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Functional Assessment And Treatment Of Elopement Occasioned By Transitions, Denice Rios Mojica Jun 2019

Functional Assessment And Treatment Of Elopement Occasioned By Transitions, Denice Rios Mojica

Dissertations

Elopement is a dangerous behavior in children with developmental disabilities because it greatly increases the risk of accidents that lead to serious injury or death. The dangers of elopement are especially high during transitions because these situations increase the chance that a child will gain unsupervised access outside, where the most serious accidents typically occur. Despite its severity, assessment methodologies that specifically evaluate the contextual variables found during transitions are not available. Additionally, treatment for elopement during transitions typically involves antecedent interventions which do not address function. Continued research on effective and efficient means for the assessment and treatment of ...


Lgbtq+ Student Safety On Western Michigan University's Campus, Kaitlyn Sedorchuk Apr 2019

Lgbtq+ Student Safety On Western Michigan University's Campus, Kaitlyn Sedorchuk

Honors Theses

Campus climate, in general, has been a popular area of research for many years, and this also includes campus climate for LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, plus) students. Outside of the campus climate survey done back in 2013, there has been no recent campus climate research done on Western Michigan University’s campus as of Spring 2019. This means that there has been no research focusing on queer students’ perceptions of Western’s campus, as well.

In order to help and rectify this and create a platform in which queer students attending Western Michigan University could share their experiences ...


The Effects Of Attachment Anxiety On Trait Anxiety And Borderline Personality Symptoms Through Specific Pathways Of Emotion Regulation, Jessica Good Apr 2019

The Effects Of Attachment Anxiety On Trait Anxiety And Borderline Personality Symptoms Through Specific Pathways Of Emotion Regulation, Jessica Good

Honors Theses

Previous research has shown that deficits in emotion regulation impair coping skills for individuals clinically diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) resembling trait anxiety, as well as those clinically diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; Herr, Rosenthal, Geiger, & Erikson, 2013; Beeney et al., 2015; Putnam & Silk, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2017; Mennin, Heimberg, Turk, & Fresco, 2002; Marganska, Gallagher, & Miranda, 2013). The current study hypothesized that (a) the specific types of emotion dysregulation measuring lack of clarity and impulsivity would mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD while the other types do not, and (b) the specific types of emotion dysregulation measuring nonacceptance of emotions, lack ...


Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Accessibility At Drive-Through Restaurants, Regina Mcleod Apr 2019

Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Accessibility At Drive-Through Restaurants, Regina Mcleod

Honors Theses

People who are deaf or hard of hearing deserve fair and accessible accommodations, which include drive-through restaurants. It is not a fair solution to force this population to go inside an establishment to order, especially due to the fact that many restaurants close the inside of their restaurants at night but will leave their drive-throughs open. According to legal cases and surveys conducted, accessibility at drive-through restaurants is a prodigious issue for members of the deaf and hard of hearing communities in the United States. Based upon these findings, there is a major lack of accessibility, in addition to discrimination ...


Increasing Political Behaviors In Local Communities, Bionca Stewart Apr 2019

Increasing Political Behaviors In Local Communities, Bionca Stewart

Honors Theses

The present project aimed to apply principles of behavioral science, specifically prompting, to increase voter turnout in a low voter community. The study used a mixed-model group experimental design in which voting in an experimental and control group was measured across two occasions. The sample population consisted of one off-campus community, which was District 4 of the City of Kalamazoo. This district was chosen because it was the district within the city with the lowest voter turnout in the 2016 election. The participants were randomly selected from within the district and randomly assigned to an experimental (N=68) and control ...


Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley Apr 2019

Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley

Honors Theses

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a learning disability that is very prevalent in today’s society. A closer look at this disability reveals that there are differences with males and females with regards to how the symptoms manifest. Females have a tendency to exhibit inattention whereas males are often hyperactive, which is much more obvious to others around them. This difference in symptoms has led to a drastic difference in terms of how ADHD is diagnosed and causes it to be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in females compared to males. The consequences that this delayed diagnosis may have on females can ...


The Effects Of Qr Code Prompts Posted To A Solar Charging Bench On Website Visibility, Sage Campbell Apr 2019

The Effects Of Qr Code Prompts Posted To A Solar Charging Bench On Website Visibility, Sage Campbell

Honors Theses

This study will investigate the effects of graphic prompts with integrated quick response (QR) codes posted to a solar charging bench. The hypothesis is that posted prompts and the bench itself will increase website traffic and visibility of sustainable actions at Western Michigan University. Website traffic will be monitored using Google Analytics software which will allow for tracking of website visits specifically from scanning the QR code. Thus, data from bench installation and from bench installation with prompts will be compared with baseline data from before installation of the bench and before installation graphic prompts. Data that supports the hypothesis ...


Comparing Prompting Methods For Teaching Receptive Identification, Laurel Jungblut Apr 2019

Comparing Prompting Methods For Teaching Receptive Identification, Laurel Jungblut

Honors Theses

Receptive language is the occurrence of an appropriate response to the spoken language of another individual. This is a key element of development, especially in regard to the acquisition of spoken language (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). While this appropriate responding is a skill generally acquired by typically developing children via interactions with their caregivers, in most situations it must be explicitly taught to children with developmental delays (Charlotte L. Carp, Sean P. Peterson, Amber J. Arkel, & Anna I. Petursdottir, 2012). An absence or delay of this skill will result in a child missing many important learning opportunities, leading to further delays ...


Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar Apr 2019

Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar

Honors Theses

Abstract

Compliance behaviors occurring prior to the delivery of an instruction, such as handing over preferred items, making eye contact, and folding hands in the ready position help prepare students for success in discrete-trial training (DTT) interventions. These behaviors are usually taught in early intervention with a continuous reinforcement schedule, but once they are mastered, they are rarely revisited or maintained. Without intermittent reinforcement of these behaviors, they are likely to decrease in frequency and may lead to the use of restrictive or intrusive methods to gain compliance during DTT sessions. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants design ...


A Descriptive Analysis Of Restrictive And Intrusive Procedures In Behavior Support Plans, Kelsey Webster Apr 2019

A Descriptive Analysis Of Restrictive And Intrusive Procedures In Behavior Support Plans, Kelsey Webster

Master's Theses

Restrictive and intrusive procedures are used in the course of effective treatment to protect the safety of clients and others. Nonetheless, behavior analysts have an ethical obligation to implement the least restrictive procedures possible that are still deemed effective. However, when fading procedures for restrictions and intrusions are not a mandatory component of behavior support plans, these procedures may be in place longer than necessary. Extended utilization of restrictive and intrusive procedures could be viewed as limiting the client’s rights, especially if less restrictive procedures would also produce successful outcomes. One reason that these procedures are overused may be ...


Functional Analysis Of Excessive Crying In Infancy: Two Empirical Case Studies, Jamie L. Hirsh Apr 2019

Functional Analysis Of Excessive Crying In Infancy: Two Empirical Case Studies, Jamie L. Hirsh

Dissertations

Excessive crying and infantile colic account for a significant percentage of caregivers’ calls and visits to the pediatrician early in infancy. Despite myriad research studies across medical and psychological disciplines over the years, there is no conclusive evidence regarding a cause for excessive crying in early infancy; as a result, there is no gold standard for treatment. The goal of this study is to develop and test an experimental functional analysis methodology to determine a cause for excessive crying in infants. The study involves the development of an interview and paper-based functional assessment tool for excessive crying in infancy, as ...


Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski Apr 2019

Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski

Master's Theses

Although the State of Michigan has passed legislation to ensure that the rights of mental health service recipients are protected, there has been no published research evaluating the accuracy and consistency with which these guidelines are applied in real world cases. Quite obviously, even well intentioned policy may fall short of its intended goal if it is not implemented consistently and with fidelity. The State of Michigan trains Recipient Rights Officers (RROs) who in turn provide training and oversight for local mental health service agencies (Community Mental Health Agencies and PIHPs) who are charged with educating practitioners and other service ...


A Systematic Comparison Of Functional Assessment Outcomes In Organizational Behavior Management, Nathan T. Bechtel Dec 2018

A Systematic Comparison Of Functional Assessment Outcomes In Organizational Behavior Management, Nathan T. Bechtel

Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to compare the recommendation outcomes of two commonly utilized functional assessment tools in the field of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM): the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) and the Performance Flowchart. Recommendations made using these tools fell into one of three categories: antecedent-based, consequence-based, and uncategorized interventions. In order to assess the recommendations resulting from each of these tools, participants were trained to either (a) play the role of a manager with an organizational issue, or (b) play the role of a performance consultant. A between-groups design was utilized in which performance consultants used either ...


Preventing Sexual Victimization: An Assertiveness Training Program For Female Adolescents, Emily Morgan Dec 2018

Preventing Sexual Victimization: An Assertiveness Training Program For Female Adolescents, Emily Morgan

Dissertations

Unwanted sexual experiences occur too frequently in the United States and result in myriad deleterious consequences. The first instances of unwanted sexual experiences for females most frequently occur during adolescence (ages 12 to 17). Despite this, the majority of literature on sexual victimization and victimization prevention programs focus on college-aged females, thus leaving a need for research on prevention programs for adolescent females. The present study examined the effects of an assertiveness training program on the risk for sexual coercion among adolescent females. A behavioral skills training model (i.e. instruction, model, rehearsal, and feedback) was used to teach seven ...


Strongly Bonded Supervisory Relationships: Demystifying The Bond Aspect Of The Supervisory Working Alliance, Melissa Heinrich Dec 2018

Strongly Bonded Supervisory Relationships: Demystifying The Bond Aspect Of The Supervisory Working Alliance, Melissa Heinrich

Dissertations

The current study explores the bond aspect of the supervisory working alliance through the lens of relational-cultural theory (RCT). Previous research posits a quality supervisory relationship is important for effective supervision and clinical outcomes. The Supervisory Working Alliance (SWA; Bordin, 1983) is a pan-theoretical model for the growth process in supervision including (a) mutual agreement on goals for supervision, (b) mutual agreement on associated tasks for accomplishing the goals, and (c) the emotional bond in the supervisory relationship. The process for mutual agreement of goals and tasks seems clear, the bond aspect of the SWA seems less clear. Research concerning ...


Color-Blind Racial Ideology, Social Justice Attitudes, And Cultural Competency In U.S. Medical Students And Resident Physicians, Jennifer G. Hahm Dec 2018

Color-Blind Racial Ideology, Social Justice Attitudes, And Cultural Competency In U.S. Medical Students And Resident Physicians, Jennifer G. Hahm

Dissertations

Health disparities disproportionately affect the lives of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2015; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NHQR, 2013). Social conditions, social determinants, and structural inequities have been acknowledged as influential forces on minority health (Link & Phelan, 1995; World Health Organization, 2011). Focusing on eliminating environmental and social conditions affecting the health status of racial and ethnic minorities should be a prerogative for healthcare professionals in reducing health disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between color-blind racial ideology and social justice attitudes on the ...


Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Harmony I. Risca Aug 2018

Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Harmony I. Risca

Master's Theses

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential and comparable pharmacological actions to those of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a variety of monoaminergic agents for substitution, potentiation, or antagonism in rats trained to discriminate MDPV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV and a variety of monoaminergic drugs were tested for substitution and/or potentiation of the MDPV cue. In separate experiments, stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with selected dopamine antagonists or serotonin antagonists in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg MDPV ...


Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard Aug 2018

Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of Black graduate students related to stress and coping. Specifically, this study seeks to further examine the concept of cognitive appraisal and help-seeking intentions among Black graduate students. Research has indicated that Black graduate students face unique stressors related to race, in addition to general stress demands that can be experienced in graduate education programs. Regarding help-seeking, the literature has tended to focus on psychological help-seeking attitudes with African American populations and undergraduate students. This present study utilizes theories from stress and coping, as well as help-seeking and planned behavior ...


Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston Aug 2018

Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston

Dissertations

Obesity is a chronic health condition with prevalence rates that have continued to rise steadily over the past 30 years to the point that it has now been declared a global epidemic and a serious public health concern. Obesity is associated with significant physical and economic costs, primarily resulting from co-occurring health conditions that increase the risk of morbidity including type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and respiratory problems. Despite the dissemination of several obesity treatments, including pharmacotherapy, lifestyle modification, and bariatric surgery, the prevalence and severity of obesity continues to rise. Federal guidelines recommend the use ...


The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson

Dissertations

Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...


Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott Aug 2018

Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott

Dissertations

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...


The Integration Of Creative And Expressive Arts In A Young Adult Problem-Solving Court, Ricky J. Pope Aug 2018

The Integration Of Creative And Expressive Arts In A Young Adult Problem-Solving Court, Ricky J. Pope

Dissertations

Interaction with the criminal justice system exacts substantial costs on human potential, and alternative practices are emerging to address this social issue. This research explores the integration of creative and expressive arts in a young adult problem-solving court. The Young Adult Diversion Court (YADC) was created to help young adults 17- 20 years of age complete requirements for probation. Successful completion of the program provides participants the opportunity for the initial criminal charge to be dismissed and made non-public on the criminal record. This qualitative study is informed by interpretive interactionism and narrative inquiry to provide a method to understand ...


Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain Aug 2018

Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain

Dissertations

The current study investigates whether treatment preferences prior to beginning treatment are different from treatment preferences at later points in treatment, and whether preferences are related to treatment outcome. While research to date supports the notion that matching clients to treatment in line with their preferences can improve retention and outcomes, results have been equivocal. Further, this research is typically conducted by measuring preferences just one time, prior to starting treatment. It is conceivable that preferences for treatment change over time as patients become more knowledgeable about their presenting problems and about the therapy process. A total of 969 participants ...


Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Haily K. Traxler Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Haily K. Traxler

Master's Theses

Skinner (1953) stated that the effects of generalized conditioned reinforcers should maintain longer than specific conditioned reinforcers because their effects are not dependent on a particular motivating operation. Tokens easily model different levels of generality because tokens can be paired with one or more back-up reinforcers. In the current study, three types of tokens were assessed that could be exchanged for either salty snacks, food and drinks offered in a small marketplace, or money on a gift card. Token preferences were assessed using a Paired Stimulus preference assessment and a progressive ratio (PR) task. The results of the preference assessment ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, David W. Sottile Aug 2018

A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, David W. Sottile

Master's Theses

Accurate assessment of risk propensity is important because risky choices underlie a broad range of behavioral problems. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is an assessment that measures propensity to engage in risky choice. While this is a useful assessment, the BART changes two variables that affect risky choice simultaneously, probability of an undesirable outcome and stake size, which cannot be separated within the context of the BART. The goal of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of key factors that are likely to risky choice (Magnitude of payoff, probability of an undesirable outcome, and stake ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson Jun 2018

Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson

Dissertations

Rehoming shelters provide their animals with environmental enrichment with the expectation that modifying the physical space will improve kennel-related stress and subsequently abate undesirable behaviors. Although enrichment has shown moderate success at improving in-kennel behavior, increased use of physiological measurements of stress, such as cortisol, has garnered doubt as to which canine behaviors are truly elicited by a biological state of distress. Consequently, it is unknown if past examples of successful kennel enrichment decreased biological stress in addition to affecting behavior. This study explored music’s effect on salivary cortisol and music’s potential as a long-term, kennel enrichment strategy ...


Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin Jun 2018

Teaching Matching-To-Sample To Low-Performing Children With Autism, Blaire E. Michelin

Dissertations

Matching-to-sample is a basic procedure used in most programs for pre-school children with autism. However, a few children fail to acquire this skill with standard matching-to-sample procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for teaching matching-to-sample to those children when the traditional methods are likely to fail. First, simple discriminations with the matching materials were taught, then the discriminations were made more complex across successive sessions. Initially, all discriminations were taught using bins to separate the comparison stimuli. All three children acquired matching-to-sample, which generalized to matching novel two-dimensional stimuli, not placed in bins.


Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring Jun 2018

Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to bridge a gap between Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB). Although OBM’s historical and scientific roots are nested within EAB, OBM research does not always strictly follow or adhere to basic research definitions or procedures. That is, terms that have specific operational definitions in EAB and Applied Behavior Analysis are sometimes used incorrectly in OBM research. Similarly, these terms are often associated with specific experimental procedures in basic literature, yet OBM research procedures may not follow the strict procedural guidelines. The purpose of the present study ...


The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow Jun 2018

The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow

Dissertations

The observer effect is a term used to describe a process during which an observer's behavior changes as they measure the behavior of another individual. The observer effect has been widely studied in organizational behavior management but has limited research with teachers in schools. The current study sought to use the observer effect as part of a teacher training package by evaluating the effects of peer observations on an observing teacher's implementation integrity of components of a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) system. Participants were four middle school teachers of students in general education classrooms. The primary ...