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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences
Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron
Purpose Research has indicated a significant relationship between anxiety and time perspective (TP), which is the way one views life in terms of the past, present or future. TP is broken down into five facets based on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), including past negative (PN), past positive (PP), present fatalistic (PF), present hedonistic (PH), and future (F) time perspectives (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Time perspective is thought to be impacted by one’s culture, although there is a lack of representation in studies on TP cross-culturally, which makes it difficult to generalize. In order to add to the research on time perspective’s relationship to anxiety and to fill the gap on the role of culture in this phenomenon, the variable of individualism was included in this present study.
Procedure A total of 525 participants were obtained from 22 countries including the United States, India, Brazil, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Upon confirmation of informed consent, we distributed a survey to participants measuring each individual on time perspective, using the ZTPI; individualism, using the Individualism and Collectivism scale (Singelis et al., 1995); and anxiety, using a subcategory of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Goldberg et al., 2006).
Results We found that individualism showed a positive relationship with F and ...