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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2011

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Political Economy

Institution
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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: The Value Of Political Connections In Social Networks, Quoc-Anh Do, Bang Dang Nguyen, Yen Teik Lee, Kieu-Trang Nguyen Dec 2011

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: The Value Of Political Connections In Social Networks, Quoc-Anh Do, Bang Dang Nguyen, Yen Teik Lee, Kieu-Trang Nguyen

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper investigates the impact of social-network connections to politicians on firm value. We focus on the networks of university classmates and alumni among directors of U.S. public firms and congressmen. Using the Regression Discontinuity Design based on close elections from 2000 to 2008, we identify that a director’s connection to an elected congressman causes a Weighted Average Treatment Effect on Cumulative Abnormal Returns of -2.65% surrounding the election date. The effect is robust and consistent through various specifications, parametric and nonparametric, with different outcome measures and social network definitions, and across many subsamples. We find evidence ...


One Mandarin Benefits The Whole Clan: Hometown Infrastructure And Nepotism In An Autocracy, Kieu-Trang Nguyen, Quoc-Anh Do, Anh Tran Dec 2011

One Mandarin Benefits The Whole Clan: Hometown Infrastructure And Nepotism In An Autocracy, Kieu-Trang Nguyen, Quoc-Anh Do, Anh Tran

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies nepotism by government officials in an authoritarian regime. We collect a unique dataset of political promotions of officials in Vietnam and estimate their impact on public infrastructure in their hometowns. We find strong positive effects on several outcomes, some with lags, including roads to villages, marketplaces, clean water access, preschools, irrigation, and local radio broadcasters, as well as the hometown’s propensity to benefit from the State’s “poor commune support program”. Nepotism is not limited to only top-level officials, pervasive even among those without direct authority over hometown budgets, stronger when the hometown chairperson’s and ...


Globalization And Commitment In Corporate Social Responsibility: Cross-National Analyses Of Institutional And Political-Economy Effect, Alwyn Lim, Kiyoteru Tsutsui Dec 2011

Globalization And Commitment In Corporate Social Responsibility: Cross-National Analyses Of Institutional And Political-Economy Effect, Alwyn Lim, Kiyoteru Tsutsui

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This article examines why global corporate social responsibility (CSR) frameworks havegained popularity in the past decade, despite their uncertain costs and benefits, and how theyaffect adherents’ behavior. We focus on the two largest global frameworks—the United NationsGlobal Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative—to examine patterns of CSR adoption bygovernments and corporations. Drawing on institutional and political-economy theories, wedevelop a new analytic framework that focuses on four key environmental factors—globalinstitutional pressure, local receptivity, foreign economic penetration, and national economicsystem. We propose two arguments about the relationship between stated commitment andsubsequent action: decoupling due to lack of capacity and ...


The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer Nov 2011

The Enduring Power Of Coase, Elizabeth Hoffman, Matthew L. Spitzer

Economics Publications

By many measures, Ronald Coase has been among the most influential economists of the past 60 years. Why is this so? We suggest that Coase’s work has enduring appeal to and insight for social scientists in part because it addresses the biggest and most important social problems: How do we solve governance and coordination problems when limited information, common resource issues, and public good issues produce conflicts among several people at once? Any scholar who works on issues of corporate or common-pool governance, pollution, allocation of seats on legislative committees, regulation of systemic risk in financial markets, provision of ...


European Welfare Regimes: Political Orientations Versus Poverty, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall Professor, Novica Supic, Olgica Ivancev Oct 2011

European Welfare Regimes: Political Orientations Versus Poverty, Kosta Josifidis, John B. Hall Professor, Novica Supic, Olgica Ivancev

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register ...


Geopolitics: A Guide To The Issues, Bert Chapman Jun 2011

Geopolitics: A Guide To The Issues, Bert Chapman

Libraries Research Publications

Provides overview of how geography influences international relations and international politics including climate change, energy security, international economics, and international security. Introduces key figures in geopolitics development as a discipline such as Alfred Thayer Mahan and Halford Mackinder, covers the geopolitical interests of individuals countries, describes disciplinary divisions within geopolitics, details international geopolitical crisis areas and provides maps of some of these areas, emphasizes geopolitics information resources, and stresses the critical importance of geography in studying international politics and security.


Building A World-Class System In Ireland’S Financial Crisis, Ellen Hazelkorn Jun 2011

Building A World-Class System In Ireland’S Financial Crisis, Ellen Hazelkorn

Articles

Irish higher education faces particular difficulties given the severity of its economic crisis. Like other countries, it is engaged in significant system restructuring coupled with managed policy direction. Where Ireland does differ is in its emphasis on a 'whole of country strategy' and commitment that teaching and research go hand-in-hand. This paper looks at the fortunes and mis-fortunes of Irish higher education.


The Free-Trade Doctrine And Commercial Diplomacy Of Condy Raguet, Stephen Meardon May 2011

The Free-Trade Doctrine And Commercial Diplomacy Of Condy Raguet, Stephen Meardon

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Condy Raguet (1784-1842) was the first Chargé d’Affaires from the United States to Brazil and a conspicuous author of political economy from the 1820s to the early 1840s. He contributed to the era’s free-trade doctrine as editor of influential periodicals, most notably The Banner of the Constitution. Before leading the free-trade cause, however, he was poised to negotiate a reciprocity treaty between the United States and Brazil, acting under the authority of Secretary of State and protectionist apostle Henry Clay. Raguet’s career and ideas provide a window into the uncertain relationship of reciprocity to the cause of ...


The Unintended Political Consequences Of Higher Education In The Prc, Allison Carroll Goldman May 2011

The Unintended Political Consequences Of Higher Education In The Prc, Allison Carroll Goldman

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the past 10 years, China has grown its higher education sector into the largest in the world. At the same time, growing international integration of Chinese institutions means increasing cross-fertilization of ideas across national borders. While the literature on these developments has focused largely on their economic implications, this study asks what they mean politically. In light of current questions regarding political debate and reform in the Chinese Communist Party, this paper suggests new higher education policies may have important unintended consequences for the future of Chinese political development. As Chinese political leaders continue to reform and adapt policies ...


When The Government Is The Controlling Shareholder, Marcel Kahan, Edward B. Rock May 2011

When The Government Is The Controlling Shareholder, Marcel Kahan, Edward B. Rock

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As a result of the 2008 bailouts, the United States Government is now the controlling shareholder in AIG, Citigroup, GM, GMAC, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Corporate law provides a complex and comprehensive set of standards of conduct to protect non-controlling shareholders from controlling shareholders who have goals other than maximizing firm value. In this article, we analyze the extent to which these existing corporate law structures of accountability apply when the government is the controlling shareholder, and the extent to which federal “public law” structures substitute for displaced state “private law” norms. We show that the Delaware restrictions on ...


Drugs And Revolution: The Effect Of Narcotics Revenue On Rebel Group Goals, Gideon Spitzer Apr 2011

Drugs And Revolution: The Effect Of Narcotics Revenue On Rebel Group Goals, Gideon Spitzer

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis seeks to answer the broad question: how does drug funding affect rebel group goals? More specifically, it explores why rebel groups reliant upon substantial narcotics-related revenue tend to be non-separatist in nature. The thesis tests three cases against five hypotheses in order gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that produce non-separatist goals among drug-funded rebel groups. This includes an examination the development of narcotics-fueled war economies, the role of state weakness in civil war, the reasons for non-separatist conflict perpetuation, as well as the discipline problems that arise as a result of a rebel group’s involvement ...


The People Want The Fall Of The Regime: Schooling, Political Protest, And The Economy, Filipe R. Campante, Davin Chor Mar 2011

The People Want The Fall Of The Regime: Schooling, Political Protest, And The Economy, Filipe R. Campante, Davin Chor

Research Collection School Of Economics

We provide evidence that economic circumstances are a key intermediating variable for understanding the relationship between schooling and political protest. Using the World Values Survey, we find that individuals with higher levels of schooling, but whose income outcomes fall short of that predicted by their biographical characteristics, in turn display a greater propensity to engage in protest activities. We discuss a number of interpretations that are consistent with this finding, including the idea that economic conditions can affect how individuals trade off the use of their human capital between production and political activities. Our results could also reflect a link ...


2011 American Incentive System Almanac, Don P. Diffine Ph.D. Jan 2011

2011 American Incentive System Almanac, Don P. Diffine Ph.D.

Belden Center Monographs

No abstract provided.


Africa's Economic Resurgence: Is It Possible?, Alka Jauhari Jan 2011

Africa's Economic Resurgence: Is It Possible?, Alka Jauhari

Government Faculty Publications

Economic theory suggests that inequality between nations is caused by a failure to strike an optimal balance between capital, goods, and labor within a framework of appropriate rules and regulations. This leads to misallocation of a nation's resources - both capital and physical - resulting in distorted use and flow of capital and goods. Politics, regulation and policy-making lie at the heart of such "distortions" which come at a huge cost to societies. Due to these distorted flows, Africa was left behind in the race for economic development, as compared to the other regions of the world. Such distortions have been ...


Real-Time Forecasting, Dean D. Croushore Jan 2011

Real-Time Forecasting, Dean D. Croushore

Economics Faculty Publications

This chapter will discuss real-time forecasting in a macroeconomic policy context. I will begin by talking about the Survey of Professional Forecasters (SPF), a survey of private-sector forecasters. Next, I will discuss research on real-time data analysis and its importance in forecasting. Finally, I will discuss real-time forecasting in the 1990s.


Efficiency Of The Welfare State: A Comparative Approach Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Jekabs Bikis Jan 2011

Efficiency Of The Welfare State: A Comparative Approach Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Jekabs Bikis

Faculty Publications - College of Business

As governments continue to evolve over the past century or so in their perceived role of providing economic security for their populations, a ubiquitous yet ill-defined concept of the welfare state is increasingly taking center stage in political and economic debates. With fiscal crises looming over the horizon in many parts of the world, the fingers of blame point with greater frequency to the welfare state as the entity which is contributing more to fiscal problems than to economic solutions. Reformation of the welfare state is rapidly becoming more likely and more urgent and this study proposes one mechanism for ...


Radio Spectrum And The Disruptive Clarity Of Ronald Coase, Thomas W. Hazlett, David P. Porter, Vernon L. Smith Jan 2011

Radio Spectrum And The Disruptive Clarity Of Ronald Coase, Thomas W. Hazlett, David P. Porter, Vernon L. Smith

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

In the Federal Communications Commission, Ronald Coase exposed deep foundations via normative argument buttressed by astute historical observation. The government controlled scarce frequencies, issuing sharply limited use rights. Spillovers were said to be otherwise endemic. Coase saw that Government limited conflicts by restricting uses; property owners perform an analogous function via the “price system.” The government solution was inefficient unless the net benefits of the alternative property regime were lower. Coase augured that the price system would outperform. His spectrum auction proposal was mocked by communications policy experts, opposed by industry interests, and ridiculed by policy makers. Hence, it took ...


Exchange Rate Impacts On The Composition Of Agricultural Trade, Frank Fuller, Dermot J. Hayes Jan 2011

Exchange Rate Impacts On The Composition Of Agricultural Trade, Frank Fuller, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Publications

This paper analyzes the impact of real exchange rate movements on the composition of trade in value-added and intermediate goods. It is shown that following a depreciation of the exporting country’s currency, the cost of importing value-added products declines relative to the cost of adding value to imported intermediate inputs. In equilibrium the composition of the resulting trade vector depends upon the relative magnitudes of price changes and import demand elasticities. Via simulation, the theoretical results are applied to U.S. trade in meat and feed grains. The papers conclusions have relevance for the development of integrated exchange rate ...


Economic Incentives To Improve Water Quality In Agricultural Landscapes: Some New Variations On Old Ideas, Catherine L. Kling Jan 2011

Economic Incentives To Improve Water Quality In Agricultural Landscapes: Some New Variations On Old Ideas, Catherine L. Kling

Economics Publications

Agricultural nutrients and other emissions remain a primary source of water quality degradation in much of the nation. Many such sources are classified as “nonpoint” sources under the Clean Water Act and are therefore exempt from most federal regulations and enforceable standards. In addition, many agricultural nonpoint source emissions are difficult to measure and the damages that result from them depend on the amount that is transported to the waterways. Nutrient runoff (particularly nitrogen and phosphorous) from intensive row crop agriculture in much of the cornbelt exemplifies these issues. Both the lack of enforceable standards and the physical characteristics of ...


Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison

Articles

The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between these forms of intellectual property law and the roles of knowledge in society. Over time, explicit attention to that relationship has largely disappeared from ...


Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison

Articles

This Article addresses conservation, preservation, and stewardship of knowledge, and laws and institutions in the cultural environment that support those things. Legal and policy questions concerning creativity and innovation usually focus on producing new knowledge and offering access to it. Equivalent attention rarely is paid to questions of old knowledge. To what extent should the law, and particularly intellectual property law, focus on the durability of information and knowledge? To what extent does the law do so already, and to what effect? This article begins to explore those questions. Along the way, the article takes up distinctions among different types ...


Moral Rights And Supernatural Fiction: Authorial Dignity And The New Moral Rights Agendas, Jacqueline D. Lipton Jan 2011

Moral Rights And Supernatural Fiction: Authorial Dignity And The New Moral Rights Agendas, Jacqueline D. Lipton

Articles

In recent years, several scholars have revisited the question of moral rights protections for creators of copyright works in the United States. Their scholarship has focused on defining a moral rights agenda that comports with American constitutional values, as well as being practically suited to current copyright business practices. Much of this scholarship has prioritized a right of attribution over other moral rights, such as the right of integrity. This Article evaluates some of these recent moral rights models in light of a sample of comments made by American supernatural fiction authors about their works. The Author questions whether the ...


Notes In Defense Of The Iraq Constitution, Haider Ala Hamoudi Jan 2011

Notes In Defense Of The Iraq Constitution, Haider Ala Hamoudi

Articles

This paper is a defense of sorts of the Iraqi constitution, arguing that the language used in it was wisely designed to allow some level of flexibility, such that highly divided political forces could find incremental solutions to the deep rooted sources of division that have plagued Iraqi society since its inception. That Iraq has found itself in such dreadful political circumstances since constitutional ratification is therefore not a function of the open ended constitutional bargain, but rather of the failure of Iraqi legal and political elites to make use of the space that the constitution provided them to develop ...


The Rome I Regulation Rules On Party Autonomy For Choice Of Law: A U.S. Perspective, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2011

The Rome I Regulation Rules On Party Autonomy For Choice Of Law: A U.S. Perspective, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

This chapter was presented at a conference in Dublin on the (then) new Rome I Regulation of the European Union in the fall of 2009. It contrasts the Rome I rules on party autonomy with those in the United States. In particular, it considers the rules in the Rome I Regulation that ostensibly protect consumers by discouraging party agreement on a pre-dispute basis to the law governing a consumer contract. These rules are compared with the absence of private international law restrictions on choice of forum and choice of law in the United States, even in consumer contracts. The result ...