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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1999

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School Bullying And Group Processes Survey, Margaret Linn Dec 1999

School Bullying And Group Processes Survey, Margaret Linn

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this thesis is to determine the extent of bullying behavior in a southern New Jersey school as measured by an adapted version of the Olweus Bully Questionnaire. Four hundred seventy-two fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade middle school students were surveyed regarding bullying behavior in their school. The obtained percentages indicate an increase in the trends found by previous research.

Recently, there has been a shift in bullying research from a dyadic focus on the characteristics of the Bully and the Victim to the recognition of bullying as a whole group process, with the majority of children ...


Officer Involved Shooting: The Emotional Impact And The Effective Coping Strategies, Patrick P. Charoen Dec 1999

Officer Involved Shooting: The Emotional Impact And The Effective Coping Strategies, Patrick P. Charoen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The emotional impact of a shooting incident on the individual police officer has been recognized and detailed by both police and mental health professionals (Lippert & Ferrara, 1984). The human cost and financial costs to Police Departments as a result of "post shooting" trauma has sensitized many departments to the need for professional support for officers involved in shootings. Recent survey research has provided information about the percentage of officers who experienced great, moderate, or no emotional impact after being involved in shootings (Stratton, 1982). However, information about the degree to which police departments have responded to this need has been ...


The Believability Of Hearsay Testimony Involving Child Witnesses: Effects Of Age And Format, Beverly J. Smith Dec 1999

The Believability Of Hearsay Testimony Involving Child Witnesses: Effects Of Age And Format, Beverly J. Smith

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Open court testimony poses difficulty for child witnesses required to face the defendant. Certain laws allow hearsay testimony to replace the alleged child victim's testimony. This study examines the relationship of the child's age to the relative believability of three hearsay testimony fonnats in a 2 (child witnesses: one 4-year-old and one 8-year-old) x 3 (hearsay conditions: interview of child, interviewer testimony in "gist" or summary form, or interviewer testimony in detailed, "verbatim" fonn) design. Transcripts were based on actual child sexual abuse interviews ( one 4 and one 8-year-old female) obtained for prior research with permission from Child ...


Factors Of Job-Related Stress As Perceived By Middle School Principals In Virginia, Teresa I. Snyder Dec 1999

Factors Of Job-Related Stress As Perceived By Middle School Principals In Virginia, Teresa I. Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted among middle school principals in Virginia to determine their perceptions of job-related stress factors. The entire population of middle school principals (grades 6, 7, 8) was selected to participate in the study. The Administrative Stress Index was used to assess factors that cause principals stress on the job and to measure their stress levels. A demographic data form was used to collect data on the variables of age, gender, administrative experience, assistant principal support, student enrollment, adults supervised, percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch, location of school, type of school, experience as a middle ...


The Spiritual Dimension Of Social Work Practice In And Through Research, Education, And Life Experience, Pauline Kay Burthwick Dec 1999

The Spiritual Dimension Of Social Work Practice In And Through Research, Education, And Life Experience, Pauline Kay Burthwick

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been an effort to reintroduce religion and spirituality as tangible constructs into social work education and practice in an effort to incorporate all aspects of the client's system (biological, psychological, social, spiritual) and to understand and appreciate the client's diversity and potential strengths and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of religion and spirituality in the lives of social work practitioners as it relates to their social work practice and to the education of future social workers.

This study was composed of two parts. The first was a ...


Social Judgement Tendencies As A Function Of Mcmi-Ii And Cati Personality Variables, Allison Noel Pate Dec 1999

Social Judgement Tendencies As A Function Of Mcmi-Ii And Cati Personality Variables, Allison Noel Pate

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated relationships between personality styles and judgments of others' personality traits using the Free Response Interaction Procedure (FRIP). FRIP participants were 184 female and 68 male college students, mean age 23.9 years. The FRIP consists of two 25-minute interactive sessions, separated by a week or more, in which a participant interacts with three randomly assigned participant partners. After each session, participants use a seven point likert scale to rate themselves and their partners, and predict how their partners will rate them on 14 personality traits. Participants also independently completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - II (MCMI-II) and ...


An Environmental History Of The 19th Century Marquette Iron Range, Doug Ottke Dec 1999

An Environmental History Of The 19th Century Marquette Iron Range, Doug Ottke

Theses and Dissertations

The history of the Marquette Iron Range in the upper peninsula of Michigan is integrally linked to the environment. The natural features of the Marquette Range defined the mode of production on the Range, and conversely, as human systems became more adept in these modes of production they became the most important modifiers of the natural systems.

Settlement on the Marquette Iron Range was closely related to two factors of natural environment: the iron ore formations and the hardwood forest. The distribution of three iron ore formations—principally the Negaunee, but also the Bijiki and other Iron- formations within the ...


Racial Encounters In The American Theatre: Whiteness And Eugene O'Neill, Blackness And August Wilson, C̦Iğdem Üsekes Dec 1999

Racial Encounters In The American Theatre: Whiteness And Eugene O'Neill, Blackness And August Wilson, C̦Iğdem Üsekes

Theses and Dissertations

Relatively few scholars have investigated racial representations in modern American drama. Even fewer scholars have undertaken to analyze depictions of whiteness in American letters, although “white studies” is slowly assuming legitimacy in the academy in the 1990s. “Racial Encounters in the American Theatre” therefore attempts to bridge this gap in literary and critical studies by examining the black portraiture of Eugene O'Neill and the white portraiture of August Wilson. The work of both playwrights attests to their deep and consistent involvement with their Racial Other, who resurfaces in play after play. Maintaining that the United States resembles a postcolonial ...


From Self To Other In Oliver Stone's Vietnam Trilogy: Platoon, Born On The Fourth Of July, And Heaven And Earth, Hyeong-Min Kang Dec 1999

From Self To Other In Oliver Stone's Vietnam Trilogy: Platoon, Born On The Fourth Of July, And Heaven And Earth, Hyeong-Min Kang

Theses and Dissertations

As a Vietnam veteran film director, Oliver Stone has made several controversial films on the Vietnam War and the 1950s. Among his filmography, we can categorize Platoon (1986), Born on the Fourth of July (1989), and Heaven and Earth (1993)-Stone's so called Vietnam Trilogy-as the most direct depictions of the war and its aftermath, whereas The Doors (1991), JFK (1991), and Nixon (1995) examine the broader political and cultural dimension of the war and the era. Throughout his Vietnam films, Stone struggles to find the new America's identity by studying the historical meaning of its past events ...


Affective And Motivational Components Of The Flow State: Rock Climbing Revisited, Helen Hooper Dec 1999

Affective And Motivational Components Of The Flow State: Rock Climbing Revisited, Helen Hooper

Theses and Dissertations

The affective and experiential components of the flow state, as outlined by Csikszentmihalyi (1975), have served as a basis for research into optimal experience over the past twenty years, and although adjustments have been made by various researchers, the description of the characteristics remain essentially the same. This study used qualitative methods to further explore this area . With the initial aim of enhancing our understanding of the optimal experiences of rock climbing participants, the present study purposefully sampled fifteen informants representative of the range of characteristics found in the setting. Questioning techniques and analysis methods used in this study sought ...


Predicting Post-Disaster Adjustment After The Red River Flood: An Analysis Of Resource Loss And Pre-Flood Preventative Behaviors, Holly J. Hegstad Dec 1999

Predicting Post-Disaster Adjustment After The Red River Flood: An Analysis Of Resource Loss And Pre-Flood Preventative Behaviors, Holly J. Hegstad

Theses and Dissertations

The Conservation of Resources theory postulates that individuals will act to obtain, retain, or protect those resources that are of value to them (Hobfall, 1989). Natural disasters often result in depletion of resources, the extent of which has been found to be a robust predictor of post-disaster adjustment (Freedy, Hobfall, & Ribbe, 1994; Freedy, Shaw, Jarrel, & Masters, 1992; Norris & Uhl, 1993; Smith & Freedy, 1994). Three-hundred-four victims (131 males, 171 females) of the 1997 flood of the Red River returned surveys assessing their levels of preparation, resource losses, and psychopathology 12 to 16 months after the flood. It was hypothesized that resource loss would represent the best predictor ...


Elderly Respondents' Perceptions Of Patronizing Speech By Service Providers Toward Elderly Adults., Tammi Rae La Tourette Dec 1999

Elderly Respondents' Perceptions Of Patronizing Speech By Service Providers Toward Elderly Adults., Tammi Rae La Tourette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of several factors in elderly respondents' evaluations of neutral and patronizing speech by nurses toward elderly targets. Thirty-eight nursing home and 62 community Caucasian elderly women viewed two videotaped vignettes, one in which a nurse spoke to an elder target in a patronizing tone, and one with a neutral tone. Both samples rated the nurse more favorably, rated the elder target more satisfied with the conversation, and assumed that the nurse-elder dyad knew each other better when the nurse's speech was neutral as opposed to patronizing. Contrary to what was predicted, community elders did ...


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian Dec 1999

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian

Master's Theses

Despite the reported relatively high binding affinity of 7-OH-DPAT to dopamine D3 receptors, results of recent investigations with the highly selective 03 receptor antagonist, PNU-99194A have questioned the importance of 03 receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of 7-OH-DPAT. In the present study, sixteen male Sprague- Dawley rats (N=8/group) were trained to discriminate (+)- 7-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, sc) from saline in a two-lever operant procedure using a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of water reinforcement. After stable performance was established, substitution tests were conducted with the D3-prefering agonist, (+)-PD-128907 and the psychostimulant cocaine. Additionally, antagonism were ...


The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick Dec 1999

The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick

Master's Theses

Sexual orientation is generally assessed as a dichotomous variable, rather than a continuous variable. According to this classification the concept of bisexuality does not exist and there is a dearth of research for the construct. Some theorists believe that this lack of knowledge has led to fear and discrimination of bisexual individuals (Ochs, 1996; Rust, 1993). Biphobia, defined as negative attitudes about bisexuality and bisexual individuals, is a psychological construct that is not well understood. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in bisexuality and biphobia but there are currently limited empirical investigations examining the constructs. And, no scale ...


Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil Dec 1999

Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil

Dissertations

The present study investigated the underlying cognitive elements of social anxiety in elderly and young adult samples. The young adult participants in this study were 99 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university, recruited through scheduled undergraduate classes from both the Communication and Education Departments. Fifty elderly participants from two independent living senior residence centers were recruited through organizational meetings and contacts coordinated through the housing director or the wellness director. One senior residential center was located in the Midwest, while the other was in the Southeast. The study employed well recognized self-report cognitive measures to assess social anxiety: the Fear ...


Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette Dec 1999

Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette

Dissertations

Perceptions of clinical supervision of 175 majority and minority counseling psychology doctoral students selected from a national pool was the study’s focal point. Instruments used were the Revised Relational Inventory (RRI; Barrett- Lennard, 1962; Schacht, Howe, & Berman, 1988) and the Supervision Perception Form-Trainee (SPF-T) developed by Heppner and Roehlke (1984). Participants were instructed to based their ratings on their last supervision experience. Data were collected and scored on the five subscales o f the RRI (Congruence, Empathetic Understanding, Regard, Unconditionality, and Willingness to be Known) and the two subscales of the SPF-T (Willingness to Learn and Supervisory Impact).

A ...


Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell Dec 1999

Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell

Dissertations

The past 20 years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of published studies comparing inpatient with outpatient substance dependence treatment The majority of these studies have reported no benefit for those recipients receiving more intensive treatment However, the outpatient treatment investigated in these studies has typically been day treatment often involving 27 hours a week of participation, and not intensive outpatient treatment (IOP), which involves 12 or fewer hours of participation per week. Additionally, few published studies have compared alcohol and cocaine dependent populations. This study was designed to compare effectiveness of the residential and intensive outpatient levels ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty Dec 1999

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty

Dissertations

Many researchers and practitioners have reported dramatic learning gains that they attribute to the fluency procedure, often citing rate of response as a critical feature. Others have been unsuccessful at demonstrating these claims empirically. A variety of differences between methods and procedures that may account for the different outcomes are discussed in this paper. In particular is the difference in outcomes when topography-based as opposed to selection-based responses were targeted for training. Fluency practitioners, and the researchers who have obtained similar positive outcomes, have for the most part used topography-based forms of response during the drill and practice sessions, or ...


The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath Dec 1999

The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath

Dissertations

The purpose o f this study was to learn more about the validity o f the ADHD portion of the NIMH-DISCIV. In order to accomplish this goal, 58 youth participants were divided into three groups: (1) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon both the youth and the caretaker versions of the DISC; (2) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon the caretaker DISC, but not according to the youth DISC; and (3) subjects who did not meet criteria for ADHD according to either the youth or the caretaker DISC. Subjects in these groups were compared across parent ...


The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson Dec 1999

The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among White female graduate students in counseling psychology. Participants were 67 White female students enrolled in either the master’s or doctoral level counseling psychology programs in a large Midwestern university. Subjects were administered four instruments. Participants’ self-perceived competencies in multicultural counseling were measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) and racial attitudes were measured by the Attitudes Toward Blacks Scale (ATB, Brigham, 1993). Demographic information as well as subjects’ level of participation in several activities ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short Dec 1999

Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short

Dissertations

The effects of a positive peer reporting procedure on social status and social interactions were assessed. Children who are socially rejected seem to be disliked by their peers due to their high frequency of negative behaviors and low frequency of positive behaviors. Therefore, to decrease the negative behaviors and increase the positive behaviors, rejected children were asked to make positive comments about their peers. Participants included 4 children, ages 10-15 years. A multiple baseline across subjects design was utilized. Collection of baseline data began immediately following the confirmation of consent and eligibility for the child to participate. Initial baseline data ...


Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson Dec 1999

Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson

Dissertations

Perceptions and experiences among married African American couples residing in the Southeastern United States were examined in terms of the performance of tasks and childcare giving in dual-career households. A qualitative approach was used in this study and was guided by conceptual frameworks of cultural variations that include behaviors, attitudes, values, and beliefs. In-depth interviews conducted in the couples’ homes were used for data collection. The research population included 15 married African American couples affiliated with a Greek fraternal organization located in the Southeast. The couples were selected using purposeful sampling.

Participant perceptions of the division of labor roles in ...


The Relationship Between Cynicism And Dispositional Attributions: Examining Individual Differences Of Police Officers, Jennifer L. Weimer Nov 1999

The Relationship Between Cynicism And Dispositional Attributions: Examining Individual Differences Of Police Officers, Jennifer L. Weimer

Student Work

Previous research has shown that veteran police officers are more cynical than less experienced police officers. Research has also shown that veterans are more likely than less experienced officers to make dispositional attributions for the actions of suspects in interpersonal disputes. This study examined these two premises and the relationship between cynicism and attributions. Participants included 127 police officers and 70 undergraduate students who completed a cynicism scale and were then asked to read two scenarios depicting interpersonal disputes. Participants answered several questions pertaining to their attributions of responsibility and their perceptions of credibility of the suspect and the victim ...


Work-Life Role Integration: A Construct Validation Study, Tonya Alicia Miller Oct 1999

Work-Life Role Integration: A Construct Validation Study, Tonya Alicia Miller

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to define and validate the theoretical construct, role integration. Study 1 focused on producing a theoretical definition and a psychometrically sound measure. Content, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence was collected. Study 2 provided further validity evidence for the role integration construct by testing a conceptual model and refining the role integration measure. Study 1 and Study 2 established a psychometrically sound 12-item, two-factor role integration measure. The first factor focused on knowledge, skills, and experiences (KSE). The second factor focused on values, beliefs, and attitudes (VBA).

The conceptual model in Study 2 added the role integration ...


Behavior-Based Safety And Working Alone: The Effects Of Self-Monitoring On The Safe Performance Of Bus Operators, Ryan Olson Aug 1999

Behavior-Based Safety And Working Alone: The Effects Of Self-Monitoring On The Safe Performance Of Bus Operators, Ryan Olson

Master's Theses

Experimental evaluations of Behavior-based Safety (BBS) processes applied with lone workers are scarce. Further research is needed to determine the power of self-monitoring based interventions for improving safe behavior, and to explore the best practices for improving safety when employees work alone. In the current study,· four male bus operators (ages 40-50) self-monitored their safe performance and initialed feedback graphs based on their self-monitoring data at the end of each day. Experimental data collectors observed each participant by riding buses as passengers. A multiple baseline design across performances was used to assess the effects of the intervention on four target ...


Modifications Of Nitric Oxide And Sexual Behavior In Prenatally Stressed Male Rats, Stephen D. Miller Aug 1999

Modifications Of Nitric Oxide And Sexual Behavior In Prenatally Stressed Male Rats, Stephen D. Miller

Master's Theses

Normal male sexual differentiation is the culmination of perfectly timed, prenatal gonadal hormone release. Prenatal stress (PS) has a detrimental effect upon this process, obstructing the natural development of brain structures and sexual behavior. Prenatally-stressed male rats exhibit many physiological and neuroendocrinological differences when compared to control males. PS has a particularly harmful effect upon male sexual behavior, to which the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be intimately involved. The present experiment examined whether PS reduces nNOS, the rate limiting enzyme of NO, in the medial preoptic area (rnPOA) of male rats, and whether administration of the ...


Glial Cell Alterations In The Rat Medial Preoptic Area And Hippocampus As A Function Of Reproductive State, Gordon Wentworth Gifford Aug 1999

Glial Cell Alterations In The Rat Medial Preoptic Area And Hippocampus As A Function Of Reproductive State, Gordon Wentworth Gifford

Master's Theses

Changes in reproductive state are accompanied by fluctuating levels of female gonadal hormones at higher levels and for longer periods of time than the normal estrus cycle. These hormones have been noted, in cell culture and over the regular estrus cycle, to influence structural changes in neurons and glial cells in areas of the brain associated with the conduct of maternal behavior. The purpose of this project was to characterize changes in GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte morphology in the mPOA and hippocampus as a function of reproductive state and female steroid hormone treatment. Results of this investigation noted an increases ...


Trait Anxiety As A Moderator Of Problem Structuring Effects On Solution Generation, Judith A. Wightman Aug 1999

Trait Anxiety As A Moderator Of Problem Structuring Effects On Solution Generation, Judith A. Wightman

Student Work

This study investigated the effects of problem structuring and anxiety on the quantity and quality of solutions generated for ill-structured, complex problems. Trait anxiety, the tendency to feel anxious across a wide variety of situations, has been shown to impair problem solving performance in certain conditions. Trait anxiety was examined as a possible moderator of the relationship between problem structuring and solution generation. Participants were 184 undergraduate psychology students. Participants completed a trait anxiety measure (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Spielberger, 1983) and generated solutions to an ill-structured problem, with varying levels of structuring (no objectives, one-objective-at-a-time, conflicting objectives). The quantity and ...


Developmental Changes In Verbal And Imaginal Mnemonic Techniques For Serial Recall, Michelle L. Rupiper Aug 1999

Developmental Changes In Verbal And Imaginal Mnemonic Techniques For Serial Recall, Michelle L. Rupiper

Student Work

Children’s ability to use mnemonic techniques was investigated in first, fourth and sixth graders. Children in each age group were assigned to one of three conditions: method of loci, story mnemonic or elaborative control group. Subjects were given three recall tests. Each test was scored with and without regard to the order in which subjects recalled the words presented. Relative to the control group, both mnemonic conditions showed an advantage in memorizing lists of 20 words. However, all conditions, including the elaborative control group showed significant increases in the number of words recalled between the baseline test and recall ...


The Relationship Between Cosmopolitan-Local Orientation And Job Satisfaction Among Admissions Personnel At Christian Colleges In The United States And Canada, Jon P. Harr Aug 1999

The Relationship Between Cosmopolitan-Local Orientation And Job Satisfaction Among Admissions Personnel At Christian Colleges In The United States And Canada, Jon P. Harr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, the challenges facing college admissions professionals have increased, and turnover in the field has become an area of concern. A review of the literature indicated that surprisingly little research had been done in the area of job satisfaction for college admissions professionals and, in particular, Christian college admissions professionals. No direct application of professional (cosmopolitan-local) orientation to the admissions profession could be found in the literature. As a result, the primary purpose of this study was to examine both the level of job satisfaction and the cosmopolitan-local orientation of Christian college admissions professionals, and to determine if ...