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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang Jun 2023

Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Fungal infections remain a significant concern for human health. The emergence of microbial resistance, the improper use of antimicrobial drugs, and the need for fewer toxic antifungal treatments in immunocompromised patients have sparked substantial interest in antifungal research. Cyclic peptides, classified as antifungal peptides, have been in development as potential antifungal agents since 1948. In recent years, there has been growing attention from the scientific community to explore cyclic peptides as a promising strategy for combating antifungal infections caused by pathogenic fungi. The identification of antifungal cyclic peptides from various sources has been possible due to the widespread interest in …


Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz Nov 2022

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria May 2022

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of the …


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Apr 2022

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta Mar 2022

Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Undernutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries and leads to a multitude of problems as it weakens the immune system, which leads to increased risk of infections and diet-related diseases. COVID-19 has worsened the existing situation and has resulted in unprecedented health, social, and economic disruptions across the world. Before COVID-19, about 54% children under 5 years were moderately or seriously malnourished, and after the COVID-19 pandemic, early estimates suggest that an additional 2.6 million children were stunted; 9.3 million were wasted, with an addition of 2.1 million maternal anemia cases; 168,000 child deaths; and USD 29.7 billion in …


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid Apr 2020

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU …


Structural Biology Of The Enterovirus Replication-Linked 5'-Cloverleaf Rna And Associated Virus Proteins, Steven M. Pascal, Ravindranath Garimella, Meghan S. Warden, Komala Ponniah Jan 2020

Structural Biology Of The Enterovirus Replication-Linked 5'-Cloverleaf Rna And Associated Virus Proteins, Steven M. Pascal, Ravindranath Garimella, Meghan S. Warden, Komala Ponniah

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Although enteroviruses are associated with a wide variety of diseases and conditions, their mode of replication is well conserved. Their genome is carried as a single, positive-sense RNA strand. At the 5′ end of the strand is an approximately 90-nucleotide self-complementary region called the 5′ cloverleaf, or the oriL. This noncoding region serves as a platform upon which host and virus proteins, including the 3B, 3C, and 3D virus proteins, assemble in order to initiate replication of a negative-sense RNA strand. The negative strand in turn serves as a template for synthesis of multiple positive-sense RNA strands. Building on structural …


Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Jul 2019

Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Recent evidence supports involvement of amylin and the amylin receptor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have previously shown that amylin receptor antagonist, AC253, improves spatial memory in AD mouse models. Herein, we generated and screened a peptide library and identified two short sequence amylin peptides (12–14 aa) that are proteolytically stable, brain penetrant when administered intraperitoneally, neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity and restore diminished levels of hippocampal long term potentiation in AD mice. Systemic administration of the peptides for five weeks in aged 5XFAD mice improved spatial memory, reduced amyloid plaque burden, and neuroinflammation. The common residue SQELHRLQTY …


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N mutant displayed …


Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Apr 2018

Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process. However, the structural and molecular details …


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan Feb 2018

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic studies. …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Departmental Research

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover Nov 2017

Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences among these populations might be a factor underlying geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence. Relatively little is known about the genomic features of African H. pylori strains compared to other populations of strains. In this study, we first analyzed the genomes of …


Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen Nov 2017

Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen

NYMC Faculty Publications

Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Using an DeltafbaA mutant constructed in the impetigo strain Alab49, loss of FbaA resulted in a slight but significant decrease …


Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan Mar 2017

Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling …


Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Domain Contributes To Pre-Fusion Protein Stability, Stacy Webb, Tamas Nagy, Hunter Moseley, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Feb 2017

Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Domain Contributes To Pre-Fusion Protein Stability, Stacy Webb, Tamas Nagy, Hunter Moseley, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material, so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a metastable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements that control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function. Mutations in F protein transmembrane (TM) domains …


Osteoblast-Derived Fgf9 Regulates Skeletal Homeostasis, Liping Wang, Theresa M. Roth, Marcia J. Abbott, Linh Ho, Lalita Wattanachanya, Robert A. Nissenson Feb 2017

Osteoblast-Derived Fgf9 Regulates Skeletal Homeostasis, Liping Wang, Theresa M. Roth, Marcia J. Abbott, Linh Ho, Lalita Wattanachanya, Robert A. Nissenson

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

FGF9 has complex and important roles in skeletal development and repair. We have previously observed that Fgf9 expression in osteoblasts (OBs) is regulated by G protein signaling and therefore the present study was done to determine whether OB-derived FGF9 was important in skeletal homeostasis. To directly test this idea, we deleted functional expression of Fgf9 gene in OBs using a 2.3 kb collagen type I promoter-driven Cre transgenic mouse line (Fgf9OB −/−). Both Fgf9 knockout (Fgf9OB −/−) and the Fgf9 floxed littermates (Fgf9fl/fl) mice were fully backcrossed and maintained in an FBV/N background. Three …


Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas Jan 2017

Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.

Results: AC253, when administered …


Targeting The Small- And Intermediate Conductance Ca2+- Activated Potassium Channels: The Drug Binding Pocket At The Channel/Calmodulin Interface, Meng Cui, Guangrong Qin, Kunqian Yu, M. Scott Bowers, Miao Zhang Oct 2014

Targeting The Small- And Intermediate Conductance Ca2+- Activated Potassium Channels: The Drug Binding Pocket At The Channel/Calmodulin Interface, Meng Cui, Guangrong Qin, Kunqian Yu, M. Scott Bowers, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The small- and intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -activated potassium (SK/IK) channels play important roles in the regulation of excitable cells in both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Evidence from animal models has implicated SK/IK channels in neurological conditions such as ataxia and alcohol use disorders. Further, genome-wide association studies have suggested that cardiovascular abnormalities such as arrhythmias and hypertension are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur within the genes encoding the SK/IK channels. The Ca 2+ sensitivity of the SK/IK channels stems from a constitutively bound Ca 2+ -binding protein: calmodulin. Small-molecule positive modulators of SK/IK channels have been …


Tigecycline Induction Of Phenol-Soluble Modulins By Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer Jul 2013

Tigecycline Induction Of Phenol-Soluble Modulins By Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We examined the effects of tigecycline on three types of exoproteins, α-type phenol-soluble modulins (PSMα1 to PSMα4), α-hemolysin, and protein A, in 13 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates compared to those of clindamycin and linezolid. Paradoxical increases in PSMαs occurred in 77% of the isolates with tigecycline at 1/4 and 1/8 MICs and clindamycin at 1/8 MIC compared to only 23% of the isolates with linezolid at 1/8 MIC. Induction was specific to PSMα1 to PSMα4, as protein A and α-hemolysin production was decreased under the same conditions by all of the antibiotics used.


Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2012

Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hepatic immunosuppressive activities of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP1) or five (DMP5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. At various times (02 weeks) after intravenous administration of single 5 mg/kg (MP equivalent) doses of each prodrug or MP succinate (MPS), livers were isolated and immunologically stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in the outlet perfusate were then quantitated to assess immune response. Additionally, the concentrations of DMP1, DMP5, and/or MP were measured in the liver. MPS, DMP5, or DMP1 injections caused a maximum of 48.9%, 63.5%, …


Antivirulence Potential Of Tr-700 And Clindamycin On Clinical Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus Producing Phenol-Soluble Modulins, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer Jun 2011

Antivirulence Potential Of Tr-700 And Clindamycin On Clinical Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus Producing Phenol-Soluble Modulins, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Staphylococcus aureus strains (n = 50) causing complicated skin and skin structure infections produced various levels of phenol-soluble modulin alpha-type (PSMα) peptides; some produced more than twice that produced by the control strain (LAC USA300). TR-700 (oxazolidinone) and clindamycin strongly inhibited PSM production at one-half the MIC but exhibited weak to modest induction at one-fourth and one-eighth the MICs, primarily in low producers. Adequate dosing of these agents is emphasized to minimize the potential for paradoxical induction of virulence.


Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2010

Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ∼200-fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of accumulation …


Helical Peptides Derived From Lactoferrin Bind Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2, Reem Beleid, Donna Douglas, Norman Kneteman, Kamaljit Kaur Oct 2008

Helical Peptides Derived From Lactoferrin Bind Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2, Reem Beleid, Donna Douglas, Norman Kneteman, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma infecting more than 170 million people. Hepatitis C virus envelope 2 glycoprotein (E2) binds several cell‐surface molecules that act as receptor candidates mediating hepatitis C virus entry into hepatocytes. Peptides derived from human lactoferrin have been shown to bind hepatitis C virus‐E2 protein thereby preventing hepatitis C virus entry in cultured hepatocytes. In this study, starting from a 33‐residue human lactoferrin‐derived peptide, a number of biotin‐linked α‐peptides were synthesized and investigated for their E2 protein binding activity. E2 protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 1b …


Synthesis And In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers: Effects Of Linker Length On Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Release Of Methylprednisolone And Its Peptidyl Intermediates, Suman Penugonda, Anil Kumar, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2008

Synthesis And In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers: Effects Of Linker Length On Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Release Of Methylprednisolone And Its Peptidyl Intermediates, Suman Penugonda, Anil Kumar, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

To control the rate of release of methylprednisolone (MP) in lysosomes, new dextran-MP conjugates with peptide linkers were synthesized and characterized. Methylprednisolone succinate (MPS) was attached to dextran 25 kDa using linkers with 1-5 Gly residues. The release characteristics of the conjugates in pH 4.0 and 7.4 buffers, blood, liver lysosomes, and various lysosomal proteinases were determined using a size-exclusion and/or a newly developed reversed-phase HPLC method capable of simultaneous quantitation of MP, MPS, and all five possible MPS-peptidyl intermediates. We synthesized conjugates with >= 90% purity and 6.9-9.5% (w/w) degree of MP substitution. The conjugates were stable at pH …


2,6-Hexadecadiynoic Acid And 2,6-Nonadecadiynoic Acid - Novel Synthesized Acetylenic Fatty Acids As Potent Antifungal Agents, Nestor Carballeira, David Sanabria, Clarisa Cruz, Keykavous Parang, Baojie Wan, Scott Franzblau Jan 2006

2,6-Hexadecadiynoic Acid And 2,6-Nonadecadiynoic Acid - Novel Synthesized Acetylenic Fatty Acids As Potent Antifungal Agents, Nestor Carballeira, David Sanabria, Clarisa Cruz, Keykavous Parang, Baojie Wan, Scott Franzblau

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hitherto unknown 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid, 2,6-nonadecadiynoic acid, and 2,9-hexadecadiynoic acid were synthesized in two steps and in 11–18% overall yields starting from either 1,5-hexadiyne or 1,8-nonadiyne. Among all the compounds 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid displayed the best overall antifungal activity against both the fluconazole resistant Candida albicans strains ATCC 14053 and ATCC 60193 (MIC = 11 μM) and against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (MIC < 5.7 μM). The 2,9-hexadecadiynoic acid did not display any significant cytotoxicity against the fluconazole resistant C. albicans strains, but it showed fungitoxicity against C. neoformans ATCC 66031 with a MIC value of <5.8 μM. Other fatty acids, such as 2-hexadecynoic acid, 5-hexadecynoic acid, 9-hexadecynoic acid, and 6-nonadecynoic acid were also synthesized and their antifungal activities compared. The 2-hexadecynoic acid, a known antifungal fatty acid, exhibited the best antifungal activity (MIC = 9.4 μM) against the fluconazole resistant C. albicans ATCC 14053 strain, but it showed a MIC value of only 100 μM against C. albicans ATCC 60193. The fatty acids 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid and 2-hexadecynoic acid also displayed a MIC of 140–145 μM towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Middlebrook 7H12 medium. In conclusion, 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid exhibited the best fungitoxicity profile compared to other analogues. This diynoic fatty acid has the potential to be further evaluated for use in topical antifungal formulations.


The Amino Acid Sequence Of The Adult Sumatran Tiger (Panthera Tigris, Carnivora) Hemoglobins, Meeno Jahan, Aftab Ahmed, Gerhard Braunitzer, Reinhard Göltenboth Jan 1989

The Amino Acid Sequence Of The Adult Sumatran Tiger (Panthera Tigris, Carnivora) Hemoglobins, Meeno Jahan, Aftab Ahmed, Gerhard Braunitzer, Reinhard Göltenboth

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The complete amino-acid sequences of the hemoglobins from the adult Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) have been determined on automatic liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. The globin chains were isolated by reverse phase HPLC on a column of Nucleosil-C4.7V-Acetylserine was detected by FAB-mass spectroscopy as TV-terminal amino acid residue of the βI chain. Comparing the sequences of the globin chains of the tiger with that of human Hb-A, 23 substitutions were recognized in the a, 29 in βI and 28 in the βII chain.


The Primary Structure Of Hemoglobins Of The Adult Jaguar (Panthera Onco, Carnivora), Aftab Ahmed, Meeno Jahan, Zafar H. Zaidi, Gerhard Braunitzer, Reinhard Göltenboth Jan 1987

The Primary Structure Of Hemoglobins Of The Adult Jaguar (Panthera Onco, Carnivora), Aftab Ahmed, Meeno Jahan, Zafar H. Zaidi, Gerhard Braunitzer, Reinhard Göltenboth

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The primary structure of the hemoglobins from Jaguar (Panthera onco) are presented. Electrophoretic separations without and with a dissociating agent revealed the presence of two hemoglobin components, OL2ß\ and a2 02. The separation of the hemoglobin components was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. The globin chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography and also by reversed phase HPLC. The amino-acid sequences of the native chains and peptides were determined by liquid-phase and gas-phase sequencing. N-Acetylserine was detected by FAB-mass spectroscopy as N-terminal group of the ßl chain. The sequences are compared with that of human hemoglobin (Hb A).