Behavior-Based Safety And Working Alone: The Effects Of Self-Monitoring On The Safe Performance Of Bus Operators, Ryan Olson Aug 1999

Behavior-Based Safety And Working Alone: The Effects Of Self-Monitoring On The Safe Performance Of Bus Operators, Ryan Olson

Master's Theses

Experimental evaluations of Behavior-based Safety (BBS) processes applied with lone workers are scarce. Further research is needed to determine the power of self-monitoring based interventions for improving safe behavior, and to explore the best practices for improving safety when employees work alone. In the current study,· four male bus operators (ages 40-50) self-monitored their safe performance and initialed feedback graphs based on their self-monitoring data at the end of each day. Experimental data collectors observed each participant by riding buses as passengers. A multiple baseline design across performances was used to assess the effects of the intervention on four target ...


Coping Strategy And Social Support Differences Among Copd Patients: Effects On Psychological Well Being, Functional Status, And Health Care Utilization, Terri Belville-Robertson Aug 1999

Coping Strategy And Social Support Differences Among Copd Patients: Effects On Psychological Well Being, Functional Status, And Health Care Utilization, Terri Belville-Robertson

Dissertations

This descriptive study examined coping strategies and social support among thirty-three patients with moderate to severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to assess relationships to psychological and functional status, and health care utilization. More specifically, the qualitative and quantitative differences in coping strategies and social support were examined in relation to anxiety, depression, activity level, and use of emergency and inpatient medical services. Subjects participated in a one-session screening that included a brief clinical interview, battery of questionnaires and exercise tolerance test. Health care utilization data were obtained from subjects’ medical records. Subjects' primary support persons also provided collateral data ...


Evaluating The Social Acceptability Of Persons With Habit Disorders: The Effects Of Topography, Frequency, And Gender Manipulation, Douglas W. Woods Aug 1999

Evaluating The Social Acceptability Of Persons With Habit Disorders: The Effects Of Topography, Frequency, And Gender Manipulation, Douglas W. Woods

Dissertations

Literature suggests that children who exhibit habit disorders are less socially acceptable than children who do not exhibit such disorders. This series of studies investigated the social acceptability of adults who exhibit habit disorders. In Studies 1 and 2, undergraduate students rated the social acceptability of individuals who exhibited motor tics, vocal tics, hairpulling, and no habit. Results showed that the individuals with no habit were more socially acceptable than the individuals who exhibited either motor tics, vocal tics, or hairpulling.

In Study 3, videotapes were created in which actors simulated motor tics, vocal tics, Tourette’s Syndrome, and Trichotillomania ...


Intuitive Understanding Of Time And Space At The Age Of Four, Josephine Barry-Davis Jun 1999

Intuitive Understanding Of Time And Space At The Age Of Four, Josephine Barry-Davis

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to test the central hypothesis that “children by the age of four years construct accurate and lasting conceptions o f time (past, present, future) and space (near and far away).” In order to test this hypothesis the researcher relied on qualitative research guidelines developed and published in recent years to address social science and educational research issues. The research design is especially applicable to young children where the researcher assumes the role of participant observer. In order to control for the context of the research, the children were observed for time and space cognitive ...


A Three-Choice Drug Discrimination Procedure Differentiates The Stimulus Effects Of D-Amphetamine And Mdma, Amy K. Goodwin Jun 1999

A Three-Choice Drug Discrimination Procedure Differentiates The Stimulus Effects Of D-Amphetamine And Mdma, Amy K. Goodwin

Master's Theses

(±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces effects in humans that are reportedly similar to those of CNS stimulants. However, drug discrimination studies in nonhumans have yielded inconsistent results regarding the similarities between MDMA and d-amphetamine. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate d-amphetamine, MDMA, and saline in a three-lever drug discrimination procedure. In addition, differential outcomes were employed during drug discrimination training with eight of the rats but this did not appear to facilitate the acquisition of the discrimination. Cocaine (0.25-10.0 mg/kg) produced dose dependent increases in d-amphetamine-appropriate responding with complete substitution at the highest dose administered. LSD ...


Effects Of Methylphenidate On The Sensitivity To Reinforcement In Children Diagnosed With Adhd: An Application Of Matching Law, Laura Kay Murray Jun 1999

Effects Of Methylphenidate On The Sensitivity To Reinforcement In Children Diagnosed With Adhd: An Application Of Matching Law, Laura Kay Murray

Master's Theses

This experiment evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on sensitivity to reinforcement of children diagnosed with ADHD using matching law.

Four children (2 males and 2 females) between the ages of 6 and 10 who were previously diagnosed with ADHD completed easy math problems to earn tokens under four different variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement presented in random order. The rate of completed math problems was plotted against the mean frequency of obtained reinforcers at each schedule value in tokens per minute. The data were fit to the following single-rate hyperbolic equation (Herrnstein, 1970): R = kr/r+r0.

Results show ...


Nonmigrainous Pediatric Headache Management: Thermal Biofeedback And Parent Guidelines, Richard E. Amdorfer Jun 1999

Nonmigrainous Pediatric Headache Management: Thermal Biofeedback And Parent Guidelines, Richard E. Amdorfer

Dissertations

This study explored the utility of the combination of thermal biofeedback and parent-mediated pain behavior management guidelines as a treatment for children experiencing nonmigrainous headache. Five children, ages 8 to 14, were assigned to baselines of varying lengths prior to receiving treatment. Four of the five children demonstrated significant reductions in one or more headache parameters (frequency, duration, average peak intensity) following treatment. The utility of thermal biofeedback and parent-mediated guidelines are supported as a treatment for children suffering from nonmigrainous headache.


Improving Special Education Teachers' Use Of Data-Based Instruction, Steven D. Goodman Jun 1999

Improving Special Education Teachers' Use Of Data-Based Instruction, Steven D. Goodman

Dissertations

The data-based decision model involves frequent measures of student performance (i.e., 2 - 5 times per week), frequent analysis of performance data (weekly or bi-weekly), and the application of decision rules. In the first study, we surveyed 406 special education teachers state-wide. Results of the survey suggest that the databased decision model is not generally practiced by special educators in the field. Just over one quarter of the respondents report to assessing student performance frequently enough to qualify as using the model. Only 10% of respondents indicate that they generally graph student performance. Additionally, less than 23% of respondents who ...


The Use Of Curriculum-Based Measurement To Evaluate The Effects Of A Remedial Education Program, Michael D. Hixson Jun 1999

The Use Of Curriculum-Based Measurement To Evaluate The Effects Of A Remedial Education Program, Michael D. Hixson

Dissertations

This study examined the effectiveness of two Direct Instruction programs: Corrective Reading: Decoding and Connecting Math Concepts. The effectiveness of the interventions was evaluated using a single-subject experimental design with curriculumbased measurement (CBM) probes as the main means of assessment. Other methods of assessment included standardized achievement tests, school reports, and pre- and postcurriculum- based assessment probes. The CBM probes for all students were sensitive to the effects of the interventions, although there was a great deal of variability in the CBM reading probes and little correspondence across methods of assessment. The results indicate that the two Direct Instruction programs ...


Children's Attitudes Toward Television Advertising: A State Of The Art Review, Heidi L. Haskins Apr 1999

Children's Attitudes Toward Television Advertising: A State Of The Art Review, Heidi L. Haskins

Honors Theses

The issue of children and advertising came to light in the 1970s and has continued to be a topic of much discussion ever since. In started in the 1970s when the Action for Children's Television petitioned the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to eliminate all commercials from children's TV programs. Then in January 1973, the major networks agreed to reduce commercial time in children's weekend programs from 16 minutes an hour to 12 minutes an hour. In 1991, the Better Business Bureau estimated that children in the U.S. watch an average of 3.5 hours of television ...


Educational Affirmations For Healthy Self-Esteem- An Exploratory Factor Analysis, Kaye L. Centers Apr 1999

Educational Affirmations For Healthy Self-Esteem- An Exploratory Factor Analysis, Kaye L. Centers

Dissertations

This investigation explored the underlying constructs of Clarke’s Educational Affirmations, a set of 54 statements designed to support the development of healthy self-esteem and the accomplishment of the developmental tasks of the psychosocial stages theorized by Erikson. The Preliminary Educational Affirmations Scale (PEAS), a transformed version of the Educational Affirmations, was devised and administered to 520 community college students. A principal components factor analysis of the results indicates the presence of two main factors that accounted for 28% of the total variance in the data, and offers partial support for the hypothesized factors of worthiness (Being) and competence (Doing ...


The Effects Of A Combination Of Feedback, Goals, And Consequences On The Performance Of Four Small Businesses, Timothy V. Nolan Apr 1999

The Effects Of A Combination Of Feedback, Goals, And Consequences On The Performance Of Four Small Businesses, Timothy V. Nolan

Dissertations

Performance measurement approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) offer a format for attending to a few performance metrics rather than several different performance indicators. While the BSC approach offers a nice format for tracking performance, it does not provide a conceptual framework for improving performance. That framework can be found in Behavioral Systems Analysis. The Total Performance System emphasizes the importance of internal and external feedback in improving performance. Several studies have investigated feedback interventions in organizational settings. The intervention found to be most effective is a combination of feedback, goals, and consequences. The purpose of the current study ...


The Relationship Between Selected Environmental Variables And Attrition, Persistence, And Academic Success Of Majority And Minority College Students, Carole J. Woolford-Hunt Apr 1999

The Relationship Between Selected Environmental Variables And Attrition, Persistence, And Academic Success Of Majority And Minority College Students, Carole J. Woolford-Hunt

Dissertations

Research indicates that college student persistence, attrition, and success is related to the student’s ability to gain academic and social integration into the university community. This theory has guided researchers to explore either the academic or social factors that promote integration. Under the umbrella of social integration exists the underresearched category of environmental factors.

The overall purpose of this study was to identify selected environmental factors that affect minority and majority students’ persistence and success rates in a Midwestern state-run university. The environmental variables of size of college within a larger university, residential versus nonresidential nature of colleges within ...


Determining Cutoff Scores For The Mmpi-2 Substance Abuse Scales For An Inmate Population, Barbara A. Johnston Apr 1999

Determining Cutoff Scores For The Mmpi-2 Substance Abuse Scales For An Inmate Population, Barbara A. Johnston

Dissertations

The current research project examined the psychometric properties of the substance abuse scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) with an inmate population. The scales of interest included the MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised (MAC-R), the Addiction Potential Scale (APS) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS).

A total of 80 subjects were administered the MMPI-2 which resulted in 73 valid profiles. Of the valid profiles, 54 were chemically dependent and 19 were nonchemically dependent inmates. There were no differences between groups in regard to sociodemographic variables.

The data analyses indicated that the AAS and APS are efficient and ...


An Analysis Of Parental And Peer Attachment And Its Determinant Factors: A Test Of Attachment Theory On Malaysian Students At American Universities, Noriah Mohd. Ishak Apr 1999

An Analysis Of Parental And Peer Attachment And Its Determinant Factors: A Test Of Attachment Theory On Malaysian Students At American Universities, Noriah Mohd. Ishak

Dissertations

This study examined the quality of parental and peer attachments among Malaysian students studying at universities in the midwestern region of the United States. The study was conducted in two phases. Two hundred and two students (106 male, 96 female) participated in the first phase of the study, and 8 students (4 male, and 4 female) participated in the second phase of the study. Phase One employed a cross-sectional quantitative design using a self-administered questionnaire [the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA) developed by Armsden and Greenberg (1987)] and revised by the researcher. This instrument has 53 items that ...


Application Of Differential Outcomes To A Cocaine-Saline Discrimination Procedure: Assessment Of Stimulus Generalization To Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists, Kelly J. Garner Apr 1999

Application Of Differential Outcomes To A Cocaine-Saline Discrimination Procedure: Assessment Of Stimulus Generalization To Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists, Kelly J. Garner

Master's Theses

This study replicated the effects of differential outcomes on the acquisition of a cocaine-saline discrimination in rats and examined whether learning via differential outcomes (DO) influenced stimulus generalization to other drugs. Previous investigations have suggested that the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor subtype may modulate the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Pharmacological compounds which have been identified as having a greater affinity for DA D3 receptors are 7-OH-DPAT and PD 128907. The present study examined whether the DO conditions applied during training had an impact on the generalization of these test compounds. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate ...


Conditional Discrimination And Generalization Of Facial Cues As A Function Of Training Multiple Exemplars With Autistic Preschoolers, Sebastien Bosch Apr 1999

Conditional Discrimination And Generalization Of Facial Cues As A Function Of Training Multiple Exemplars With Autistic Preschoolers, Sebastien Bosch

Master's Theses

Individuals with diagnosed autism typically show deficiencies in discrimination of facial cues. The ability to respond to facial expressions was assessed and trained with 3 four-year-old subjects diagnosed with autism. Stimulus presentations involved four different stimulus sets ( cards with stick figure, cards with cartoon figures, and cards with photographs of a man and a woman displaying the emotional expression).

Training consisted of differential reinforcement of correct responses. The experimental design was a multiple baseline across stimulus sets, with generalization probes conducted after mastery level of performance was reached on each stimulus set. Some evidence of generalization was observed on yet ...