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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 48

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Spring Migration Of Mallards From Arkansas As Determined By Satellite Telemetry, David George Krementz, Kwasi Asante, Luke W. Naylor Dec 2011

Spring Migration Of Mallards From Arkansas As Determined By Satellite Telemetry, David George Krementz, Kwasi Asante, Luke W. Naylor

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We used satellite telemetry to document spring migration phenology, routes, stopover regions, and nesting sites of mallards Anas platyrhynchos marked in Arkansas during the winters of 2004–2007. Of the 143 marked mallards that migrated from Arkansas, they did so, on average, by mid-March. Mallards flew over the Missouri Ozarks and 42% made an initial stopover in Missouri, where they used areas that had larger rivers (Mississippi River, Missouri River) embedded in an agricultural landscape. From this stopover region they either migrated directly to the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) or they migrated north to Minnesota where they either moved next to …


Geogram 2011, David J. Keeling Editor, Wku Department Of Geography And Geology Oct 2011

Geogram 2011, David J. Keeling Editor, Wku Department Of Geography And Geology

Earth, Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Droughtscape- Fall 2011, Kelly Smith Oct 2011

Droughtscape- Fall 2011, Kelly Smith

Droughtscape, Quarterly Newsletter of NDMC, 2007-

Drought Preparedness Community Options

Drought Likely to Persist, Intensify Across South

Database Will Help Planners Find Options

Impacts: Ag Losses, Fire, Water Restrictions

NDMC Welcomes International Visitors

New Drought Impact Reporter Online

Sim-Drought, Available Now at Select Agencies


The Potential For Indicators In The Management Of Climate Change Impacts On Cultural Heritage, Caithleen Daly Sep 2011

The Potential For Indicators In The Management Of Climate Change Impacts On Cultural Heritage, Caithleen Daly

Conference papers

The global scale and unpredictable nature of climate change impacts on cultural heritage poses a challenge for conservation management. This article explores the potential of indicators as an aid for decision makers in the heritage sector. The author proposes a new indicator tool for addressing long-term stone recession impacts that may be related to climate change. The indicator is being installed at two World Heritage sites in Ireland but no results are available. The prototype was developed during doctoral research at the Technological University of Dublin.


Identifying Changes In Climatic Trends And The Fingerprints Of Landuse And Landcover Changes In The High Plains Of The Usa, Denis Mutiibwa Jul 2011

Identifying Changes In Climatic Trends And The Fingerprints Of Landuse And Landcover Changes In The High Plains Of The Usa, Denis Mutiibwa

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Human activities such as conversion of natural ecosystem to croplands and urban-centers, deforestation and afforestation impact biophysical properties of land surface such as albedo, energy balance, and surface roughness. Alterations in these properties affect the heat and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmospheric boundary layer. The objectives of this research were; (i) to quantitatively identify the High plains’ regional climate change in temperatures over the period 1895 to 2006, (ii) detect the signatures of anthropogenic forcing of LULC changes on the regional climate change of the High Plains, and (iii) examine the trends in evolving regional latent heat …


Droughtscape- Summer 2011, Kelly Smith Jul 2011

Droughtscape- Summer 2011, Kelly Smith

Droughtscape, Quarterly Newsletter of NDMC, 2007-

New NDMC Website

Drought May Improve in Southeast and Southwest

Impacts Summary: Fire, Crop Loss and More

International Activities

NDMC Launches Ranch Planning Tool

Serving Data to Order

Workshop Builds Drought Planning Community


Building An Enhanced Drought Early Warning System (Dews): Tools And Services For Decision Support, Mark Svoboda Jun 2011

Building An Enhanced Drought Early Warning System (Dews): Tools And Services For Decision Support, Mark Svoboda

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Outline

  • About the NDMC
  • Drought Early Warning System (DEWS) Overview
  • Tools (USDM, DIR, Atlas, VegDRI, + EPC/DRC)
  • NDMC and the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS)
  • Toward a Global Drought Early Warning System (NIDIS)
  • Toward a Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS)
  • Summary
  • Q&A


Droughts In The 21st Century And Beyond, Vijay P. Singh, Chris Funk, Jim Angel, Mark Svoboda Jun 2011

Droughts In The 21st Century And Beyond, Vijay P. Singh, Chris Funk, Jim Angel, Mark Svoboda

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought: Science

  • Characterization
  • Mechanisms
  • Modelings
  • Prediction and Forecasting

Drought Monitoring

  • Measurement
  • Mapping
  • Space
  • Time
  • Data Sharing
  • Updating


Full Conference Program With Abstracts, Jason S. Polk, Leslie A. North Jun 2011

Full Conference Program With Abstracts, Jason S. Polk, Leslie A. North

International 2011 Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems

No abstract provided.


Secretive Marsh Bird Species Co-Occurrences And Habitat Associations Across The Midwest, Usa, Jason R. Bolenbaugh, Sarah E. Lehnen, David G. Krementz Jun 2011

Secretive Marsh Bird Species Co-Occurrences And Habitat Associations Across The Midwest, Usa, Jason R. Bolenbaugh, Sarah E. Lehnen, David G. Krementz

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Because secretive marsh birds are difficult to detect, population status and habitat use for these birds are not well known. We conducted repeated surveys for secretive marsh birds across 264 sites in the Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Joint Venture region to estimate abundance, occupancy, and detection probabilities during the 2008 and 2009 breeding seasons. We identified species groups based on observed species co-occurrences. Two species, least bittern Ixobrychus exilis and American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus, co-occurred with other species less often than expected by chance, and two species groups, rails (Virginia rail Rallus limicola and sora Porzana carolina) and …


Assessing Seasonal Features Of Tropical Forests Using Remote Sensing, Roberto Bonifaz-Alfonzo May 2011

Assessing Seasonal Features Of Tropical Forests Using Remote Sensing, Roberto Bonifaz-Alfonzo

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Tropical forests are key components of the biogeochemical cycles, complex in structure, diversity and dynamics, also, tropical regions have been deforested and modified by human activities particularly for agriculture. Understanding the inter-annual and intra-annual variation dynamics of tropical regions could give valuable information on temporal characteristics of ecosystems behavior which is important for mapping and monitoring. This dissertation assesses seasonal and inter-annual changes in the tropical land cover that may be related to changes in the natural environment and/or human activities. Research was focused on the Mayan forest located in southern Mexico and Northwest Guatemala, one of the northern-most important …


Rapid Wetland Expansion During European Settlement And Its Implication For Marsh Survival Under Modern Sediment Delivery Rates, Matthew L. Kirwan, A. Brad Murray, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, D. Reide Corbett May 2011

Rapid Wetland Expansion During European Settlement And Its Implication For Marsh Survival Under Modern Sediment Delivery Rates, Matthew L. Kirwan, A. Brad Murray, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, D. Reide Corbett

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use–related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not …


Drought-Ready Communities: A Guide To Community Drought Preparedness, Mark D. Svoboda, Kelly Smith, Melissa Widhalm, Donna Louise Woudenberg, Cody L. Knutson, Meghan Sittler, Jim Angel, Mike Spinar, Mark Shafer, Renee Mcpherson, Heather Lazrus May 2011

Drought-Ready Communities: A Guide To Community Drought Preparedness, Mark D. Svoboda, Kelly Smith, Melissa Widhalm, Donna Louise Woudenberg, Cody L. Knutson, Meghan Sittler, Jim Angel, Mike Spinar, Mark Shafer, Renee Mcpherson, Heather Lazrus

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

Table of Contents

Introduction to Drought-Ready Communities........................................................ 4

Section 1. Getting Started: Invite the Community to Participate, Commit to the Process...................... 7

1.1 Establish a leadership team that includes individuals with responsibility for monitoring, communication, and implementation .............................................. 7

1.2 Identify stakeholders or groups in the community that may need additional resources to participate in the Drought-Ready Communities process .................... 8

1.3 Include government agencies and regulators ....................................... 9

1.4 Develop a contact list ................................................................ 9

1.5 Gather community perceptions of drought .................................................. 10

Section 2. Information Gathering: Understand Water Sources and Uses, Develop a Drought History . 11

2.1 …


Improving Energy Sustainability In Pound Hall, Craig Adams May 2011

Improving Energy Sustainability In Pound Hall, Craig Adams

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

This research project deals with improving energy sustainability in Pound Hall dormitory located on the University of Nebraska at Lincoln’s (UNL) city campus. An investigation on the current energy usage of Pound Hall showed that its energy rates worsened between the years of 2009 and 2010. These combined (electricity, steam, and water) energy rates were compared with those of the newly renovated Othmer Hall to emphasize the lack of sustainability in the older dormitory. In order to improve Pound Hall’s energy rates, an energy benefit analysis of implementing a green roof was performed. Having a green roof on this dormitory …


Growing The Urban Ecosystem In Detroit, Michigan, Sean Basalyga May 2011

Growing The Urban Ecosystem In Detroit, Michigan, Sean Basalyga

Social Sciences

Many views of the future are seen as bleak and devoid of the life where once stood beauty and abundance. However, the Living Cities Design Competition challenges these views and calls for a vision of the future that inspires hope, biodiversity, and a healthy interaction between human and natural systems. We chose to redesign the city of Detroit, Michigan to be a living city by the year 2035. As the earth scientist on an interdisciplinary team, I acted as an ecological consultant. By developing the urban ecosystem of Detroit, a number of social, economical, and environmental problems can be solved. …


An Investigation Of Stratigraphic Evidence For An Abrupt Climatic Event 8200 Yr Bp In Valle De Las Morrenas, Costa Rica, Brian Thomas Watson May 2011

An Investigation Of Stratigraphic Evidence For An Abrupt Climatic Event 8200 Yr Bp In Valle De Las Morrenas, Costa Rica, Brian Thomas Watson

Masters Theses

Lago de las Morrenas 4 (9.498056° [degrees] N, 83.486111° [degrees] W, 3466 m elev.) is the lowest lake in a chain of glacial lakes located in the Valle de las Morrenas, a valley facing almost due north from Cerro Chirripó, the highest peak in the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica. Coarse resolution analyses of pollen, microscopic charcoal, and loss-on-ignition of a ca. 10,000 year sediment record from Lago de las Morrenas 4 was carried out to complement and extend previous research on the environmental history of the Chirripó highlands and to provide context for high-resolution sampling and analysis of …


Effects Of Rodent Species, Seed Species, And Predator Cues On Seed Fate, Kelly J. Sivy, Steven M. Ostoja, Eugene W. Schupp, Susan Durham Apr 2011

Effects Of Rodent Species, Seed Species, And Predator Cues On Seed Fate, Kelly J. Sivy, Steven M. Ostoja, Eugene W. Schupp, Susan Durham

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord’s kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and …


Evaluation Of Drought Indices Based On Thermal Remote Sensing Of Evapotranspiration Over The Continental United States, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher R. Hain, Brian Wardlow, Agustin Pimstein, John R. Mecikalski, William P. Kustas Apr 2011

Evaluation Of Drought Indices Based On Thermal Remote Sensing Of Evapotranspiration Over The Continental United States, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher R. Hain, Brian Wardlow, Agustin Pimstein, John R. Mecikalski, William P. Kustas

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The reliability of standard meteorological drought indices based on measurements of precipitation is limited by the spatial distribution and quality of currently available rainfall data. Furthermore, they reflect only one component of the surface hydrologic cycle, and they cannot readily capture nonprecipitation-based moisture inputs to the land surface system (e.g., irrigation) that may temper drought impacts or variable rates of water consumption across a landscape. This study assesses the value of a new drought index based on remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET). The evaporative stress index (ESI) quantifies anomalies in the ratio of actual to potential ET (PET), mapped using …


Impact Of Geomagnetically Induced Currents On Power Transformers, Jonathan E. Berge Apr 2011

Impact Of Geomagnetically Induced Currents On Power Transformers, Jonathan E. Berge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis deals with the impact of Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) on power transformers in electrical power systems. A simulator to calculate the flows of GIC in an electrical power network, based on an assumed or measured induced geoelectric potential is proposed. This simulator includes all needed mapping techniques to handle a system that cover a large geographical area.

A correlation between GIC and the reactive power absorbed in the core of the saturated transformer is proposed. That correlation is used to estimate GIC in a transformer utilizing existing reactive power measuring infrastructure within the electrical grid without the need …


Droughtscape- Spring 2011, Kelly Smith Apr 2011

Droughtscape- Spring 2011, Kelly Smith

Droughtscape, Quarterly Newsletter of NDMC, 2007-

Register Now

Forecasters Say Dryness in TX and SW to Continue

Drought Planning, The Game: Coming Soon

Ding Takes New Post

South and Southwest Lose Crops, Fight Fires

Drought Monitor Authors Review Enhanced GIS Tools and New Processes


Nir-Red Reflectance-Based Algorithms For Chlorophyll-A Estimation In Mesotrophic Inland And Coastal Waters: Lake Kinneret Case Study, Yosef Z. Yacobi, Wesley Moses, Semion Kaganovsky, Benayahu Sulimani, Bryan Leavitt, Anatoly A. Gitelson Mar 2011

Nir-Red Reflectance-Based Algorithms For Chlorophyll-A Estimation In Mesotrophic Inland And Coastal Waters: Lake Kinneret Case Study, Yosef Z. Yacobi, Wesley Moses, Semion Kaganovsky, Benayahu Sulimani, Bryan Leavitt, Anatoly A. Gitelson

Papers in Natural Resources

A variety of models have been developed for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in turbid and productive waters. All are based on optical information in a few spectral bands in the red and near-infra-red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength locations in the models used were meticulously tuned to provide the highest sensitivity to the presence of Chl-a and minimal sensitivity to other constituents in water. But the caveat in these models is the need for recurrent parameterization and calibration due to changes in the biophysical characteristics of water based on the location and/or time of the year. In this …


Farmer Perceptions Of Sustainable Agriculture Practices And Drought Risk Reduction In Nebraska, Usa, Cody L. Knutson, Tonya Haigh, Michael J. Hayes, Melissa Widhalm, J. Nothwehr, M. Kleinschmidt, L. Graf Jan 2011

Farmer Perceptions Of Sustainable Agriculture Practices And Drought Risk Reduction In Nebraska, Usa, Cody L. Knutson, Tonya Haigh, Michael J. Hayes, Melissa Widhalm, J. Nothwehr, M. Kleinschmidt, L. Graf

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Social factors, such as farming methods, have an impact on farm vulnerability to drought, but have received little research or policy attention. Some researchers and advocates have argued that sustainable agriculture systems are less vulnerable to climate risk than conventional systems because sustainable agriculture requires producers to have skills promoting adaptability. In this paper, we investigate producers’ perceptions on the use of sustainable agriculture in reducing drought risk, and what they believe would help them better adapt to drought. We surveyed and interviewed farmer members of two sustainable agriculture organizations in Nebraska, USA, during a multi-year drought period from 1999 …


The Role Of Demographic Compensation Theory In Incidental Take Assessments For Endangered Species, Conor P. Mcgowan, Mark R. Ryan, Michael C. Runge, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Jean Fitts Cochrane Jan 2011

The Role Of Demographic Compensation Theory In Incidental Take Assessments For Endangered Species, Conor P. Mcgowan, Mark R. Ryan, Michael C. Runge, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Jean Fitts Cochrane

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Many endangered species laws provide exceptions to legislated prohibitions through incidental take provisions as long as take is the result of unintended consequences of an otherwise legal activity. These allowances presumably invoke the theory of demographic compensation, commonly applied to harvested species, by allowing limited harm as long as the probability of the species’ survival or recovery is not reduced appreciably. Demographic compensation requires some density-dependent limits on survival or reproduction in a species’ annual cycle that can be alleviated through incidental take. Using a population model for piping plovers in the Great Plains, we found that when the population …


Droughtscape- Winter 2011, Kelly Smith Jan 2011

Droughtscape- Winter 2011, Kelly Smith

Droughtscape, Quarterly Newsletter of NDMC, 2007-

Register for the U.S. Drought Monitor Forum

La Niña Brings Southeast, Southwest Drought

International Efforts

Drought Returns in 2010

Impacts Emerge “Before” Summer Drought in East

October-December Quarterly Impacts Summary

Climate Adaptation for Local Government

NDMC Elicits Missouri River Basin Recollections

Woudenberg Coordinates Educational Booklet


Paleomagnetic And Geochemical Analysis Of The Summit Creek Volcanics, South-Central Cascades, Wa, Elli Mckinley Jan 2011

Paleomagnetic And Geochemical Analysis Of The Summit Creek Volcanics, South-Central Cascades, Wa, Elli Mckinley

Summer Research

The Basalt of Summit Creek is an enigmatic basalt unit that is about 55 million years (Ma) in age, located south of Mount Rainier. These basalts formed in a transitional time between the formation of the Coastal Range Basalts and the present Cascade arc. Through geochemical and paleomagnetic techniques, samples were collected and analyzed. Paleomagnetic samples showed nearly complete post eruptive demagnetization. Geochemical samples show arc type rocks lower in section and ocean island basalts in upper sites.


Mineralogy Of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania), Tudor Tămaş, Ferenc Kristály, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran Jan 2011

Mineralogy Of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania), Tudor Tămaş, Ferenc Kristály, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran

International Journal of Speleology

The secondary minerals from Iza Cave result from the interactions of karst water and/or cave atmosphere over a variety of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The cave passages expose at various extents Eocene limestones and conglomerates, Oligocene black shales, Upper Precambrian micaschists, marble and dolomitic marble and associated ore deposits.

Twelve secondary minerals identified in the cave (carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, oxides and hydroxides, and silicates) are presented in this study. Calcite, aragonite, gypsum, brushite and hydroxylapatite are the components of common speleothems in the limestone, dolomite and conglomerate areas of the cave. Ankerite crusts are related to areas with pyrite mineralization …


The Rise And Fall Of Lake Bonneville Between 45 And 10.5 Ka, L.V. Benson, S.P. Lund, J.P. Smoot, D.E. Rhode, R.J. Spencer, K.L. Verosub, L.A. Louderback, C.A. Johnson, R.O. Rye, R.M. Negrini Jan 2011

The Rise And Fall Of Lake Bonneville Between 45 And 10.5 Ka, L.V. Benson, S.P. Lund, J.P. Smoot, D.E. Rhode, R.J. Spencer, K.L. Verosub, L.A. Louderback, C.A. Johnson, R.O. Rye, R.M. Negrini

USGS Staff -- Published Research

A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of δ18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have …


Land Change Variability And Human–Environment Dynamics In The United States Great Plains, Mark A. Drummond, Roger F. Auch, Krista A. Karstensen, Kristi L. Sayler, Janis L. Taylor, Thomas Loveland Jan 2011

Land Change Variability And Human–Environment Dynamics In The United States Great Plains, Mark A. Drummond, Roger F. Auch, Krista A. Karstensen, Kristi L. Sayler, Janis L. Taylor, Thomas Loveland

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km × 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates …


Introduction To “Environmental Contaminants In Biota, 2nd Edition”, W. Nelson Beyer, James P. Meador Jan 2011

Introduction To “Environmental Contaminants In Biota, 2nd Edition”, W. Nelson Beyer, James P. Meador

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Ecotoxicology is the study of the movement of environmental contaminants through ecosystems and their effects on plants and animals. Examining tissue residues of these contaminants in biota is basic to ecotoxicology, both for understanding the movement of contaminants within organisms and through food chains, and for understanding and quantifying injuries to organisms and their communities. This book provides guidance on interpreting tissue concentrations of environmental contaminants.

Tissue concentrations have long been used both to identify the cause of toxicity in animals and as a measure of the severity of toxicity. More recently, they have been incorporated into environmental models, tying …


Lead In Birds, J. Christian Franson, Deborah J. Pain Jan 2011

Lead In Birds, J. Christian Franson, Deborah J. Pain

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal that acts as a nonspecific poison affecting all body systems and has no known biological requirement. Absorption of low concentrations may result in a wide range of sublethal effects in animals, and higher concentrations may result in mortality (Demayo et al. 1982).

Lead has been mined and smelted by humans for centuries, but the use of lead-based products increased greatly following the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, lead today is ubiquitous in air, water, and soil, in both urban and rural environments (Eisler 2000). Vertebrates are exposed to lead mainly via inhalation and ingestion. A …