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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ground Water Flow And Water Resources Investigation Of The Auburn, Summers And Shakertown Springs Karst Ground Water Basins, Logan And Simpson Counties, Kentucky, William Howcroft Dec 1992

Ground Water Flow And Water Resources Investigation Of The Auburn, Summers And Shakertown Springs Karst Ground Water Basins, Logan And Simpson Counties, Kentucky, William Howcroft

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The City of Auburn is faced with a number of problems relating to its dependency on two karst springs, Auburn and Summers Springs, to meet its water requirements. Besides being extremely vulnerable to contamination, the springs often discharge and insufficient volume of water needed for public consumption and dilution of the City’s treated wastewater. Thus the City wishes to find an additional source of water and views nearby Shakertown Spring as a possibility. The study has three main objectives: 1) delineation of the Auburn, Summers, and Shakertown Springs ground water basins, 2) determination of the volume of available water ...


Southern Nevada Effluent Wetlands: A Proposed Cooperative Venture Between The Bureau Of Reclamation & City Of Las Vegas, Bureau Of Reclamation Nov 1992

Southern Nevada Effluent Wetlands: A Proposed Cooperative Venture Between The Bureau Of Reclamation & City Of Las Vegas, Bureau Of Reclamation

Publications (WR)

Throughout North America there is a growing interest in constructed wetlands, both as relatively inexpensive, low-maintenance systems for removing nutrients from wastewater, and as a means of using municipal wastewater to enhance wildlife habitat and create public use opportunities. Because wetlands appear to have good potential as a component in the overall management of scarce water resources, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) has undertaken several cooperative research and demonstration projects to evaluate their effectiveness in a variety of local environments.

While a number of projects have demonstrated that wetlands can be beneficially employed to improve water quality, few such projects ...


Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan, Gerald King, Darryl Little, Tim Jessup, Charles Armstrong Oct 1992

Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan, Gerald King, Darryl Little, Tim Jessup, Charles Armstrong

Technical Reports

The Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan (SMP) is based on the Draft State Pesticide Ground- Water Management Plan Guidance and The Pesticides and Ground-Water Protection Strategy prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The need for a plan to protect ground water from contamination by agricultural chemicals and agents arises from evidence nationwide that using these chemicals can, in some instances, lead to contamination. In February 1988, EPA proposed a strategy to regulate certain pesticides by prohibiting their use in areas vulnerable to leaching unless a state develops and implements an acceptable management plan. The advantage of ...


Relationship Between Ground And Surface Water Quality In Karst Systems, Richard L. Meyer Sep 1992

Relationship Between Ground And Surface Water Quality In Karst Systems, Richard L. Meyer

Technical Reports

Springs in Northwest Arkansas may originate from relatively small fractures in rock strata or from cave systems. The water emerging from these springs is frequently used as water sources for plants, animals and humans. The quality of the ground water source and the emerging water are uncertain and frequently unknown. In addition, the opportunity to monitor changes in water quality during flow from origin (water entering the cave) to emergence is uncommon. Cave systems with definable drainage basins and accessible sampling points near the midpoint of the cave are also uncommon. Examining the interface between the quality of surface water ...


Dissolved Oxygen Measurements In The Machipongo River System Near Willis Wharf, Virginia, Bruce Neilson, Cheol Mo, Rodney Jackson Sep 1992

Dissolved Oxygen Measurements In The Machipongo River System Near Willis Wharf, Virginia, Bruce Neilson, Cheol Mo, Rodney Jackson

Reports

Most aquatic organisms require· oxygen to survive and consequently, the dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the water is one of the most important measures of water quality. Sources of oxygen are the atmosphere and photosynthesis. Oxygen is consumed by plants and animals during respiration and by microorganisms that decompose organic matter. The more sources and sinks of oxygen, the more difficult it is to understand and predict the oxygen dynamics of a river system. Grossly polluted systems turn out to be quite simple, because the pollutant source dominates. Natural, unimpacted systems often show a balance between a number of sources ...


Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan - Appendices, Gerald King, Darryl Little, Tim Jessup, Charles Armstrong Jul 1992

Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan - Appendices, Gerald King, Darryl Little, Tim Jessup, Charles Armstrong

Technical Reports

The Arkansas Agricultural Chemical Ground-Water Management Plan (SMP) is based on the Draft State Pesticide Ground- Water Management Plan Guidance and The Pesticides and Ground-Water Protection Strategy prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The need for a plan to protect ground water from contamination by agricultural chemicals and agents arises from evidence nationwide that using these chemicals can, in some instances, lead to contamination. In February 1988, EPA proposed a strategy to regulate certain pesticides by prohibiting their use in areas vulnerable to leaching unless a state develops and implements an acceptable management plan. The advantage of ...


Fact Sheet No.2: Water Quality And Poultry Disposal Pits, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards, D. J. Nichols, K. F. Steele, Steve Wilkes Jul 1992

Fact Sheet No.2: Water Quality And Poultry Disposal Pits, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards, D. J. Nichols, K. F. Steele, Steve Wilkes

Technical Reports

Disposing of poultry that die during grow out is a serious management problem for poultry producers in Northwest Arkansas and across the country. Poultry disposal can affect water quality and the health of wildlife, livestock and people.


Mat Movement In Coastal Louisiana Marshes: Effect Of Salinity And Inundation On Vegetation And Nutrient Levels, Christopher Martin Swarzenski Jul 1992

Mat Movement In Coastal Louisiana Marshes: Effect Of Salinity And Inundation On Vegetation And Nutrient Levels, Christopher Martin Swarzenski

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The present research compared and contrasted the physical structure of floating and rooted marshes, their differing responses to open-water salinities and inundation, as well as the nutrient distribution in the porewaters and sediment. The effects of the physical differences in the two marsh types on the ocurrence of the dominant emergent vegetation was discussed.

The main difference in physical structure of the two marsh types was the presence of a mineral, non-buoyant layer at 25-45 cm depth in the rooted marsh, which could serve as an anchor for the overlying highly organic mat layer found in both marsh types. Porewater ...


Gis Characterization Of Beaver Watershed, H. D. Scott, J. M. Mckimmey Jun 1992

Gis Characterization Of Beaver Watershed, H. D. Scott, J. M. Mckimmey

Technical Reports

Beaver Reservoir watershed is located in Northwest Arkansas including portions of Madison, Washington, Benton, Carroll, Franklin and Crawford counties. This watershed is important to the Northwest Arkansas region because it supplies most of the drinking water for the major towns and cities, and several rural water systems. The watershed consists of 308,971 ha with elevations ranging from approximately 341 m to 731 m above mean sea level. It includes the Springfield Plateau and the Boston Mountains provinces within the Ozark Plateau physiographic region. There are approximately 581 km of streams, 532 km of shore line, and 3712 km of ...


Evaluation Of The Water Quality Impacts Of Land Application Of Poultry Litter, T. C. Daniels, D. R. Edwards Jun 1992

Evaluation Of The Water Quality Impacts Of Land Application Of Poultry Litter, T. C. Daniels, D. R. Edwards

Technical Reports

Evaluating the effect of land application of animal waste on water quality is fraught with inherent variability due to differing infiltration rates, slope, rainfall intensity and etc . Simulated rainfall technology has been used in erosion research for decades. Generally, this technology is used on plots of sufficient size (25 x 5 m) to develop rill and interrill erosion. The object of this investigation was to adapt and modify existing rainfall simulation technology used in soil erosion research for use in evaluating water quality impacts of land application of animal waste, and to test, evaluate and demonstrate it's scientific validity ...


Effect Of Land Application Of Poultry Waste On Pesticide Loss, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards Jun 1992

Effect Of Land Application Of Poultry Waste On Pesticide Loss, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards

Technical Reports

The poultry industry in Arkansas is a large, concentrated, growing industry that produces a high volume of fecal waste. Most of this waste is surface applied as pasture fertilizer. Pesticides are commonly used in the poultry industry for fly and litter beetle contro land are often a component of the surface-applied poultry waste. No information exists in the scientific literature regarding the transport of this pesticide component to nearby water supplies.Our research focused on cyromazine, a feed-through larvicide used to control flies in caged-layer hen houses. Tetrachlorvinphos and carbaryl are also used in poultry waste, but these pesticides have ...


Reconnaissance Survey Of Nitrate Concentrations In Ground Water In Howard And Pike Counties, Arkansas, Travis Thornton, Kenneth F. Steele Feb 1992

Reconnaissance Survey Of Nitrate Concentrations In Ground Water In Howard And Pike Counties, Arkansas, Travis Thornton, Kenneth F. Steele

Technical Reports

In recent years, the rapid growth of poultry and hog production in Arkansas has caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard Counties, the number of hogs has increased from 3,300 hogs in 1970 to 75,000 hogs in 1990. Poultr¥ production for the area has increased from 38,933,000 per year 1n 1970 to 62,774,000 per year in 1990. As animal production increases, so does the amount of animal waste that must be disposed. Hog production is of particular concern. Typical hog operations store concentrated animal ...


Patterns Of Epipelic Diatoms And Oxygen Distributions In Stream Sediments , Taher Nejadsattari Jan 1992

Patterns Of Epipelic Diatoms And Oxygen Distributions In Stream Sediments , Taher Nejadsattari

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Depth distributions of epipelic diatoms and dissolved oxygen in agricultural stream sediments were studied. The major fraction of the diatoms were found in the top 2 cm of sediment. The distribution of diatoms and dissolved oxygen are influenced by each other. Larger numbers of cells were found at depths where oxygen concentrations were high. However, dissolved oxygen profiles measured in situ indicated that a large part of the sediment where viable cells are found is anoxic. In most cases anaerobic conditions exist below 7 and 4 mm depth during day and night respectively. Laboratory experiments suggested that under anaerobic conditions ...


Fact Sheet No.1: Nonpoint Source Pollution And Water Quality Of Northwest Arkansas, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards, D. C. Wolf, K. F. Steele, M. J. Cochran Jan 1992

Fact Sheet No.1: Nonpoint Source Pollution And Water Quality Of Northwest Arkansas, T. C. Daniel, D. R. Edwards, D. C. Wolf, K. F. Steele, M. J. Cochran

Technical Reports

Preservation of a clean, safe, and biologically diverse environment can capture public attention as few other issues can. Indeed, recent international cooperative efforts indicate that there is an increasing global desire to pass on to future generations an environment at least equal in quality to the one we inherited.


Removal Of Mercury From Waste Water: Large-Scale Performance Of An Ion Exchange Process, James A. Ritter, J. P. Bibler Jan 1992

Removal Of Mercury From Waste Water: Large-Scale Performance Of An Ion Exchange Process, James A. Ritter, J. P. Bibler

Faculty Publications

Duolite™ GT-73 ion exchange resin routinely reduces the mercury content of a waste water stream to less than the permitted level of 10 ppb. Effluent concentrations from the ion exchange facility (IEF) are consistently between 1 to 5 ppb, even though the feed contains a varying concentration of mercury (0.2 to 70 ppm). Two operational problems have been encountered at that facility, however. Firstly, the stated capacity of the resin for mercury was not being achieved. The abnormally low capacity was traced to analytical laboratory waste which was intermittently treated by the resin. That waste contained hydrochloric acid, stannous ...


Analysis Of Fish Communities In Illinois Lakes , Douglas J. Austen Jan 1992

Analysis Of Fish Communities In Illinois Lakes , Douglas J. Austen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Fish community structure and the main environmental factors influencing community structure were studied using a database of fish population surveys and limnological information describing 144 Illinois lakes. Data were collected by Illinois Department of Conservation fisheries biologists in a standardized manner using electrofishing and gill nets. Population survey data were adjusted using equations estimating efficiency of the gears under varying conditions resulting in estimates of biomass and number of fish per hectare;Guild systems were used to describe the communities and to simplify the analysis of fish community data thus allowing for comparison of community structure between lakes of varying ...


Phytoplankton Community Abundance And Diversity In Dardanelle Reservoir, Arkansas, 1981-1990, John D. Rickett, Robert L. Watson Jan 1992

Phytoplankton Community Abundance And Diversity In Dardanelle Reservoir, Arkansas, 1981-1990, John D. Rickett, Robert L. Watson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Phytoplankton samples were collected quarterly from 1981-1990 at five stations representing discharge water from Arkansas Nuclear One, a nuclear generating station, and four "control" or "dispersal evaluation" stations. Seventy-five taxa representing five divisions were identified and enumerated. Community structure was evaluated using abundances, number of taxa, and Margalef's Richness, Shannon's Heterogeneity and Pielou's Evenness indices. No long-term trends were identified, but the beginning of cyclic variations, with a 7-year periodicity, in abundance, number of taxa, and Shannon's and Pielou's indices were apparent. Margalef's index values were constant during most of the study period. For ...


Zooplankton Community Abundance And Diversity In Dardanelle Reservoir, Arkansas, 1981-1990, John D. Rickett, Robert L. Watson Jan 1992

Zooplankton Community Abundance And Diversity In Dardanelle Reservoir, Arkansas, 1981-1990, John D. Rickett, Robert L. Watson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Zooplankton samples were collected quarterly from five stations representing the discharge bay and four "control" or "dispersing impact" stations. Rotifers dominated all samples numerically and by the number of taxa. All major groups (Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda, and Protozoa) exhibited greatest abundances during the summer. Quarterly variations in abundance and number of taxa were documented. Except for an increase in taxonomic analysis detail between 1981 and 1984 resulting in several more taxa added to the list, no long-term increases, declines or repeating cycles were apparent. Margalef's Richness Index reflected this change and showed a long-term increase with evidence of a ...


Bacteriological Water Quality Of Beaver Reservoir, Arkansas, Jimmy D. Bragg, Mark E. Clark Jan 1992

Bacteriological Water Quality Of Beaver Reservoir, Arkansas, Jimmy D. Bragg, Mark E. Clark

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Beaver Reservoir water quality was determined through enumeration of Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms bacterial parameters at selected locations during 1991. Several areas of the reservoir contained high numbers of indicator bacteria, suggesting excessive fecal contamination. Significant numbers of salmonella-like bacteria were also cultured on SS agar, and several strains were serotyped positive for Salmonella antigens.


Using Physical, Chemical And Biological Indicators To Assess Water Quality On The Ouachita National Forest Utilizing Basin Area Stream Survey Methods, J. Alan Clingenpeel, Betty G. Cochran Jan 1992

Using Physical, Chemical And Biological Indicators To Assess Water Quality On The Ouachita National Forest Utilizing Basin Area Stream Survey Methods, J. Alan Clingenpeel, Betty G. Cochran

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The Ouachita National Forest (ONF) has developed a series of Best Management Practices (BMP's) designed to protect water quality and associated beneficial uses (fisheries, municipal water supplies, etc.). A monitoring program is necessary to document the effectiveness of that protection. The Basin Area Stream Survey (BASS) methodology provides a monitoring link from BMP's to the aquatic ecosystems. The goal of BASS is to identify the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a stream in a format that will allow comparisons with other streams, and indicate when a stream is being impacted. Six index streams within two ecoregions were ...


The Effects Of Beaver-Created Wetlands On Surface Water Quality Of Streams And Rivers In Dupage County, Illinois, Brian Conklin Jan 1992

The Effects Of Beaver-Created Wetlands On Surface Water Quality Of Streams And Rivers In Dupage County, Illinois, Brian Conklin

Masters Theses

Dam construction by beavers creates wetlands which have the potential to improve water quality, especially in areas near urban centers. However, beaver dams may also cause flooding problems which can result in the removal of the beaver(s) and the destruction of their dam. A further understanding of how beaver-created wetlands affect water quality will provide additional data which can be utilized in beaver management decisions.

In this study, 41 chemical parameters were examined from water taken above and below beaver-created wetlands that existed in DuPage County, Illinois between May and September 1991. This study was designed to examine the ...


Taxonomy Of Larval Blennioidei Of Belize, Central America, Martin Ray Cavalluzzi Jan 1992

Taxonomy Of Larval Blennioidei Of Belize, Central America, Martin Ray Cavalluzzi

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Grow-Out Methods For The Bay Scallop, Argopecten Irradians Irradians, At Two Sites In Virginia, Mark J. Brotman Jan 1992

A Comparison Of Grow-Out Methods For The Bay Scallop, Argopecten Irradians Irradians, At Two Sites In Virginia, Mark J. Brotman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Allozyme Analysis Of Billfish Population Structure, Lee W. Morgan Jan 1992

Allozyme Analysis Of Billfish Population Structure, Lee W. Morgan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Role Of Habitat Features And Chemical Cues In Substrate Selection By Blue Crab Megalopae: Evidence From Laboratory Experiments, Bruce Clare Layman Jan 1992

Role Of Habitat Features And Chemical Cues In Substrate Selection By Blue Crab Megalopae: Evidence From Laboratory Experiments, Bruce Clare Layman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research, Scott Spaulding, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Shoshone-Bannock Tribe Jan 1992

Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research, Scott Spaulding, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Shoshone-Bannock Tribe

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are present:ed. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. Nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in ...


A Trophic Gradient Analysis Of Lake Powell During Spring Runnoff 1992, Wayne Wurtsbaugh, Clyde Lay, Darren Carlise, Corey Huxol, Craig Schaugaard, Beau Clements, David Beauchamp Jan 1992

A Trophic Gradient Analysis Of Lake Powell During Spring Runnoff 1992, Wayne Wurtsbaugh, Clyde Lay, Darren Carlise, Corey Huxol, Craig Schaugaard, Beau Clements, David Beauchamp

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Between 26 April and 2 May 1992, students in a utah state university aquatic ecology class visited Lake Powell to do a study of trophic gradients of the reservoir. The main axis of the reservoir was surveyed, as well as less detailed analyses of Moki and Escalante Canyons. The work was conducted in collaboration with personnel from the u.s. Bureau of Reclamation headed by Bill Vernieu, and from the u.s. Geological Survey (Dick Marzolf). Some of their data appear in the physical-chemical section of this report.

Each student was responsible for compiling a report on one of the ...


Seasonal Phytoplankton Development Within Three Rivers In The Lower Chesapeake Bay Region, Harold G. Marshall, Lewis F. Affronti Jan 1992

Seasonal Phytoplankton Development Within Three Rivers In The Lower Chesapeake Bay Region, Harold G. Marshall, Lewis F. Affronti

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The seasonal and inter-annual concentrations of phytoplankton were studied over a 50 month period in the lower James, York and Rappahannock Rivers (USA). Differences in the onset, duration and magnitude of major seasonal growth periods varied from year to year. There was a tendency for spring, summer and fall maxima, with a winter period of reduced abundance. An additional study of picoplankton over a 12 month period indicated greatest abundance during summer and fall, with least development in winter.


Survival Of Juvenile Queen Conch, Strombus Gigas, In Natural Habitats: Impact Of Prey, Predator And Habitat Features, Livingston Sinclair Marshall Jr Jan 1992

Survival Of Juvenile Queen Conch, Strombus Gigas, In Natural Habitats: Impact Of Prey, Predator And Habitat Features, Livingston Sinclair Marshall Jr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this dissertation, I experimentally examine predation-induced mortality upon juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas, and assess the importance of select habitat predator and conch characteristics affecting predation intensity. Experiments were conducted during the summer and early fall of 1987, 1988, 1990 and 1991 in seagrass beds and adjacent sand flats near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These experiments indicate that various factors act interactively to produce habitat-specific mortality rates in queen conch due to predation. These include (1) habitat type, whereby seagrass beds offer some protection; (2) local population dynamics, such that populated seagrass beds appear to enhance conch ...


Intentional Introductions Of Non-Indigenous Species: A Case Study Of Policy And Management Affecting Crassostrea Gigas, Gwynne D. Brown Jan 1992

Intentional Introductions Of Non-Indigenous Species: A Case Study Of Policy And Management Affecting Crassostrea Gigas, Gwynne D. Brown

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.