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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Delivering Crispr To The Hiv-1 Reservoirs, Theodore Gurrola, Samuel Effah, Ilker Sariyer, Will Dampier, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl May 2024

Delivering Crispr To The Hiv-1 Reservoirs, Theodore Gurrola, Samuel Effah, Ilker Sariyer, Will Dampier, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is well known as one of the most complex and difficult viral infections to cure. The difficulty in developing curative strategies arises in large part from the development of latent viral reservoirs (LVRs) within anatomical and cellular compartments of a host. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system shows remarkable potential for the inactivation and/or elimination of integrated proviral DNA within host cells, however, delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to infected cells is still a challenge. In this review, the main factors impacting delivery, the challenges for delivery …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang Jun 2023

Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Fungal infections remain a significant concern for human health. The emergence of microbial resistance, the improper use of antimicrobial drugs, and the need for fewer toxic antifungal treatments in immunocompromised patients have sparked substantial interest in antifungal research. Cyclic peptides, classified as antifungal peptides, have been in development as potential antifungal agents since 1948. In recent years, there has been growing attention from the scientific community to explore cyclic peptides as a promising strategy for combating antifungal infections caused by pathogenic fungi. The identification of antifungal cyclic peptides from various sources has been possible due to the widespread interest in …


Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez Jun 2023

Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomarkers to identify women at risk of cervical cancer among those with high-risk HPV infection (hrHPV+) are needed. Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed at identifying miRNAs with the capacity to distinguish high (CIN2+) and low (≤ CIN1) grade cervical lesions. We sequenced miRNA libraries from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues from women with CIN2+ (n = 10) and age-matched women with ≤ CIN1 (n = 10), randomly and retrospectively selected from a trial that followed women for 24 months after a hrHPV+ test at the screening visit. Five miRNAs differentially expressed were validated by …


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin May 2023

Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients while lack of effective therapeutic options. Oncoproteins Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) have been found closely related to KSHV infection, replication and oncogenesis. However, the strategies of dual targeting these two oncoproteins have never been developed and tested for treatments of KSHV-related malignancies. In the current study, we report that treatment of echinomycin dramatically regresses cell growth both in vitro-cultured KSHV + tumor cells and in vivo KS or PEL xenograft mice models, …


Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue Feb 2023

Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5′-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3′- and 5′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, 5′-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body’s natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue …


Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz Nov 2022

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria May 2022

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of the …


Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov May 2022

Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov

Senior Honors Projects

The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden is a one-of-a-kind resource that houses close to 300 medicinal plants and is filled to the brim with educational opportunities. For the College of Pharmacy, this garden has been the centerpiece of many classes taught here at the University of Rhode Island and has roots as a physical teaching space. While the garden contains a plethora of plant species, medicinal fungi have yet to have been included in the garden, despite their relevance as both sources of pharmaceutical drug discovery and as natural products with inherent physiological benefits themselves. The purpose of my …


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Apr 2022

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta Mar 2022

Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Undernutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries and leads to a multitude of problems as it weakens the immune system, which leads to increased risk of infections and diet-related diseases. COVID-19 has worsened the existing situation and has resulted in unprecedented health, social, and economic disruptions across the world. Before COVID-19, about 54% children under 5 years were moderately or seriously malnourished, and after the COVID-19 pandemic, early estimates suggest that an additional 2.6 million children were stunted; 9.3 million were wasted, with an addition of 2.1 million maternal anemia cases; 168,000 child deaths; and USD 29.7 billion in …


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid Apr 2020

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU …


Chrysin‐Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Potentiates Antibiofilm Activity Against Staphylococcus Aureus, Busi Siddhardha, Uday Pandey, K. Kaviyarasu, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Asad Syed, Ali K. Bahkali, Abdallah M. Elgorban Feb 2020

Chrysin‐Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Potentiates Antibiofilm Activity Against Staphylococcus Aureus, Busi Siddhardha, Uday Pandey, K. Kaviyarasu, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Asad Syed, Ali K. Bahkali, Abdallah M. Elgorban

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The application of nanotechnology in medicine is gaining popularity due to its ability to increase the bioavailability and biosorption of numerous drugs. Chrysin, a flavone constituent of Orocylumineicum vent is well‐reported for its biological properties. However, its therapeutic potential has not been fully exploited due to its poor solubility and bioavailability. In the present study, chrysin was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles using TPP as a linker. The nanoparticles were characterized and investigated for their anti‐biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus. At sub‐Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, the nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anti‐biofilm efficacy against S. aureus as compared to its bulk counterparts, chrysin …


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König Feb 2020

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To …


Structural Biology Of The Enterovirus Replication-Linked 5'-Cloverleaf Rna And Associated Virus Proteins, Steven M. Pascal, Ravindranath Garimella, Meghan S. Warden, Komala Ponniah Jan 2020

Structural Biology Of The Enterovirus Replication-Linked 5'-Cloverleaf Rna And Associated Virus Proteins, Steven M. Pascal, Ravindranath Garimella, Meghan S. Warden, Komala Ponniah

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Although enteroviruses are associated with a wide variety of diseases and conditions, their mode of replication is well conserved. Their genome is carried as a single, positive-sense RNA strand. At the 5′ end of the strand is an approximately 90-nucleotide self-complementary region called the 5′ cloverleaf, or the oriL. This noncoding region serves as a platform upon which host and virus proteins, including the 3B, 3C, and 3D virus proteins, assemble in order to initiate replication of a negative-sense RNA strand. The negative strand in turn serves as a template for synthesis of multiple positive-sense RNA strands. Building on structural …


The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett Dec 2019

The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of preventing the acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia with the use of probiotic supplementation, as compared to a placebo, among hospitalized adult men and women receiving more than 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted through PubMed and Scopus using the search terms “ventilator”, “probiotics”, and “prevention”. Records were excluded from the analysis if they were published before 2015, full text was not available, studies other than randomized control trial or cohort studies, and if the study population was less than 18 years old. Results: Of …


Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry Iii, Cj Deleon, Frank Frisch Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry Iii, Cj Deleon, Frank Frisch

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Post-menopausal osteoporosis as a consequence of estrogen depletion is a growing concern for women in the United States. As more women take on executive positions and experience sleep deprivation, there is the potential for up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha. It follows that the homeostatic imbalance of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity leads to a greater risk of disease. Bisphosphonates generally, and Zolendronate specifically works by decreasing the number of osteoclasts. This current study investigated the impact of Zolendronate on the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha-type (TNFɑ) in 32 ovariectomized Wistar rats. Throughout a five …


Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Jul 2019

Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Recent evidence supports involvement of amylin and the amylin receptor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have previously shown that amylin receptor antagonist, AC253, improves spatial memory in AD mouse models. Herein, we generated and screened a peptide library and identified two short sequence amylin peptides (12–14 aa) that are proteolytically stable, brain penetrant when administered intraperitoneally, neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity and restore diminished levels of hippocampal long term potentiation in AD mice. Systemic administration of the peptides for five weeks in aged 5XFAD mice improved spatial memory, reduced amyloid plaque burden, and neuroinflammation. The common residue SQELHRLQTY …


A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter Jun 2019

A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Background: A rapid in-house TM4 mycobacteriophage-based assay, to identify multidrug resistance against various anti-tuberculosis drugs, using the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 in a microtiter plate format was evaluated, based on phage viability assays. Methods: A variety of parameters were optimized before the study including the minimum incubation time for the drugs, phage and M. smegmatis mc2 155 to be in contact. An increase in phage numbers over 2 h was indicative that M. smegmatis mc2 155 is resistant to the drugs under investigation, however when phage numbers remained static, M. smegmatis mc2 155 found to …


A Multivalent Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Like Particle Vaccine Capable Of Eliciting High Titers Of Neutralizing Antibodies In Immunized Rabbits, David H. Mulama, Lorraine Z. Mustvunguma, Jennifer Totonchy, Peng Ye, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Ramina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Javier Gordon Ogembo Jun 2019

A Multivalent Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Like Particle Vaccine Capable Of Eliciting High Titers Of Neutralizing Antibodies In Immunized Rabbits, David H. Mulama, Lorraine Z. Mustvunguma, Jennifer Totonchy, Peng Ye, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Ramina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Javier Gordon Ogembo

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an emerging pathogen and the causative agent of multiple cancers in immunocompromised patients. To date, there is no licensed prophylactic KSHV vaccine. In this study, we generated a novel subunit vaccine that incorporates four key KSHV envelope glycoproteins required for viral entry in diverse cell types (gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL) into a single multivalent KSHV-like particle (KSHV-LP). Purified KSHV-LPs were similar in size, shape, and morphology to KSHV virions. Vaccination of rabbits with adjuvanted KSHV-LPs generated strong glycoprotein-specific antibody responses, and purified immunoglobulins from KSHV-LP-immunized rabbits neutralized KSHV infection in epithelial, endothelial, fibroblast, and B …


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar Nov 2018

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a higher (∼six-fold) …


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen May 2018

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by …


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N mutant displayed …


Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Apr 2018

Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process. However, the structural and molecular details …


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan Feb 2018

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic studies. …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover Nov 2017

Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences among these populations might be a factor underlying geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence. Relatively little is known about the genomic features of African H. pylori strains compared to other populations of strains. In this study, we first analyzed the genomes of …


Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen Nov 2017

Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen

NYMC Faculty Publications

Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Using an DeltafbaA mutant constructed in the impetigo strain Alab49, loss of FbaA resulted in a slight but significant decrease …