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Life Sciences

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1435

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Piscine Myocarditis Virus (Pmcv) In Wild Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar, Torstein Tengs Dr. Dec 2012

Piscine Myocarditis Virus (Pmcv) In Wild Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar, Torstein Tengs Dr.

Dr. Torstein Tengs

Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe cardiac disease of sea-farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., but CMS-like lesions have also been found in wild Atlantic salmon. In 2010 a double-stranded RNA virus of the Totiviridae family, provisionally named piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), was described as the causative agent of CMS. In the present paper we report the first detection of PMCV in wild Atlantic salmon. The study is based on screening of 797 wild Atlantic salmon by real-time RT-PCR. The samples were collected from 35 different rivers along the coast of Norway, and all individuals included in the study were ...


Ict For Poverty Alleviation In Pacific Island Nations: Study Of Icts4d In Fiji, Deogratias Harorimana, Opeti Rokotuinivono, Emali Sewale, Fane Salaiwai, Marica Naulu, Evangelin Roy Dec 2012

Ict For Poverty Alleviation In Pacific Island Nations: Study Of Icts4d In Fiji, Deogratias Harorimana, Opeti Rokotuinivono, Emali Sewale, Fane Salaiwai, Marica Naulu, Evangelin Roy

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

ICT for Poverty Alleviation in Pacific Island Nations: Study of ICTs4D in Fiji There has been a vague and little knowledge on the role or potential of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in relation to addressing poverty in Fiji. This may be probably due to the newness of the technology in the South Pacific Region as a whole but also probably due to the fact that only 9.7% of the current Fiji 931,000 populations are internet users (ITC Figures 2011). This paper reports on finding how ICTs is contributing towards poverty alleviation in Fiji. On the basis of ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, December 25, 2012, Richard R. Heim Jr. Dec 2012

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 25, 2012, Richard R. Heim Jr.

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 25, 2012 (12/25/12) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Combining Mbr And Nf/Ro Membrane Filtration For The Removal Of Trace Organics In Indirect Potable Water Reuse Applications, William Price, Nichanan Tadkaew, Long Nghiem, Stuart Khan, Abdulhakeem Alturki, James Mcdonald Dec 2012

Combining Mbr And Nf/Ro Membrane Filtration For The Removal Of Trace Organics In Indirect Potable Water Reuse Applications, William Price, Nichanan Tadkaew, Long Nghiem, Stuart Khan, Abdulhakeem Alturki, James Mcdonald

Long D Nghiem

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the complementarities of combining membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment with nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration for the removal of trace organic contaminants for potential indirect potable water recycling applications. Four commercially available NF/RO membranes, namely NF270, NF90, BW30 and ESPA2, were selected for this investigation. Challenge tests were conducted with 40 trace organic compounds at concentrations of approximately 2 ng/L in initial wastewater solutions using a laboratory scaleMBRsystem and a cross-flow NF/RO rig. The results suggest that the MBR system effectively removes hydrophobic and biodegradable trace organic ...


An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd Dec 2012

An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic problems of our time. Desertification describes circumstances of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from the climatic variation and human activities. The fundamental goal of this thesis was to assess the effects of desertification in Yobe State, Nigeria. The present threat of desertification in the sahel has reached an alarming stage where crops cultivation and animal rearing/grazing are no more productive, soil has lost its nutrient/fertility, various infrastructure had given way because of windstorm from the neighbouring Niger Republic and sand dunes had taken ...


Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Dec 2012

Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Shellfish production is often affected by bacterial pathogens that cause high losses in hatcheries and nurseries. We evaluated the relative survival of larvae and juveniles of 3 Crassostrea virginica oyster lines: (1) GHP, a Rhode Island line; (2) NEHY, a line resistant to dermo and multinucleated sphere X diseases; and (3) FLOWERS, a line resistant to Roseovarius oyster disease, experimental challenge with Vibrio spp. isolates RE22 and RE101, causative agents of bacillary necrosis in Pacific oyster larvae, and the type strain of Roseovarius crassostreae, causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. All of the isolates were able to induce significant mortalities ...


Infectious Necrotizing Enteritis And Mortality Caused By Vibrio Carachariae In Summer Flounder Paralichthys Dentatus During Intensive Culture, Bruno Soffientino, Todd Gwaltney, David R. Nelson, Jennifer L. Specker, Michael Mauel, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Dec 2012

Infectious Necrotizing Enteritis And Mortality Caused By Vibrio Carachariae In Summer Flounder Paralichthys Dentatus During Intensive Culture, Bruno Soffientino, Todd Gwaltney, David R. Nelson, Jennifer L. Specker, Michael Mauel, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Marta Gomez-Chiarri

An epizootic causing mortality among cultured summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus occurred in summer of 1998 at a land-based facility on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. The disease, flounder infectious necrotizing enteritis (FINE), was characterized by reddening around the anal area, distended abdomens filled with opaque serosanguineous fluid, enteritis and necrosis of the posterior intestine. In extreme cases of the disease, the posterior intestine was detached from the anus and was observed coming out the vent. The intestine of individuals that recovered from the dsease ended in a blind-sac; the abdomens of these fish were distended, due to food and water ...


Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa Dec 2012

Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This research work looked in the used of Remote Sensing to improve Agricultural production in Kutigi, Niger State. The aim of the study is to use remote sensing to improve rice farming activities in Kutigi, Niger State. It is very important to identify such methods to improve Agricultural production because experts are always interested in new researches and findings to better the standard of living in any environment. In view of this, Remotely-sensed data could be used or employed to elevate most of these agricultural problems in Kutigi through the following objectives: Using Landsat imagery to assess the present landuse ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, December 18, 2012, David Simeral Dec 2012

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 18, 2012, David Simeral

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 18, 2012 (12/18/12) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Nursing Females Are More Prone To Heat Stress: Demography Matters When Managing Flying-Foxes For Climate Change, Stephanie T. Snoyman, Jasmina Munich, Culum Brown Dec 2012

Nursing Females Are More Prone To Heat Stress: Demography Matters When Managing Flying-Foxes For Climate Change, Stephanie T. Snoyman, Jasmina Munich, Culum Brown

Ecological Impacts of Climate Change Collection

Determining the underlying mechanisms responsible for species-specific responses to climate change is important from a species management perspective. The grey-headed flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus, is listed as vulnerable but it also a significant pest species for orchardists and thereby presents an interesting management conundrum. Over the last century, the abundance of the grey-headed flying-fox, P. poliocephalus, in Australia has decreased due to a variety of threatening processes but has increased in abundance in urban areas. These flying-foxes are highly susceptible to extreme heat events which are predicted to increase in the future under climate change scenarios. Exceptionally hot days result in ...


Application Of Web Mashup Technology To Oyster Information Services, Christian Chuindja Ngniah Dec 2012

Application Of Web Mashup Technology To Oyster Information Services, Christian Chuindja Ngniah

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Web mashup is a lightweight technology used to integrate data from remote sources without direct access to their databases. As a data consumer, a Web mashup application creates new contents by retrieving data through the Web application programming interface (API) provided by the external sources. As a data provider, the service program publishes its Web API and implements the specified functions.

In the project reported by this thesis, we have implemented two Web mashup applications to enhance the Web site oystersentinel.org: the Perkinsus marinus model and the Oil Spill model. Each model overlay geospatial data from a local database ...


The Lyme Disease Spirochete In Tick Species Collected From Warren County, Kentucky, Cheryl C. Onwu Dec 2012

The Lyme Disease Spirochete In Tick Species Collected From Warren County, Kentucky, Cheryl C. Onwu

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The overall goal of this present study was to determine the prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in south central Kentucky. A survey of ticks collected from a single location in Warren County, Kentucky was conducted between the months of April and June, 2010. A total of 293 ticks were collected. Three species were identified: 264 (91.7 %) of the ticks were Amblyoma americanum, 18 (6.6%) were Dermacentor variabilis, and 1 (0.35%) was Ixodes scapularis. The ten remaining ticks were immature nymphs and could not be identified. After identifying the species and sex of each tick ...


Depth-Variable Settlement Patterns And Predation Influence On Newly Settled Reef Fishes (Haemulon Spp., Haemulidae), Lance K. B. Jordan, Kenyon C. Lindeman, Richard E. Spieler Dec 2012

Depth-Variable Settlement Patterns And Predation Influence On Newly Settled Reef Fishes (Haemulon Spp., Haemulidae), Lance K. B. Jordan, Kenyon C. Lindeman, Richard E. Spieler

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

During early demersal ontogeny, many marine fishes display complex habitat-use patterns. Grunts of the speciose genus Haemulon are among the most abundant fishes on western North Atlantic coral reefs, with most species settling to shallow habitats (≤12 m). To gain understanding into cross-shelf distributional patterns exhibited by newly settled stages of grunts (<2 cm total length), we examined: 1) depth-specific distributions of congeners at settlement among sites at 8 m, 12 m, and 21 m, and 2) depth-variable predation pressure on newly settled individuals (species pooled). Of the six species identified from collections of newly settled specimens (n = 2125), Haemulon aurolineatum (tomtate), H. flavolineatum(French grunt), and H. striatum (striped grunt) comprised 98% of the total abundance; with the first two species present at all sites. Prevalence of H. aurolineatum and H. flavolineatumdecreased substantially from the 8-m site to the two deeper sites. In contrast, H ...


Stream-Associated Amphibian Habitat Assessment In The Portland-Vancouver Metropolitan Region, Andrew Evans Dietrich Dec 2012

Stream-Associated Amphibian Habitat Assessment In The Portland-Vancouver Metropolitan Region, Andrew Evans Dietrich

Dissertations and Theses

This study assessed the influence of landscape development on stream-associated amphibians in forested riparian areas within the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan region. Human alteration of landscapes may dramatically affect the ecology of neighboring aquatic systems. It was hypothesized that lotic amphibians would be negatively associated with greater amounts of landscape development and positively associated with forested area within the surrounding watershed. Thirty-seven 1st-3rd order streams were sampled between June 21st and September 21st in 2011. Streams potentially providing adequate habitat for stream-obligate amphibians were randomly selected. Amphibians were surveyed along 30-meter stream transects using an active-cover search (ACS). Environmental variables associated with ...


Predicting Avian Distributions To Evaluate Spatiotemporal Overlap With Locust Control Operations In Eastern Australia, Judit K. Szabo, Pamela J. Davy, Michael Hooper, Lee Astheimer Dec 2012

Predicting Avian Distributions To Evaluate Spatiotemporal Overlap With Locust Control Operations In Eastern Australia, Judit K. Szabo, Pamela J. Davy, Michael Hooper, Lee Astheimer

Dr Pamela Davy

Locusts and grasshoppers cause considerable economic damage to agriculture worldwide. The Australian Plague Locust Commission uses multiple pesticides to control locusts in eastern Australia. Avian exposure to agricultural pesticides is of conservation concern, especially in the case of rare and threatened species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the probability of pesticide exposure of native avian species during operational locust control based on knowledge of species occurrence in areas and times of application. Using presence-absence data provided by the Birds Australia Atlas for 1998 to 2002, we developed a series of generalized linear models to predict avian occurrences ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, December 11, 2012, Rich Tinker Dec 2012

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 11, 2012, Rich Tinker

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 11, 2012 (12/11/12) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Error Correction In Next Generation Dna Sequencing Data, Michael Z. Molnar Dec 2012

Error Correction In Next Generation Dna Sequencing Data, Michael Z. Molnar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Motivation: High throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies can sequence the genome of a species quickly and cheaply. Errors that are introduced by NGS technologies limit the full potential of the applications that rely on their data. Current techniques used to correct these errors are not sufficient, and a more efficient and accurate program is needed to correct errors.

Results: We have designed and implemented RACER (Rapid Accurate Correction of Errors in Reads), an error correction program that targets the Illumina genome sequencer, which is currently the dominant NGS technology. RACER combines advanced data structures with an intricate analysis of ...


A New Phase Unwrapping Algorithm Based On Three Wavelength Phase Shift Profilometry Method, Limei Song, Xiaoxiao Dong, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Chaokui Yang Dec 2012

A New Phase Unwrapping Algorithm Based On Three Wavelength Phase Shift Profilometry Method, Limei Song, Xiaoxiao Dong, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Chaokui Yang

Dr Yanguang Yu

Phase Shift Profilometry (PSP) method is widely used in 3D shape measurement. The advantage of the PSP method is that it is less sensitive to the surface reflectivity variations and the object can be measured point by point. But if only a single wavelength λ1 is used, the step height cannot be larger than λ1/4. In order to measure step height object, Gray Code (GC) and Multi-Wavelength Phase Shift Profilometry (MWPSP) method are used. But the GC method cannot solve the problem of the objects with a variety of colors under different illumination. The shortcoming of MWPSP ...


Walmart's Sustainability Journey: Peter Redmond And The Search For Sustainable Seafood, David G. Hyatt Dec 2012

Walmart's Sustainability Journey: Peter Redmond And The Search For Sustainable Seafood, David G. Hyatt

Wal-Mart Sustainability Case Project

In “Peter Redmond and the Search for Sustainable Seafood,” students examine the responses of Peter Redmond, Vice President and Divisional Merchandise Manager of Deli and Seafood, to organizational pressures to make seafood more sustainable at Walmart.


Becoming Differently Modern: Geographic Contributions To A Generative Climate Politics, Lesley M. Head, Christopher R. Gibson Dec 2012

Becoming Differently Modern: Geographic Contributions To A Generative Climate Politics, Lesley M. Head, Christopher R. Gibson

Chris Gibson

Anthropogenic climate change is a quintessentially modern problem in its historical origins and discursive framing, but how well does modernist thinking provide us with the tools to solve the problems it created? On one hand even though anthropogenic climate change is argued to be a problem of human origins, solutions to which will require human actions and engagements, modernity separates people from climate change in a number of ways. On the other, while amodern or more-than-human concepts of multiple and relational agency are more consistent with the empirical evidence of humans being deeply embedded in earth surface processes, these approaches ...


Engaging Creative Communities In An Industrial City Setting, Chris Gibson, Ben Gallan, Andrew Warren Dec 2012

Engaging Creative Communities In An Industrial City Setting, Chris Gibson, Ben Gallan, Andrew Warren

Chris Gibson

Much has been said about how ‘creativity’ might infuse policymaking and planning – especially in the wake of popular bestsellers by Richard Florida and Charles Landry on ‘creative places’ and the ‘creative class’ (the latter a supposed demographic group associated with creative industries such as film, design and music, who are said to be the key to the economic fortunes of cities). Creativity, it is said, can be facilitated in particular urban environments, given the right preconditions such as ‘hip’ inner-city precincts, café culture and walkable dense clusters of design firms and retail and residential spaces. The common argument is that ...


Living Together But Apart: Material Geographies Of Everyday Sustainability In Extended Family Households, Natascha Klocker, Chris Gibson, Erin Borger Dec 2012

Living Together But Apart: Material Geographies Of Everyday Sustainability In Extended Family Households, Natascha Klocker, Chris Gibson, Erin Borger

Chris Gibson

In the Industrialized West, ageing populations and cultural diversity-combined with rising property prices and extensive years spent in education-have been recognized as diverse factors driving increases in extended family living. At the same time, there is growing awareness that household size is inversely related to per capita resource consumption patterns, and that urgent problems of environmental sustainability are negotiated, on a day-to-day basis (and often unconsciously), at the household level. This paper explores the sustainability implications of everyday decisions to fashion, consume, and share resources around the home, through the lens of extended family households. Through interviews with extended family ...


Trial By Fire: Natural Hazards, Mixed-Methods And Cultural Research, Christine Eriksen, Nicholas J. Gill, Ross A. Bradstock Dec 2012

Trial By Fire: Natural Hazards, Mixed-Methods And Cultural Research, Christine Eriksen, Nicholas J. Gill, Ross A. Bradstock

Christine Eriksen

This paper considers the issues of research 'relevance' and 'use' to reflect upon a cultural geography research project on bushfire that did not begin with any specific aim of being useful to policy makers but which has garnered considerable and ongoing interest from a broad audience. It provides an example of how the integration of quantitative and qualitative research methods and data can enhance research into cultural aspects of natural hazards whilst simultaneously playing a key role in ensuring that the research results are of interest to a wide range of groups. Using a mixed-methods research approach was found to ...


The Art Of Learning: Wildfire, Amenity Migration And Local Environmental Knowledge, Christine Eriksen, T Prior Dec 2012

The Art Of Learning: Wildfire, Amenity Migration And Local Environmental Knowledge, Christine Eriksen, T Prior

Christine Eriksen

Communicating the need to prepare well in advance of the wildfire season is a strategic priority for wildfire management agencies worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that although these agencies invest significant effort towards this objective in the lead up to each wildfire season, landholders in at-risk locations often remain under-prepared. One reason for the poor translation of risk information materials into actual preparation may be attributed to the diversity of people now inhabiting wildfire-prone locations in peri-urban landscapes. These people hold widely varying experiences, beliefs, attitudes and values relating to wildfire, which influence their understanding and interpretation ...


The Two-Faced Nature Of Small Heat Shock Proteins: Amyloid Assembly And The Inhibition Of Fibril Formation. Relevance To Disease States, Heath W. Ecroyd, S Meehan, John A. Carver Dec 2012

The Two-Faced Nature Of Small Heat Shock Proteins: Amyloid Assembly And The Inhibition Of Fibril Formation. Relevance To Disease States, Heath W. Ecroyd, S Meehan, John A. Carver

Heath Ecroyd

The ability of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) such as alphaB-crystallin to inhibit the amorphous (disordered) aggregation of varied target proteins in a chaperone-like manner has been well described. The mechanistic details of this action are not understood. Amyloid fibril formation is an alternative off-folding pathway that leads to highly ordered beta-sheet-containing aggregates. Amyloid fibril formation is associated with a broad range of protein conformational diseases such as Alzhiemer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's and sHsp expression is elevated in the protein deposits that are characteristic of these disease states. The ability of sHsps to prevent fibril formation has been ...


Molecular Dynamics Analysis Of Apolipoprotein-D - Lipid Hydroperoxide Interactions: Mechanism For Selective Oxidation Of Met-93, Aaron J. Oakley, Surabhi Bhatia, Heath Ecroyd, Brett Garner Dec 2012

Molecular Dynamics Analysis Of Apolipoprotein-D - Lipid Hydroperoxide Interactions: Mechanism For Selective Oxidation Of Met-93, Aaron J. Oakley, Surabhi Bhatia, Heath Ecroyd, Brett Garner

Heath Ecroyd

Background: Recent studies suggest reduction of radical-propagating fatty acid hydroperoxides to inert hydroxides by interaction with apolipoprotein-D (apoD) Met93 may represent an antioxidant function for apoD. The nature and structural consequences of this selective interaction are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: Herein we used molecular dynamics (MD) analysis to address these issues. Longtimescale simulations of apoD suggest lipid molecules are bound flexibly, with the molecules free to explore multiple conformations in a binding site at the entrance to the classical lipocalin ligand-binding pocket. Models of 5s- 12s- and 15s hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids were created and the lipids found to wrap around Met93 ...


Monotremes Provide A Key To Understanding The Evolutionary Significance Of Epididymal Sperm Maturation, Brett Nixon, Russell Jones, Jean-Louis Dacheux, Heath Ecroyd Dec 2012

Monotremes Provide A Key To Understanding The Evolutionary Significance Of Epididymal Sperm Maturation, Brett Nixon, Russell Jones, Jean-Louis Dacheux, Heath Ecroyd

Heath Ecroyd

"It has been widely accepted that mammalian spermatozoa are infertile when they leave the testes and require a period of maturation in both the epididymis and the female reproductive tract before acquiring the ability to fertilize an oocyte. However, the necessity for such a complex process of posttesticular sperm maturation appears to be unique to mammals because it is well established that these processes do not directly influence the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa of birds, reptiles, and other lower vertebrates. Because of their key evolutionary position and form of reproduction, we contend that monotremes (platypus and echidna) provide a ...


Binding Of The Molecular Chaperone Alphab-Crystallin To Abeta Amyloid Fibrils Inhibits Fibril Elongation, Sarah L. Shammas, Christopher A. Waudby, Shuyu Wang, Alexander K. Buell, Tuomas P. Knowles, Heath W. Ecroyd, Mark E. Welland, John A. Carver, Christopher M. Dobson, Sarah Meehan Dec 2012

Binding Of The Molecular Chaperone Alphab-Crystallin To Abeta Amyloid Fibrils Inhibits Fibril Elongation, Sarah L. Shammas, Christopher A. Waudby, Shuyu Wang, Alexander K. Buell, Tuomas P. Knowles, Heath W. Ecroyd, Mark E. Welland, John A. Carver, Christopher M. Dobson, Sarah Meehan

Heath Ecroyd

The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is a small heat-shock protein that is upregulated in response to a multitude of stress stimuli, and is found colocalized with Aβ amyloid fibrils in the extracellular plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether this archetypical small heat-shock protein has the ability to interact with Aβ fibrils in vitro. We find that αB-crystallin binds to wild-type Aβ42 fibrils with micromolar affinity, and also binds to fibrils formed from the E22G Arctic mutation of Aβ42. Immunoelectron microscopy confirms that binding occurs along the entire length and ends of the fibrils. Investigations into the ...


Nmr Spectroscopy Of 14-3-3zeta Reveals A Flexible C-Terminal Extension: Differentiation Of The Chaperone And Phosphoserine-Binding Activities Of 14-3-3zeta, H Fu, Danielle Williams, Heath Ecroyd, John Carver, Lixin Zhang, Huanqin Dai, Joanna Woodcock, K Goodwin Dec 2012

Nmr Spectroscopy Of 14-3-3zeta Reveals A Flexible C-Terminal Extension: Differentiation Of The Chaperone And Phosphoserine-Binding Activities Of 14-3-3zeta, H Fu, Danielle Williams, Heath Ecroyd, John Carver, Lixin Zhang, Huanqin Dai, Joanna Woodcock, K Goodwin

Heath Ecroyd

Intracellular 14-3-3 proteins bind to many proteins, via a specific phosphoserine motif, regulating diverse cellular tasks including cell signalling and disease progression. The 14-3-3 isoform is a molecular chaperone, preventing the stressinduced aggregation of target proteins in a manner comparable with that of the unrelated sHsps (small heat-shock proteins). 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of a flexible and unstructured C-terminal extension, 12 amino acids in length, which protrudes from the domain core of 14-3-3 and is similar in structure and length to the C-terminal extension of mammalian sHsps. The extension stabilizes 14-3-3, but has no direct role in chaperone action ...


Enhanced Molecular Chaperone Activity Of The Small Heat-Shock Protein Alphab-Cystallin Following Covalent Immobilization Onto A Solid-Phase Support, V Bellotti, Heath Ecroyd, J Carver, H J Griesser, B Thierry, J G Shapter, S S Griesser, S Giorgetti, M R Nussio, J A Gerrard, J Garvey Dec 2012

Enhanced Molecular Chaperone Activity Of The Small Heat-Shock Protein Alphab-Cystallin Following Covalent Immobilization Onto A Solid-Phase Support, V Bellotti, Heath Ecroyd, J Carver, H J Griesser, B Thierry, J G Shapter, S S Griesser, S Giorgetti, M R Nussio, J A Gerrard, J Garvey

Heath Ecroyd

The well-characterized small heat-shock protein, alphaB-crystallin, acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation and precipitation. Structural perturbation (e.g., partial unfolding) enhances the in vitro chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin. Proteins often undergo structural perturbations at the surface of a synthetic material, which may alter their biological activity. This study investigated the activity of alphaB-crystallin when covalently bound to a support surface; alphaB-crystallin was immobilized onto a range of solid material surfaces, and its characteristics and chaperone activity were assessed. Immobilization was achieved via a plasma-deposited thin polymeric interlayer containing aldehyde surface groups and ...