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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


Promiscuous Feeding Across Multiple Honey Bee Hosts Amplifies The Vectorial Capacity Of Varroa Destructor, Zachary S. Lamas, Serhat Solmaz, Eugene V. Ryabov, Joseph Mowery, Matthew Heermann, Daniel Sonenshine, Jay D. Evans, David J. Hawthorne Jan 2023

Promiscuous Feeding Across Multiple Honey Bee Hosts Amplifies The Vectorial Capacity Of Varroa Destructor, Zachary S. Lamas, Serhat Solmaz, Eugene V. Ryabov, Joseph Mowery, Matthew Heermann, Daniel Sonenshine, Jay D. Evans, David J. Hawthorne

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Varroa destructor is a cosmopolitan pest and leading cause of colony loss of the European honey bee. Historically described as a competent vector of honey bee viruses, this arthropod vector is the cause of a global pandemic of Deformed wing virus, now endemic in honeybee populations in all Varroa-infested regions. Our work shows that viral spread is driven by Varroa actively switching from one adult bee to another as they feed. Assays using fluorescent microspheres were used to indicate the movement of fluids in both directions between host and vector when Varroa feed. Therefore, Varroa could be in either …


Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz Nov 2022

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Identification Of A Rickettsial Endosymbiont In A Soft Tick Ornithodoros Turicata Americanus, Lichao Liu, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jan 2022

Identification Of A Rickettsial Endosymbiont In A Soft Tick Ornithodoros Turicata Americanus, Lichao Liu, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Bacterial endosymbionts are abundantly found in both hard and soft ticks. Occidentia massiliensis, a rickettsial endosymbiont, was first identified in the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai collected from Senegal and later was identified in a hard tick Africaniella transversale. In this study, we noted the presence of Occidentia species, designated as Occidentia-like species, in a soft tick O. turicata americanus. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the two genetic markers, 16S rRNA and groEL confirmed the presence of Occidentia-like species in O. turicata americanus ticks. The Occidentia-like species was noted to be present in all developmental stages …


Tick Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi To The Murine Host Is Not Influenced By Environmentally Acquired Midgut Microbiota, Sukanya Narasimhan, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Morven Graham, Ming-Jie Wu, Kathleen Deponte, Solenne Marion, Orlanne Masson, Anya J. O'Neal, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Erol Fikrig Jan 2022

Tick Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi To The Murine Host Is Not Influenced By Environmentally Acquired Midgut Microbiota, Sukanya Narasimhan, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Morven Graham, Ming-Jie Wu, Kathleen Deponte, Solenne Marion, Orlanne Masson, Anya J. O'Neal, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Erol Fikrig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Ixodes scapularis is the predominant tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, in the USA. Molecular interactions between the tick and B. burgdorferi orchestrate the migration of spirochetes from the midgut to the salivary glands—critical steps that precede transmission to the vertebrate host. Over the last decade, research efforts have invoked a potential role for the tick microbiome in modulating tick-pathogen interactions.

Results

Using multiple strategies to perturb the microbiome composition of B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks, we observe that changes in the microbiome composition do not significantly influence B. burgdorferi migration from the midgut, invasion of …


A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson Nov 2020

A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson

Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine if there are differences present between the α-diversities of the crayfish microbiome and its surrounding water and sediment. Furthermore, this project sought to discover if these differences hold when microbiomes are evaluated between crayfish of first and second stream orders. Finally, this project sought to determine if the presence of branchiobdellidan ectosymbionts on the crayfish caused further differences in the crayfish microbiome. While the hypothesized patterns between crayfish, ectosymbionts, and stream order were not found to exist, a significantly different microbiome was observed between water, sediment, and crayfish, and the α-diversity of …


Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König Jul 2020

Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Appropriate social interactions influence animal fitness by impacting several processes, such as mating, territory defense, and offspring care. Many studies shedding light on the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior have focused on nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologues) and on sexual or parent-offspring interactions. Furthermore, animals have been studied under artificial laboratory conditions, where the consequences of behavioral responses may not be as critical as when expressed under natural environments, therefore obscuring certain physiological responses. We used automated recording of social interactions of wild house mice outside of the breeding season to detect individuals at both tails of a distribution …


Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang Apr 2020

Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Research students from the Concordia University, St. Paul Science Department has collected over 1,000 nasal swabs over the past 5 years in an attempt to characterize nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy individuals. S. aureus is a common commensal bacterium found on the skin, in the nares, or in the vaginal tract of approximately 30% of the population. While S. aureus is typically harmless when it is growing in those areas, it can also pose a public health risk as it can act as an opportunistic pathogen to cause a variety of infections, such as toxic shock syndrome. The …


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho …


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König Feb 2020

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To …


The Biosorption Of Lead From Aqueous Solutions By A Wood-Immobilized Fungal Biosorbent, Zomesh A N Maini, Niña Therese B. Flores, Enrico P. Muñoz Dec 2019

The Biosorption Of Lead From Aqueous Solutions By A Wood-Immobilized Fungal Biosorbent, Zomesh A N Maini, Niña Therese B. Flores, Enrico P. Muñoz

Biology Faculty Publications

Lead [Pb(II)] biosorption capacities of immobilized Talaromyces macrosporus on Moringa oleifera L. wood were compared against pure fungal and pure M. oleifera biomass. A Pb(II) contact test of 1000 ug/mL show similar Pb(II) removal of non-immobilized fungal biomass (F) and powdered wood colonized with fungi (WP+F), with WP+F producing more biomass. Powdered sorbents had higher Pb(II) uptake compared to whole sorbents analyzed through ICP-AES, possibly due to increased surface area for Pb(II) binding. FTIR analysis of the F, WP, and WP+F identified hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, and sulfhydryl functional groups which constitute probable Pb(II)-affinitive binding sites. The biosorbents tested in a …


Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara Jul 2019

Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Orthohantaviruses are tightly linked to the ecology and evolutionary history of their mammalian hosts. We hypothesized that in regions with dramatic climate shifts throughout the Quaternary, orthohantavirus diversity and evolution are shaped by dynamic host responses to environmental change through processes such as host isolation, host switching, and reassortment. Jemez Springs virus (JMSV), an orthohantavirus harbored by the dusky shrew (Sorex monticola) and five close relatives distributed widely in western North America, was used to test this hypothesis. Total RNAs, extracted from liver or lung tissue from 164 shrews collected from western North America during 1983–2007, were analyzed for orthohantavirus …


A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter Jun 2019

A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Background: A rapid in-house TM4 mycobacteriophage-based assay, to identify multidrug resistance against various anti-tuberculosis drugs, using the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 in a microtiter plate format was evaluated, based on phage viability assays. Methods: A variety of parameters were optimized before the study including the minimum incubation time for the drugs, phage and M. smegmatis mc2 155 to be in contact. An increase in phage numbers over 2 h was indicative that M. smegmatis mc2 155 is resistant to the drugs under investigation, however when phage numbers remained static, M. smegmatis mc2 155 found to …


The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee May 2019

The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

This review will focus on the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and its causative role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) noting specifically, the epidemiological relevance of addressing this problem, as well as the molecular pathways associated. HSV-1 reactivation tends to be one of the primary causative events that is responsible for many of the pathologies associated with AD, such as: amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation caused by malfunctioning cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. HSV-1 reactivation is a primary causative event in downstream dysfunction and is also shown to be directed by …


The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski Mar 2019

The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski

Biology Faculty Publications

The direct action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) endotoxin was shown to enhance synaptic transmission and hyperpolarize the membrane potential at low doses, but block glutamatergic receptors and decrease observable spontaneous events at a high dosage. The dosage effects are LPS type specific. The hyperpolarization is not due to voltage-gated potassium channels or to activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The effects are induced directly by LPS, independent of an immune response.


A Time Course Study Of Rotavirus-Infected Intestinal Cells Treated With Stilbenoids And The Regulation Of Apoptosis, Rebecca D. Parr, Caleb M. Witcher, Rebekah Napier-Jameson, Hannah L. Wilson, Stormey Wisdom, Macie N. Mattila, Essence B. Strange, Josephine Taylor, Beatrice Clack, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar, Judith M. Ball May 2018

A Time Course Study Of Rotavirus-Infected Intestinal Cells Treated With Stilbenoids And The Regulation Of Apoptosis, Rebecca D. Parr, Caleb M. Witcher, Rebekah Napier-Jameson, Hannah L. Wilson, Stormey Wisdom, Macie N. Mattila, Essence B. Strange, Josephine Taylor, Beatrice Clack, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar, Judith M. Ball

Faculty Publications

This is a time course study of virus –host interactions that are modified with the addition of two small natural products. They appear to effect virus replication and the host response to the infection.


In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen Apr 2018

In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is a versatile nanomachine that translocates diverse effector molecules between microbes and into eukaryotic cells. Here, using electron cryotomography, we reveal the molecular architecture of the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS. Although most components are unique to H. pylori, the cag T4SS exhibits remarkable architectural similarity to other T4SSs. Our images revealed that, when H. pylori encounters host cells, the bacterium elaborates membranous tubes perforated by lateral ports. Sub-tomogram averaging of the cag T4SS machinery revealed periplasmic densities associated with the outer membrane, a central stalk, and peripheral wing-like densities. Additionally, we resolved pilus-like …


Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1199, Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015, Mrub_2271 and Mrub_2272 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of an Iron (Fe3+) ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1199 (DNA coordinates [1211595-1212572] on the reverse strand) encodes the permease component (aka transmembrane domain); and 2) Mrub_1200 (DNA coordinates [1212612-1214093] on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain (aka nucleotide binding domain); and 3) Mrub_1201 (DNA coordinates [1214347-1215309] on the reverse strand) encodes the substrate binding protein (aka the periplasmic component); and Mrub_2015 ( DNA coordinates [2053963-2054949] on the reverse strand) …


Emergence Of The L Phenotype In Group B Streptococci In The South Of Ireland, Katherine Hayes, Lesley Cotter, L. Barry, Fiona O'Halloran Nov 2017

Emergence Of The L Phenotype In Group B Streptococci In The South Of Ireland, Katherine Hayes, Lesley Cotter, L. Barry, Fiona O'Halloran

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Group B Streptococcal isolates (n = 235) from the South of Ireland were characterised by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and determination of the phenotypic and genotypic mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21·3% and 20·4% of the total population, respectively. The c-MLSB phenotype was the most common phenotype detected (62%), with ermB being the predominant genetic determinant, present in 84% of resistant isolates. The rare L phenotype was observed in 2·9% (n = 7) of isolates, four of which harboured the lsaC gene responsible for clindamycin resistance. Serotypes Ia, III and II were the most common …


Comparative Genomic Analysis Of Two Serotype 1/2b Listeria Monocytogenes Isolates From Analogous Environmental Niches Demonstrates The Influence Of Hypervariable Hotspots In Defining Pathogenesis, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Aidan Coffey, Edward M. Fox, Olivia Mcauliffe Dec 2016

Comparative Genomic Analysis Of Two Serotype 1/2b Listeria Monocytogenes Isolates From Analogous Environmental Niches Demonstrates The Influence Of Hypervariable Hotspots In Defining Pathogenesis, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Aidan Coffey, Edward M. Fox, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The vast majority of clinical human listeriosis cases are caused by serotype 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The ability of L. monocytogenes to establish a systemic listeriosis infection within a host organism relies on a combination of genes that are involved in cell recognition, internalization, evasion of host defenses, and in vitro survival and growth. Recently, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis have proven to be powerful tools for the identification of these virulence-associated genes in L. monocytogenes. In this study, two serotype 1/2b strains of L. monocytogenes with analogous isolation sources, but …


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots Aug 2016

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR Program Research Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few …


Ciliate Codon Translator Program Manual, Quentin D. Altemose Jul 2016

Ciliate Codon Translator Program Manual, Quentin D. Altemose

Mathematics Summer Fellows

Understanding the evolutionary history of organisms allows us to better comprehend selective pressures and their effects on larger populations. In our study, we focused on analyzing the DNA of ciliate groups, which are single celled protozoans characterized by the presence of cilia on their outer membrane. We utilized the DNA of the organisms to analyze the changes in population genotype over time. We tested existing evolutionary models (designed to represent natural genetic variation over time in populations) against our data to identify the model with the best fit and likelihood. From the DNA and the evolutionary model with the highest …


Assessment Of Daf-19 Related Behavioral Defects, Loraina A. Stinson Jun 2016

Assessment Of Daf-19 Related Behavioral Defects, Loraina A. Stinson

Lawrence University Honors Projects

The daf-19 gene encodes the only RFX transcription factors in C. elegans, producing at least four related protein isoforms, one of which, DAF-19C, is responsible for ciliogenesis. Previous work by Senti and Swoboda (2008) demonstrated that adult worms deficient in all four DAF-19 proteins have extremely aberrant dwelling and roaming behavior on bacterial food. Most intriguingly, the addition of cDNA encoding the DAF-19C isoform restores cilia formation, but does not fully restore wild-type dwelling and roaming behavior. We are suggesting that additional neuron functions are needed to properly execute behaviors and these neuron functions require the activity of other …


An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer Apr 2016

An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer

All College Thesis Program, 2016-2019

Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers …


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe Oct 2015

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of these …


Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Different Staphylococcus Epidermidis Clones, Isolated Individually From Preterm Neonates Presenting With Sepsis At Edinburgh's Royal Infirmary, Paul Walsh, M. Bekaert, J. Carroll, T. Manning, B. Kelly, A. O'Driscoll, X. Lu, C. Smith, P. Dickinson, K. Templeton, P. Ghazal, Roy D. Sleator May 2015

Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Different Staphylococcus Epidermidis Clones, Isolated Individually From Preterm Neonates Presenting With Sepsis At Edinburgh's Royal Infirmary, Paul Walsh, M. Bekaert, J. Carroll, T. Manning, B. Kelly, A. O'Driscoll, X. Lu, C. Smith, P. Dickinson, K. Templeton, P. Ghazal, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of six individual Staphylococcus epidermidis clones, cultivated from blood taken from different preterm neonatal sepsis patients at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.


Examining Phage Infection Utilizing Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Tanya L. Riddick Apr 2015

Examining Phage Infection Utilizing Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Tanya L. Riddick

Undergraduate Research

Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are viruses that are ubiquitous and survive and replicate within the host of the bacterial cell, Mycobacterium smegmatis. They are considered one of the most abundant organisms on earth (1031). Structurally, they are 100-200nm in size and consist of a protein encapsulated head that contains DNA or RNA, a tail sheath and tail fibers. This research consisted of examining phage infection, by re-isolating a novel phage, Tango. Tango was originally isolated genetically in 2013 by a previous ISBT student, Anna Maccarrone. The phage was sent to genetic sequencing but two phages were discovered, …


Enhanced Expression Of Codon Optimized Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Antigens In Lactobacillus Salivarius, Christopher D. Johnston, John P. Bannatine, Rodney Govender, Lorraine Endersen, Daniel Pletzer, Helge Weingart, Aidan Coffey, Jim O'Mahony, Roy D. Sleator Sep 2014

Enhanced Expression Of Codon Optimized Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Antigens In Lactobacillus Salivarius, Christopher D. Johnston, John P. Bannatine, Rodney Govender, Lorraine Endersen, Daniel Pletzer, Helge Weingart, Aidan Coffey, Jim O'Mahony, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants …


Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth Jul 2014

Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth

Biology Faculty Publications

The oomycete genus Aquastella is described to accommodate two new species of parasites of rotifers observed in Brooktrout Lake, New York State, USA. Three rotifer species – Keratella taurocephala,Polyarthra vulgaris, and Ploesoma truncatum – were infected, and this is the first report of oomycete infection in these species. Aquastella attenuata was specific to K. taurocephala and Aquastella aciculariswas specific to P. vulgaris and P. truncatum. The occurrence of infections correlated with peak host population densities and rotifers were infected in the upper layers of the water column. Sequencing of 18S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis of …


Transcriptome Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Exposed To Biocide Stress Reveals A Multi-System Response Involving Cell Wall Synthesis, Sugar Uptake, And Motility, Aidan Casey, Edward M. Fox, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe, Kieran Jordan Feb 2014

Transcriptome Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Exposed To Biocide Stress Reveals A Multi-System Response Involving Cell Wall Synthesis, Sugar Uptake, And Motility, Aidan Casey, Edward M. Fox, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe, Kieran Jordan

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is a virulent food-borne pathogen most often associated with the consumption of “ready-to-eat” foods. The organism is a common contaminant of food processing plants where it may persist for extended periods of time. A commonly used approach for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in the processing environment is the application of biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds. In this study, the transcriptomic response of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes (strain 6179) on exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of the quaternary ammonium compound benzethonium chloride (BZT) was assessed. Using RNA-Seq, gene expression levels were quantified by sequencing …