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Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel

Biotechnology Theses

The goal of this thesis project is to isolate and characterize exosomes that express anti-human CD7 (α-hCD7) single chain variable fragment (scFv), which will be further utilized for T celltargeted gene editing. To reach this goal, exosomes from HEK 293 cells and Jurkat cells were isolated and characterized with different methodologies. To obtain α-hCD7 scFv-expressing exosomes, the HEK 293 cells were subjected to transfection of custom-plasmid pDisplay-αhCD7 scFv, and the expression of α-hCD7 scFv on the HEK 293-derived exosomes were then confirmed by immunogold staining, western blotting, and flow cytometry. To transfect 293 cells, calcium phosphate transfection was utilized, and ...


The Use Of Spectral Imaging To Reveal Inorganics And Organics Identity In The Biological Samples, Qamar Alshammari 2022 Chapman University

The Use Of Spectral Imaging To Reveal Inorganics And Organics Identity In The Biological Samples, Qamar Alshammari

Pharmaceutical Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

The wavelength is used to identify the exact location and quantify the number of molecules in the spectral imaging system. It aids in identifying materials and studying their quantities by examining how they interact with light. A traditional spectrometer provides spectrum information of chemical compounds, while standard imaging provides the intensity at each pixel of the image. Spectral imaging (SI) combines these two aspects by equipping intensity and spectral data for each pixel. In biomedical research, it is important to assess the inorganics/organics molecules to understand drug activity, cellular toxicity, and distribution. Using the microscopy technique, we found for ...


Oleyl Conjugated Histidine-Arginine Cell-Penetrating Peptides As Promising Agents For Sirna Delivery, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Dindyal Mandal, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Sandeep Lohan, Jonathan Moreno, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari 2022 Chapman University

Oleyl Conjugated Histidine-Arginine Cell-Penetrating Peptides As Promising Agents For Sirna Delivery, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Dindyal Mandal, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Sandeep Lohan, Jonathan Moreno, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Recent approvals of siRNA-based products motivated the scientific community to explore siRNA as a treatment option for several intractable ailments, especially cancer. The success of approved siRNA therapy requires a suitable and safer drug delivery agent. Herein, we report a series of oleyl conjugated histidine–arginine peptides as a promising nonviral siRNA delivery tool. The conjugated peptides were found to bind with the siRNA at N/P ratio ≥ 2 and demonstrated complete protection for the siRNA from early enzymatic degradation at N/P ratio ≥ 20. Oleyl-conjugated peptide -siRNA complexes were found to be noncytotoxic in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and ...


Structural And Computational Studies Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Binding Mechanisms With Nanobodies: From Structure And Dynamics To Avidity-Driven Nanobody Engineering, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Structural And Computational Studies Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Binding Mechanisms With Nanobodies: From Structure And Dynamics To Avidity-Driven Nanobody Engineering, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Nanobodies provide important advantages over traditional antibodies, including their smaller size and robust biochemical properties such as high thermal stability, high solubility, and the ability to be bioengineered into novel multivalent, multi-specific, and high-affinity molecules, making them a class of emerging powerful therapies against SARS-CoV-2. Recent research efforts on the design, protein engineering, and structure-functional characterization of nanobodies and their binding with SARS-CoV-2 S proteins reflected a growing realization that nanobody combinations can exploit distinct binding epitopes and leverage the intrinsic plasticity of the conformational landscape for the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to produce efficient neutralizing and mutation resistant characteristics. Structural ...


Succinylated Polyethylenimine Gene Delivery Agents For Enhanced Transfection Efficacy, Md. Nasir Uddin 2022 University of Kentucky

Succinylated Polyethylenimine Gene Delivery Agents For Enhanced Transfection Efficacy, Md. Nasir Uddin

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Gene therapy aims to treat patients by altering or controlling gene expression. Today, most clinical approaches are viral-based due to their inherent gene delivery activity. However, there is still a significant interest in nonviral alternatives for gene delivery, particularly synthetic lipids and polymers, that do not suffer the immunogenicity, high cost, or mutagenesis concerns of viral vectors. Polymeric vectors are of particular interest due to the ability to further tune the polymer properties through the incorporation of additional functional units such as targeting ligands or shielding domains. Polyethylenimine (PEI), a highly cationic polymer, is often considered a benchmark for polymer-based ...


Characterization Of Nanoparticles Using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Jabez D. Campbell 2022 Missouri State University

Characterization Of Nanoparticles Using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Jabez D. Campbell

MSU Graduate Theses

Nanomaterials are a relatively new class of materials that have many applications which span a wide host of fields from medical products to consumer products. The possible compositions and forms of nanomaterials are just as varied as the applications. Therefore, a versatile characterization method is needed for researchers and regulators alike to ensure nanomaterials are properly used. Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) is a functional method that could fill the characterization need in the nanomaterial research field. Using data from both SP-ICP-MS tests and data from literature established characterization methods, the viability of making SP-ICP-MS the standard ...


A Highly Conductive, Flexible, And 3d-Printable Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Ink For Additive Bio-Manufacturing, Andy Shar, Phillip Glass, Daeha Joung Ph.D. 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Highly Conductive, Flexible, And 3d-Printable Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Ink For Additive Bio-Manufacturing, Andy Shar, Phillip Glass, Daeha Joung Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Posters

The synthesis of a highly conductive, flexible, 3D-printable, and biocompatible ink has been of great interest in the field of bio-based additive manufacturing. Various applications include ultra-sensitive, microscale tactile sensors, patient-customizable scaffolds for cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration, and flexible electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes. Here, a novel elastomeric carbon nanocomposite is presented consisting of amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-NH2) homogenously dispersed in a one-part room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone matrix. The use of acetone as a swelling solvent aids in electrical percolation through the elastomer matrix. CNT-NH2 ratios can be tuned to fit various needs; higher tensile strength is favored at ...


Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe

Undergraduate Research Posters

The scope of this project was to design, synthesize and test targeted nanoparticles containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs that promote browning in adipose tissue. For hydrophilic drugs the use of liposomes and their hydrophilic core is more useful than the PLGA nanoparticles which have hydrophobic cores. The inhibition of the FOXO1 pathway and modulation of autophagy in adipose tissue can promote browning of white adipose tissue, or an energy burning state where excess energy is burned as heat instead of stored in the cell. If successful, these drugs would offer an alternative treatment for obesity where changes to the patient ...


Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm 2022 CUNY City College

Biomedical Applications Of Lanthanide Nanomaterials, For Imaging, Sensing And Therapy, Qize Zhang, Stephen O'Brien, Jan Grimm

Publications and Research

The application of nanomaterials made of rare earth elements within biomedical sciences continues to make significant progress. The rare earth elements, also called the lanthanides, play an essential role in modern life through materials and electronics. As we learn more about their utility, function, and underlying physics, we can contemplate extending their applications to biomedicine. This particularly applies to diagnosis and radiation therapy due to their relatively unique features, such as an ultra-wide Stokes shift in the luminescence, variable magnetism and potentially tunable properties, due to the library of lanthanides available and their multivalent oxidation state chemistry. The ability to ...


Qbd Based Design And Characterization Of Proniosomal Transdermal Delivery Of Atenolol And Glibenclamide Combination: An Innovative Approach, P Anitha, S. Ramkanth, S. V. Satyanarayana 2021 Department of Pharmaceutics, JNTUA, Anantapuramu, AP, India

Qbd Based Design And Characterization Of Proniosomal Transdermal Delivery Of Atenolol And Glibenclamide Combination: An Innovative Approach, P Anitha, S. Ramkanth, S. V. Satyanarayana

Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University

There are numerous circumstances where chronic disease is associated with other disorders, especially in diseases like diabetes with noncommunicable disease risk factors, such as hypertension. This study shows a novel and innovative combinational proniosomal delivery of combination to beat the reactions by complex therapeutic regimen, and to improve patient compliance after controlling combinational transdermal delivery of Glibenclamide (GLB) and Atenolol (ATN) which have not been tried actually. To achieve the above reason, proniosomes were prepared and optimized utilizing Box-Behnken design. The ideal formulation was chosen by a point prediction method and formulation showed vesicle size of 562 ± 1.223 nm ...


Synergistic Anticancer Response Of Curcumin And Piperine Loaded Lignin-G-P (Nipam-Co-Dmaema) Gold Nanogels Against Glioblastoma Multiforme, Xinyi Zhao, Bilal Javad, Daxing Cui, James Curtin, Furong Tian 2021 Technological University Dublin

Synergistic Anticancer Response Of Curcumin And Piperine Loaded Lignin-G-P (Nipam-Co-Dmaema) Gold Nanogels Against Glioblastoma Multiforme, Xinyi Zhao, Bilal Javad, Daxing Cui, James Curtin, Furong Tian

Articles

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and commonly diag- 11 nosed brain cancer and presents a strong resistance to routine chemotherapeutic drugs. 12 The present study involves the synthesis of Lignin-g- p (NIPAM-co-DMAEMA) gold 13 nanogel, loaded with curcumin and piperine to treat GBM. The application has three 14 functions: (1) overcome the limitations of biodistribution, (2) enhance the toxicity of an- 15 ticancer drugs against GBM, (3) identify the uptake pathway. Atom transfer radical 16 polymerization was used to synthesize the Lignin-g-PNIPAM network, crosslinked with 17 the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to self-assemble into nanogels. The size distribution and ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Self-Assemblies In Nature And Nanotechnology, Phu Khanh Tang 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Self-Assemblies In Nature And Nanotechnology, Phu Khanh Tang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Nature usually divides complex systems into smaller building blocks specializing in a few tasks since one entity cannot achieve everything. Therefore, self-assembly is a robust tool exploited by Nature to build hierarchical systems that accomplish unique functions. The cell membrane distinguishes itself as an example of Nature’s self-assembly, defining and protecting the cell. By mimicking Nature’s designs using synthetically designed self-assemblies, researchers with advanced nanotechnological comprehension can manipulate these synthetic self-assemblies to improve many aspects of modern medicine and materials science. Understanding the competing underlying molecular interactions in self-assembly is always of interest to the academic scientific community ...


Enhanced Platinum (Ii) Drug Delivery For Anti-Cancer Therapy, Marek T. Wlodarczyk 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Enhanced Platinum (Ii) Drug Delivery For Anti-Cancer Therapy, Marek T. Wlodarczyk

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the years, anti-cancer therapies have improved the overall survival rate of patients. Nevertheless, the traditional free drug therapies still suffer from side effects and systemic toxicity, resulting in low drug dosages in the clinic. This often leads to suboptimal drug concentrations reaching cancer cells, contributing to treatment failure and drug resistance. Among available anti-cancer therapies, metallodrugs are of great interest. Platinum (II)-based agents are highly potent and are used to treat many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II)) is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved metallodrug for treatment of solid tumors, and its ...


Therapeautic Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Angel E. Vasquez 2021 Kennesaw State University

Therapeautic Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles, Angel E. Vasquez

Symposium of Student Scholars

The overall goal of the research project is to create a glass that produces cerium oxide nanoparticles and as an efficient delivery mechanism. Cerium is able to exist as Ce3+ and Ce4+ because it has two partially filled subshells. This coexistence allows cerium oxide to have antioxidant properties that reduce the number of free radicals in that body that are associated with cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In our laboratory, using a soluble borate glass, cerium oxide nanoparticles are created to coexist in Ce3+ and Ce4+ valences This borate glass composition is doped with different amounts of Cerium(IV) Oxide ...


Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal

Dissertations

Glycoalkaloids (GAs) are secondary metabolites found mostly in higher plant species and some marine invertebrates. They are known to form complexes with 3β-hydroxy sterols such as cholesterol causing membrane disruption. So far the visual evidence showcasing the complexes formed between glycoalkaloids and sterols has been mainly restricted to some earlier studies using Brewster angle microscopy. This study aimed to develop a method for topographic and morphological analysis of sterol-glycoalkaloid complexes. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer of monolayers comprising of glycoalkaloid tomatine, sterols, and lipids in varying molar ratios onto mica followed by AFM examination was performed. The AFM method used required minimal ...


Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah 2021 Seton Hall University

Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in the applications of RNA in chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and biotechnology. At the forefront of its utility is the ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs into nanostructure formulations capable of targeting selected oncogenes and potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. Self-assembled siRNA integrates multiple siRNAs within a single molecular platform for silencing multiple oncogenic mRNA targets with high precision and efficacy to potentially induce cancer cell apoptosis through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Furthermore, the conjugation of siRNA self-assemblies with bio-active probes results in multi-functional theranostic (therapy ...


Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender 2021 University of Connecticut

Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender

University Scholar Projects

One of the most common causes of bone graft rejection is lack of a vascular network connecting the graft to the existing native tissue – allowing for nutrient flow. Under current grafting techniques, the existing blood vessel network in the patient slowly invades the implant in order to supply the injured site with its necessary nutrients. The purpose of this research is to determine if a synthetic bone graft with a stable microvascular network can be developed in vitro. I hypothesize that the use of indirect angiogenic factors such as sonic hedgehog homolog and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in combination with the direct ...


The Role Of Spider Silk In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Langston Forbes-Jackson 2021 William & Mary

The Role Of Spider Silk In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Langston Forbes-Jackson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Spider silk neural guidance channels (NGCs) are highly important innovations in the field of regenerative medicine. This paper will discuss the evidence in the literature that supports their function in regenerative medicine and provide a template for future experiments in the field. While many studies within the past 15 years have demonstrated the validity of spider silk as a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration, the molecular mechanics that facilitate regeneration are poorly understood. An emphasis on using silk from orb weaving spiders in particular may have caused researchers to overlook other spiders whose silk could prove to have vastly different ...


Development Of Biomaterials For Drug Delivery, Raquel De Castro 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of Biomaterials For Drug Delivery, Raquel De Castro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drug delivery systems (DDS) have highly evolved in the last decades with the development of hydrogels and nanoparticles. However, high systemic uptake, side effects, low bioavailability, and encapsulation efficiency continue to be a major hurdle faced by such DDSs.

Nanoparticles and hydrogels can be specifically designed for targeted DDSs to mitigate some of the problems. This dissertation aimed to design two DDSs for ocular drug delivery and one for cancer treatment. The first project sought to develop chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NP) using PEGDA as a copolymer to encapsulate gentamicin (GtS) for ocular drug delivery. Cs-NPs contain positive charges that can interact ...


Human Ace2‑Functionalized Gold “Virus‑Trap” Nanostructures For Accurate Capture Of Sars‑Cov‑2 And Single‑Virus Sers Detection, Yong Yang, Yusi Peng, Chenglong Lin, Li Long, Jingying Hu, Jun He, Hui Zeng, Zhengren Huang, Zhi-Yuan Li, Masaki Tanemura, Jianlin Shi, John R. Lombardi, Xiaoying Luo 2021 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Human Ace2‑Functionalized Gold “Virus‑Trap” Nanostructures For Accurate Capture Of Sars‑Cov‑2 And Single‑Virus Sers Detection, Yong Yang, Yusi Peng, Chenglong Lin, Li Long, Jingying Hu, Jun He, Hui Zeng, Zhengren Huang, Zhi-Yuan Li, Masaki Tanemura, Jianlin Shi, John R. Lombardi, Xiaoying Luo

Publications and Research

The current COVID-19 pandemic urges the extremely sensitive and prompt detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we present a Human Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2)-functionalized gold “virus traps” nanostructure as an extremely sensitive SERS biosensor, to selectively capture and rapidly detect S-protein expressed coronavirus, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 in the contaminated water, down to the single-virus level. Such a SERS sensor features extraordinary 106- fold virus enrichment originating from high-affinity of ACE2 with S protein as well as “virus-traps” composed of oblique gold nanoneedles, and 109- fold enhancement of Raman signals originating from multicomponent SERS effects. Furthermore, the identification standard of ...


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