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Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Floral Resource Availability And Butterfly Community Characteristics In Cp-42 Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Ethan Marburger, Corinne Myers, Mark Myers Oct 2019

Floral Resource Availability And Butterfly Community Characteristics In Cp-42 Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Ethan Marburger, Corinne Myers, Mark Myers

Mark C. Myers

Prairies once covered approximately 85% of Iowa, but due to extensive habitat loss less than 0.1% of native prairies remain (Smith 1998). Habitat loss in Iowa has been driven by agricultural expansion and intensification, and has resulted in the decline of many native insect pollinators. To curb habitat loss and restore habitat for pollinators, USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) provides private landowners incentives to enroll agricultural land into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Pollinator Habitat (CP-42) practice. The CP-42 conservation practice requires landowners to seed at least 9 species of pollinator friendly wildflowers, legumes, or shrubs on enrolled ...


Floral Resource Dynamics For Pollinators In A Central Iowa Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Lily Conrad, Ben Hoksch, Mark C. Myers Oct 2019

Floral Resource Dynamics For Pollinators In A Central Iowa Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Lily Conrad, Ben Hoksch, Mark C. Myers

Mark C. Myers

Recently, native and managed colonies of pollinators, including bees, butterflies, and other insects, have experienced a largescale declines. In an effort to restore habitat for pollinators, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) created the CP-42 Pollinator Habitat conservation practice under the Conservation Reserve Program. This program pays private landowners to restore habitat for pollinator species with ecological and economic importance. To qualify for the program, CP-42 seed mixes must include:

• A minimum of 9 pollinator-friendly flowering plants,

• A minimum of three species in bloom during each of three seasonal periods (April-June 15, June 15-July, AugustOctober ...


Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson Oct 2019

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


Molecular Phylogeny Implemented In An Introductory Plant Classification Course, Chao Cai, Jo Ann Banks Oct 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Implemented In An Introductory Plant Classification Course, Chao Cai, Jo Ann Banks

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Plant classification is one of the core components in undergraduate programs related to plant sciences. Traditionally plant classification courses primarily introduce morphology-based taxonomy because of practical needs in the field. However, the publication of new plant classification systems by Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) using molecular phylogeny methods leads to the trends of using molecular evidence (DNA barcode) for plant identification. In our introductory plant classification course, we included a two-week module (lectures and labs) to introduce key concepts and fundamental skills in molecular phylogeny. Week 1 included concepts of evolutionary tree thinking, data mining in NCBI using BLAST search, and ...


United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Oct 2019

United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Jason Clark

Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...


Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, Jason D. Clark, Fabian G. Fernandez, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan Oct 2019

Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, Jason D. Clark, Fabian G. Fernandez, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Jason Clark

Estimates of mineralizable N with the anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) test could improve predictions of corn (Zea mays L.) economic optimal N rate (EONR). A study across eight US midwestern states was conducted to quantify the predictability of EONR for single and split N applications by PMNan. Treatment factors included different soil sample timings (pre-plant and V5 development stage), planting N rates (0 and 180 kg N ha−1), and incubation lengths (7, 14, and 28 d) with and without initial soil NH4–N included with PMNan. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm depth) before ...


A Public–Industry Partnership For Enhancing Corn Nitrogen Research And Datasets: Project Description, Methodology, And Outcomes, Newell R. Kitchen, John F. Shanahan, Curtis J. Ransom, Christopher J. Bandura, Gregory M. Bean, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Jason D. Clark, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabian G. Fernandez, David W. Franzen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Zhisheng Qing, John E. Sawyer, Matt Shafer Oct 2019

A Public–Industry Partnership For Enhancing Corn Nitrogen Research And Datasets: Project Description, Methodology, And Outcomes, Newell R. Kitchen, John F. Shanahan, Curtis J. Ransom, Christopher J. Bandura, Gregory M. Bean, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Jason D. Clark, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabian G. Fernandez, David W. Franzen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Zhisheng Qing, John E. Sawyer, Matt Shafer

Jason Clark

Due to economic and environmental consequences of N lost from fertilizer applications in corn (Zea mays L.), considerable public and industry attention has been devoted to the development of N decision tools. Needed are research and databases and associated metadata, at numerous locations and years to represent a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios, for evaluating tool performance. The goals of this research were to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies to evaluate the performance of multiple public-domain N decision tools across diverse soils and environmental conditions, develop and publish new agronomic science for improved crop ...


Beaver And Aspen : Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers Oct 2019

Beaver And Aspen : Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers

Nicolaas Bouwes

In the West, climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought. Restoration of soils and water storage capacity can help create resilient uplands and riverscapes (i.e., streams and the valley bottoms). Over the past two centuries, common land uses, the removal of beaver and wood, straightening of streams, and damage to riparian areas have created simplified, structurally starved, riverscapes. Degraded streams are very efficient at transporting water, sediment, and nutrients downstream. Aspen forests are also biological hotspots that have been degraded by past land uses such as overbrowsing ungulates, land clearing, fire suppression, and ...


Modeling And Analysis Of American Chestnut Blight In North America, Robert F. Allen, Anita D. Baines, Hope B. Anderson, John S. Mcalister, Tatum D. Rask, Maia Richards-Dinger Oct 2019

Modeling And Analysis Of American Chestnut Blight In North America, Robert F. Allen, Anita D. Baines, Hope B. Anderson, John S. Mcalister, Tatum D. Rask, Maia Richards-Dinger

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Beyond The Binary (Part 1): Re-Envisioning The Complexity Of Life History Evolution In The Bromeliaceae With Comparative Data, Rachel Jabaily, Erin Bodine Oct 2019

Beyond The Binary (Part 1): Re-Envisioning The Complexity Of Life History Evolution In The Bromeliaceae With Comparative Data, Rachel Jabaily, Erin Bodine

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Mathematician's Perspective, Montana Ferita, Julie Fucarino, Alex Capaldi, Charlotte Beckford Oct 2019

Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Mathematician's Perspective, Montana Ferita, Julie Fucarino, Alex Capaldi, Charlotte Beckford

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Biologist's Perspective, Rob Swanson, Alex Capaldi Oct 2019

Quantifying Pollen Traits To Build A Mathematical Model Of Pollen Competition - A Biologist's Perspective, Rob Swanson, Alex Capaldi

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Demographic Model Of The Endangered Florida Native Tillandsia Utriculata, Erin N. Bodine, Zoe S. Brookover, Alexandra Campbell, Brian D. Christman, Sydney L. Davis Oct 2019

A Demographic Model Of The Endangered Florida Native Tillandsia Utriculata, Erin N. Bodine, Zoe S. Brookover, Alexandra Campbell, Brian D. Christman, Sydney L. Davis

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Sir Modeling Of American Chestnut Blight, Tatum Rask Oct 2019

Sir Modeling Of American Chestnut Blight, Tatum Rask

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Agent-Based Model Of An Endangered Florida Tillansia Utriculata Population, Erin N. Bodine, Alexandra Campbell, Anna C. Kula Oct 2019

An Agent-Based Model Of An Endangered Florida Tillansia Utriculata Population, Erin N. Bodine, Alexandra Campbell, Anna C. Kula

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Phomopsis Stem Canker Of Sunflower In North America: Correlation With Climate And Solutions Through Breeding And Management, Brent S. Hulke, Samuel G. Markell, Nolan C. Kane, Febina M. Mathew Oct 2019

Phomopsis Stem Canker Of Sunflower In North America: Correlation With Climate And Solutions Through Breeding And Management, Brent S. Hulke, Samuel G. Markell, Nolan C. Kane, Febina M. Mathew

Febina Mathew

Climate change is occurring in the central US and is interacting with agroecological factors to increase biotic stress in sunflower. Certain species of Diaporthe cause Phomopsis stem canker in sunflower and other dicotyledonous weeds and crops. The increase in precipitation already observed in the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota have increased the chances of outbreaks of necrotrophic pathogens, like Diaporthe. We discuss how climate trends, combined with technological, management, and economic interactions, are correlated with increasing incidence of Phomopsis stem canker in these and adjacent areas in North America. Further, we discuss management options and the role ...


Nitrogen Requirements Of Ethiopian Mustard For Biofuel Feedstock In South Dakota, Phillip Alberti, Shannon Osborne, Febina Mathew, Shakaut Ali, Heidi Sieverding, Sandeep Kumar, Thandiwe Nieya Oct 2019

Nitrogen Requirements Of Ethiopian Mustard For Biofuel Feedstock In South Dakota, Phillip Alberti, Shannon Osborne, Febina Mathew, Shakaut Ali, Heidi Sieverding, Sandeep Kumar, Thandiwe Nieya

Febina Mathew

Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is a non-food oilseed crop that has received attention for its potential as a low-input biofuel feedstock suitable for production in the semiarid regions of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). Because B. carinata is a new crop to the NGP, the best management practices have yet to be developed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer rate on seed yield, seed oil concentration, and oil yield of B. carinata and to determine the economic optimum N fertilizer rates. Field studies were conducted at two locations in South Dakota ...


Increasing Access To Healthy, Fresh And Local Food To Students In Three Rural Public Schools In Northeast Iowa, Kamyar Enshayan Oct 2019

Increasing Access To Healthy, Fresh And Local Food To Students In Three Rural Public Schools In Northeast Iowa, Kamyar Enshayan

Kamyar Enshayan

How can we increase capacity of food service directors to improve school lunches with local fruits and vegetables? Through regular meeting and sharing of insights among food service directors, small mini-grants, and offering technical assistance in developing supply chains that meet schools’ needs.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: A Floral Resource Index To Assess Pollinator Habitat Quality In Eastern Iowa Prairies, Gabrielle Brown, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Report of an investigation on the impact of biodiversity on the habitat for native pollinators and European honey bees.


Effects Of Seed Mix And Surrounding Land Cover On Asclepias Syriaca Density In The Conservation Reserve Program's Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Kate Sinnott, Emma Simpson, Kathleen Madsen, Laura Jackson Oct 2019

Effects Of Seed Mix And Surrounding Land Cover On Asclepias Syriaca Density In The Conservation Reserve Program's Pollinator Habitat Plantings, Kate Sinnott, Emma Simpson, Kathleen Madsen, Laura Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

We examine the density of Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) in relation to the seed mix and surrounding land cover in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Pollinator Habitat Initiative (CP-42) plantings. Long thought of as an agricultural “weed”, A. syriaca readily establishes itself in roadsides and disturbed landscapes. However, specifications for establishing A. syriaca in restorations are not well known. We want to know if seeding A. syriaca is necessary for its establishment, or if milkweed populations in the surrounding landscape could spread into the plantings. By understanding the density of A. syriaca in CP-42 plantings, we can adapt policy and management ...


Where Earth And Life Sciences Intersect: Investigations Of The Water-Root-Soil Interface, Laura L. Jackson, Laura Walter Oct 2019

Where Earth And Life Sciences Intersect: Investigations Of The Water-Root-Soil Interface, Laura L. Jackson, Laura Walter

Laura L. Jackson

The transition from deep-rooted perennial prairies to annual row crops has profoundly changed our environment. Roots and soils are interdependent: roots extract water and nutrients from the soil while at the same time influencing the hydrology, structure, composition, and biological community of the soil. Through your active participation, we will introduce a set of inquiry-based lessons developed by a collaboration of ecologists, teachers, and naturalists to engage K-12 students in learning about earth and life sciences in the root zone.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Factors Affecting Cirsium Arvense Density In Eastern Iowa Conservation Reserve Program Fields, Esther Edgerton, Laura Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation into the Canada thistle density in prairie restorations.


Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson Oct 2019

Tallgrass Prairie Center: Effects Of Planting Time And Grass-Forb Seeding Ration On Establishment In Crp Pollinator Habitat, Kylie Jonas, Laura L. Jackson

Laura L. Jackson

Results of an investigation on the creation of habitat for insect pollinators in eastern Iowa.


Forage News [2019-10], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Oct 2019

Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link Oct 2019

Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Rust fungi are devastating pathogens for several important crop plants. The biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi requires that they influence their host plants to create a favorable environment for growth and reproduction. Rust fungi secrete a variety of effector proteins that manipulate host target proteins to alter plant metabolism and suppress defense responses. Because of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi, direct evidence for effector function is difficult to obtain, and so suites of experiments utilizing expression in heterologous systems are necessary. Here, we present results from a yeast cell death suppression assay and assays for suppression of PAMP-triggered ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich Sep 2019

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

James W. Raich

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich Sep 2019

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

Ann E. Russell

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Application Of A Formulated Humic Product Can Increase Soybean Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, Daniel C. Olk, Dana L. Dinnes Sep 2019

Application Of A Formulated Humic Product Can Increase Soybean Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, Daniel C. Olk, Dana L. Dinnes

Andrew W. Lenssen

Application of humic products to crops remains controversial. We conducted a field study in Iowa over four environments from 2012 to 2014 examining productivity of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] receiving foliar application of a humic product at one of four application times based on plant development. Humic product application never influenced soybean height at harvest. Soybean yield increased following application of the humic product in two of four environments, but application timing was not completely consistent between these two environments. In one 2012 environment, humic product application at V2, V6, and R2 resulted in greater yield than the untreated ...