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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Professional Perspectives On Bilingualism In Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study, Rosa N. Benavidez Saldivar, Jessica R. Stewart, Ruth Crutchfield, Roy K. Chen, Lily Puente Nov 2022

Professional Perspectives On Bilingualism In Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study, Rosa N. Benavidez Saldivar, Jessica R. Stewart, Ruth Crutchfield, Roy K. Chen, Lily Puente

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: The present study examined the perspectives of professionals regarding bilingualism and ASD. Methods: A total of 27 professionals participated in this study. Data was collected via an online survey. The survey was designed based on a literature review and consultation with a team of experts in the field of ASD. Information relating to demographic information, professional practice information, and perspectives of bilingualism and ASD was collected. Results: Professionals participating in the present study were most likely to agree with the statement, “A child with ASD from a bilingual household is able to understand both languages” and least likely to …


Animal Activities! : A Children's Book For Vocabulary Intervention, Chloey Dibartolo Apr 2022

Animal Activities! : A Children's Book For Vocabulary Intervention, Chloey Dibartolo

Honors Projects

This Honors Project was created as a culmination of research conducted in the fields of Speech-Language Pathology and English. It is a written and illustrated children’s book intended to be used during shared book reading between an adult and a child of preschool age who presents with a language delay or language disorder. Cloze structures are used throughout the book to elicit strategically selected vocabulary words from the child and aid in their vocabulary development. Elements and techniques used in children’s literature were also implemented throughout this book. This book is overall designed a therapy tool that can be used …


Comparing Measures Of Phonological Development For Bilingual Speech Sample Analysis: A Descriptive Study, Julianna Ciccarelli Mar 2022

Comparing Measures Of Phonological Development For Bilingual Speech Sample Analysis: A Descriptive Study, Julianna Ciccarelli

Honors Projects

The present study analyzed two common measures of phonology for use within a bilingual (Spanish-English) preschool population. The utilized measures include Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (PCC-R) and Phonological Mean Length of Utterance (pMLU) and were selected to avoid sources of bias, often found in standardized, norm-referenced assessments. The scores calculated from these measures were analyzed across language.


Assessing Effectiveness Of A Person-Centered Group Anc-Pnc Model Among First-Time Young Mothers And Their Partners For Improving Quality And Use Of Mnch-Fp Services, Sharif M.I. Hossain, Shongkour Roy, Sigma Ainul, Abdullah Al Mahmud Shohag, A.T.M. Rezaul Karim, Ubaidur Rob Jan 2022

Assessing Effectiveness Of A Person-Centered Group Anc-Pnc Model Among First-Time Young Mothers And Their Partners For Improving Quality And Use Of Mnch-Fp Services, Sharif M.I. Hossain, Shongkour Roy, Sigma Ainul, Abdullah Al Mahmud Shohag, A.T.M. Rezaul Karim, Ubaidur Rob

Ensure Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and Choices

This baseline report is part of an operations research project “Healthy Women, Healthy Families (HWHF): Shustha Ma, Shustha Poribar” led by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) in partnership with BRAC, SCOPE, and the Population Council. The project aims to improve quality and increase utilization of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and family planning (FP) services and information for young mothers-to-be, first-time mothers (FTMs) aged 15-24, and their partners in the urban municipality of Tongi, Gazipur District, Bangladesh, through a group antenatal care ANC-PNC approach. The objectives of this study are to establish baseline values of selected HWHF project …


Breakthrough Research—Social And Behavior Change Costing Community Of Practice Series Brief #4: Social And Behavior Change Costs Associated With Insecticide Treated Bed Net Distribution For Malaria Prevention, Breakthrough Research Nov 2021

Breakthrough Research—Social And Behavior Change Costing Community Of Practice Series Brief #4: Social And Behavior Change Costs Associated With Insecticide Treated Bed Net Distribution For Malaria Prevention, Breakthrough Research

Ensure Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and Choices

Breakthrough RESEARCH is gathering, analyzing, and sharing evidence on the costs and impact of social and behavior change (SBC) interventions to support the case that investing in SBC is crucial for improving health and advancing development. A review of the SBC costing literature identified 147 studies on SBC costs, methodological shortcomings, and knowledge gaps that can be addressed in new SBC costing studies. To address these gaps, Breakthrough RESEARCH issued the “Guidelines for Costing of Social and Behavior Change Health Interventions,” which lays out 17 principles for conducting high-quality costing studies. This brief complements the guidelines and highlights important issues …


Frontline Health Achievements In Harmonizing Measurement And Generating Evidence On Community Health System Performance, Frontline Health Project Oct 2021

Frontline Health Achievements In Harmonizing Measurement And Generating Evidence On Community Health System Performance, Frontline Health Project

Reproductive Health

As the global health community demonstrates an increasing commitment to investing in community health workers (CHWs) to achieve universal health coverage in lower- and middle-income countries, the need to effectively measure community health system performance is paramount. Embedded in the Integrating Community Health partnership (2017–2021), with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Population Council and Last Mile Health co-led the Frontline Health (FLH) project, a four-year research, policy, and advocacy initiative aimed at developing core metrics and CHW reform processes, advancing their adoption, and promoting institutionalization of robust community health policies. This brief describes the Population Council’s …


Identifying Factors That Support Community Health Worker Motivation, Job Satisfaction, And Retention In Haiti, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Oct 2021

Identifying Factors That Support Community Health Worker Motivation, Job Satisfaction, And Retention In Haiti, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

Community health workers (CHWs) play a critical role in Haiti’s health system, by connecting communities—particularly rural and hard-to-reach populations—to healthcare services. The Frontline Health project conducted a study to better understand the types of incentive structures that can best support the CHWs in Haiti and this brief summarizes those findings.


Understanding Community Health Volunteer Incentive Preferences In Kenya, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Oct 2021

Understanding Community Health Volunteer Incentive Preferences In Kenya, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

In Kenya, community health services are implemented through community health units. Community health volunteers (CHVs) who serve these units are chosen by the community and trained by community health extension workers. This brief summarizes qualitative and quantitative findings from the Frontline Health project’s discrete choice experiment study in Kenya, which aimed to understand incentive preferences of CHVs with the aim of improving motivation, performance, and retention of CHVs.


Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Integrated And Malaria-Only Social And Behavior Change Programming In Nigeria: Initial Costing Data, Avenir Health Sep 2021

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Integrated And Malaria-Only Social And Behavior Change Programming In Nigeria: Initial Costing Data, Avenir Health

Ensure Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and Choices

Breakthrough RESEARCH is conducting an effectiveness evaluation of social and behavior change (SBC) programming implemented by Breakthrough ACTION in Nigeria, comparing an integrated SBC program in Kebbi and Sokoto states with a malaria-only SBC program in Zamfara state. Using these results on impact, a cost-effectiveness analysis will determine which approach is more cost-effective in achieving improvements in health. This report presents estimated costs for the initial stage of the project, from April 2018 through December 2019, in the three northern states where the study is being conducted.


Breakthrough Research—Social And Behavior Change Costing Community Of Practice Series Brief #3: Capturing The Start-Up Costs Associated With Social And Behavior Change Interventions, Breakthrough Research Sep 2021

Breakthrough Research—Social And Behavior Change Costing Community Of Practice Series Brief #3: Capturing The Start-Up Costs Associated With Social And Behavior Change Interventions, Breakthrough Research

Ensure Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and Choices

A successful social and behavior change (SBC) intervention requires the investment of time and resources in the intervention’s start-up phase, which is defined as the time from the project initiation until the project begins broad implementation. When conducting a costing study of an SBC intervention, it is useful to capture these initial costs separately and allocate them appropriately over the life of the intervention. By examining start-up costs separately, the post-start-up implementation costs can be forecasted more accurately for future budgeting purposes and for determining the appropriate costs for scaling-up interventions. This is the third in a series of briefs …


Investing In Social And Behavior Change Is Cost-Effective For Improving Malaria Behaviors In Côte D’Ivoire, Breakthrough Research Aug 2021

Investing In Social And Behavior Change Is Cost-Effective For Improving Malaria Behaviors In Côte D’Ivoire, Breakthrough Research

Ensure Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and Choices

Social and behavior change (SBC) interventions are considered an essential part of malaria prevention and treatment interventions, yet gaps in information on the cost and impact of SBC mean decisionmakers have underappreciated the value of SBC for contributing to improved health outcomes. To address this issue, Breakthrough RESEARCH has leveraged evidence from 112 studies on the impact of SBC interventions on malaria health behaviors and 70 studies on general SBC intervention costs to model the cost-effectiveness of SBC programming for malaria in the Business Case for Investing in Social and Behavior Change for Malaria.


Women's Perceptions On The Effects Of Covid-19 On Access And Use Of Private Sector Family Planning Services In Nigeria: The Integrate Project, The Integrate Project Aug 2021

Women's Perceptions On The Effects Of Covid-19 On Access And Use Of Private Sector Family Planning Services In Nigeria: The Integrate Project, The Integrate Project

Reproductive Health

In Nigeria, Community Pharmacists (CPs) and Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) are the first point of care for many common illnesses. Although CPs and PPMVs are not formally recognized as family planning (FP) service providers, 22% of modern contraceptive users report receiving their last method from a PPMV and 12% from a private pharmacy. PPMVs are popular for FP because of their widespread availability, consistent drug stocks, extended hours, personable interactions, and lack of separate fees for consultations. As in many places, the COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to health services in Nigeria. By limiting person-to-person contact, especially during …


Integrate Project Results: Family Planning Knowledge And Quality Of Care Received From Community Pharmacists And Patent And Proprietary Medicine Vendors, The Integrate Project Aug 2021

Integrate Project Results: Family Planning Knowledge And Quality Of Care Received From Community Pharmacists And Patent And Proprietary Medicine Vendors, The Integrate Project

Reproductive Health

In Nigeria, Community Pharmacists (CPs) and Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) are the first point of care for many common illnesses. Although CPs and PPMVs are not formally recognized as family planning (FP) service providers, 22% of modern contraceptive users report receiving their last method from a PPMV and 12% from a private pharmacy. PPMVs are popular for FP because of their widespread availability, consistent drug stocks, extended hours, personable interactions, and lack of separate fees for consultations. As the Federal Ministry of Health explores expanding its task sharing policy to include CPs and PPMVs, evidence is needed on …


More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council Jul 2021

More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief summarizes key results from the endline evaluation of the More than Brides Alliance (MTBA) project “Marriage: No Child’s Play” (MNCP) in India, Malawi, Mali, and Niger. The MTBA consists of partners Save the Children Netherlands, Simavi, Oxfam Novib, and the Population Council, along with 25 local implementing partners. The MNCP project—which took place from 2016 to 2020—aimed at being holistic and targeting pathways to child marriage on multiple levels simultaneously, treating communities as either having the full MNCP package or no intervention. The Population Council’s MNCP evaluation was designed to estimate program impact and trends among girls at …


Preferred Incentives For Improving Community Health Worker Satisfaction And Retention In Bangladesh, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health Jul 2021

Preferred Incentives For Improving Community Health Worker Satisfaction And Retention In Bangladesh, Frontline Health Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Of Public Health

Reproductive Health

Community health workers (CHWs) are critical actors within community health systems, providing a range of reproductive, maternal, child, and primary health information, counseling, and services. To better understand factors that influence CHWs’ work motivation and satisfaction in Bangladesh, the Frontline Health project, implemented with collaborators from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and supported by the government of Bangladesh’s Directorate General of Health Services and the Directorate General of Family Planning, conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study. This brief presents key qualitative findings from the DCE study in Bangladesh and implications for program and policy stakeholders.


Using Social Listening To Inform Integrated Social And Behavior Change Programs In Burkina Faso, Nrupa Jani, Leanne Dougherty, Martha Silva Jul 2021

Using Social Listening To Inform Integrated Social And Behavior Change Programs In Burkina Faso, Nrupa Jani, Leanne Dougherty, Martha Silva

Reproductive Health

No abstract provided.


Health And Ideations Of Married Female Adolescents, Breakthrough Research Jul 2021

Health And Ideations Of Married Female Adolescents, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This brief provides rigorous evidence-based insights to implementers and researchers of social and behavior change (SBC) programs that seek to improve knowledge, attitudes, norms, and behaviors of married female adolescents. The brief focuses on married adolescents’ uptake of services and health knowledge in Kebbi, Sokoto, and Zamfara states in northwestern Nigeria using a subset of data from a household survey of married women ages 15–49 years. It is one of a series of briefs that present findings from a Breakthrough RESEARCH study that uniquely captures data on a wide range of psychosocial drivers of behavioral outcomes in the areas of …


Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: A Review Of Evidence, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee Jun 2021

Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: A Review Of Evidence, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee

Reproductive Health

Girls are one-third less likely to be subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) today than 30 years ago. However, rapid population growth in some of the world’s poorest countries, where FGM persists, threatens to roll back progress. In 2020 alone, an estimated 4.1 million girls were at risk of being subjected to FGM. Without concerted and accelerated actions to end the practice, an estimated 68 million additional girls will have been subjected to FGM by 2030. Despite intensified global research efforts to inform strategies to address FGM, there has been little synergy between evidence generation and the implementation of programs …


Issues For Consideration In The Scale-Up Of The Inclusion Of Family Planning In The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana, Kamil Fuseini, Augustine Ankomah Jun 2021

Issues For Consideration In The Scale-Up Of The Inclusion Of Family Planning In The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana, Kamil Fuseini, Augustine Ankomah

Reproductive Health

Ghana is working toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This is driven, in part, by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 3—Good Health and Well-Being, which seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. Achieving this feat will improve equity of access as people, especially the poor can access quality health services without financial hardships. Ensuring equitable access to family planning (FP) is essential to securing the well-being of women and supporting the health and development of communities. One pathway to ensuring equity is the inclusion of FP in affordable insurance. While the inclusion …


Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: Evidence Brief, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee Jun 2021

Effectiveness Of Interventions Designed To Prevent Or Respond To Female Genital Mutilation: Evidence Brief, Dennis Matanda, Melanie Croce-Galis, Jill Gay, Karen Hardee

Reproductive Health

Despite intensified efforts to conduct research globally that informs strategies to address female genital mutilation (FGM), there has been limited rigorous high-quality evidence on interventions that are effective in ending the practice. As we begin the final decade of acceleration toward zero new cases of FGM by 2030, increasing the rigor, relevance, and utility of research for programming, policy development, and resource allocation is critical. This brief highlights key findings from an evidence review that synthesized and assessed the quality and strength of existing evidence on FGM interventions from 2008 to 2020. A number of studies have collated evidence on …


Management Of Intimate Partner Violence In Health Care Settings: A Training Manual For Health Care Providers, Division Of Reproductive And Maternal Health Jun 2021

Management Of Intimate Partner Violence In Health Care Settings: A Training Manual For Health Care Providers, Division Of Reproductive And Maternal Health

Reproductive Health

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is any behavior by an intimate partner that causes physical, sexual, or psychological harm. In healthcare settings where providers are well trained, caring, and sensitive, most survivors respond positively to being asked about their exposure to violence. Healthcare providers are in a unique position to identify survivors and offer appropriate management and referrals. The World Health organization developed clinical guidelines to provide evidence-based guidance to healthcare providers on the identification and appropriate response to IPV and sexual violence. Based on this guidance, the Ministry of Health developed a comprehensive training manual to empower healthcare providers with …


Inclusion Of Family Planning Within The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana: A Health Facility Assessment, Population Council, Ministry Of Health, Ghana Health Service, National Health Insurance Authority, Marie Stopes International Ghana Jun 2021

Inclusion Of Family Planning Within The National Health Insurance Benefits Package In Ghana: A Health Facility Assessment, Population Council, Ministry Of Health, Ghana Health Service, National Health Insurance Authority, Marie Stopes International Ghana

Reproductive Health

In Ghana, National Health Insurance Act 852 of 2012 ensures that health-care benefits include family planning (FP) services, however people continue to pay for FP services because the policy is yet to be implemented in practice. Under the leadership of the Ministry of Health, the National Health Insurance Authority in collaboration with the Ghana Health Service, Marie Stopes International-Ghana and the Population Council implemented a pilot project to remove FP service out-of-pocket costs. All modern clinical FP methods were added to national health insurance and expensed by health facilities through the national health insurance claims process. The intervention significantly increased …


Bimodal And Bilingual: Language Characteristics Of Asl And English Users, Caitlin Bumpass May 2021

Bimodal And Bilingual: Language Characteristics Of Asl And English Users, Caitlin Bumpass

Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bimodal bilingualism is the use of both an oral and a sign language, which in the United States often includes the ability to perceive and produce both American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English (Emmory, Borinstein, Thompson, & Gollan, 2008). The primary focus of this research is to examine the operational definition of bilingualism, specifically when English and ASL are the two languages used, within the scholarly journals in the related field of deaf education. There is an abundant amount of research regarding language of children and adults who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/hh); however, it is unclear …


Chipatala Cha Pa Foni, Malawi's 'Health Center By Phone,' Improving Information Given About Pregnancy-Related Symptoms, Breakthrough Research, Villagereach May 2021

Chipatala Cha Pa Foni, Malawi's 'Health Center By Phone,' Improving Information Given About Pregnancy-Related Symptoms, Breakthrough Research, Villagereach

Reproductive Health

The Health Center by Phone, or "Chipatala cha pa Foni" (CCPF), was developed by Malawi’s Ministry of Health and VillageReach as a community-based hotline in the Balaka district of Malawi. CCPF was identified as an existing national health strategy with potential for providing Malawi’s women and their families important postpartum hemorrhage information. Because CCPF archives de-identified audio recordings of all calls, 28 telephone transcripts were qualitatively examined to assess whether women experiencing pregnancy-related complications such as postpartum bleeding call CCPF, and how hotline workers respond to them.


Diet Diversity Among Pregnant Women And Young Children—Insights For Improving Malaria, Family Planning, And Maternal And Child Health Outcomes In Northwestern Nigeria Through Social And Behavior Change Programming, Breakthrough Research May 2021

Diet Diversity Among Pregnant Women And Young Children—Insights For Improving Malaria, Family Planning, And Maternal And Child Health Outcomes In Northwestern Nigeria Through Social And Behavior Change Programming, Breakthrough Research

Reproductive Health

This research brief provides rigorous, evidence-based insights to policy-makers, implementers, and researchers of social and behavior change (SBC) programs on maternal and child nutrition during the 1,000-day period between a woman’s pregnancy and her child’s second birthday. It is one of a series of briefs presenting findings from a Breakthrough RESEARCH study that uniquely captures data on a wide range of psychosocial drivers of behavioral outcomes in family planning, malaria, and maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (MNCH+N) in the three northwestern states of Nigeria.


Approaches To Research Utilization And Capacity Strengthening, Project Soar Apr 2021

Approaches To Research Utilization And Capacity Strengthening, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Research plays a critical role in strengthening programming and policymaking. Donors and other stakeholders are increasingly focused on ensuring that their research investments yield positive health and development outcomes. Yet, there are many challenges in ensuring study findings are used by relevant decisionmakers to inform policies and programs. Recognizing the need to invest in research uptake efforts beyond dissemination of final findings, Project SOAR utilized an active approach to facilitating research utilization (RU) to fulfil the commitment of implementation science to promote the systematic uptake of research finding into routine practice. Project SOAR assembled and implemented a systematic and proactive …


Advances In Conceptualizing And Measuring Stigma Among People Living With Hiv, Project Soar Apr 2021

Advances In Conceptualizing And Measuring Stigma Among People Living With Hiv, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Stigma, defined as the co-occurrence of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination in a context in which power is exercised, has a negative impact on the health of people living with HIV (PLHIV), contributing to psychosocial stress, coercion and violence, job loss, and social exclusion. Widely recognized as a barrier to accessing HIV care, it is paramount that programs and policies are designed to mitigate HIV-related stigma to achieve the UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals. Project SOAR recognizes the importance of addressing stigma to control the HIV epidemic through testing, treatment, and viral suppression. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence …


Improving Patient Outcomes Through Innovative, Community-Based Hiv Treatment Strategies, Project Soar Apr 2021

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Innovative, Community-Based Hiv Treatment Strategies, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Despite the availability of life-saving treatment for HIV, several barriers prevent patient access to high-quality services. HIV program managers and policymakers have shown increasing interest in understanding how best to deliver HIV treatment to different populations and maximize health-system resources at facility and community levels. Project SOAR recognizes the key role that treatment services play in achieving UNAIDS’ 90-90-90 goals for controlling the HIV epidemic through testing, treatment, and viral suppression by 2020. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base and catalyzed research use by assessing innovative strategies for antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery that support different populations in remaining …


Improving Data Access And Use For Hiv Biomedical Prevention Interventions, Project Soar Apr 2021

Improving Data Access And Use For Hiv Biomedical Prevention Interventions, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Over the past decade, biomedical prevention interventions—including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)—have resulted in substantial gains in controlling the global HIV epidemic. Despite the inclusion of these highly effective interventions in multinational strategies and global prevention toolkits, their effective implementation rests upon context-specific, data-driven delivery to priority populations and geographies. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base by increasing access to and use of data through user-friendly interfaces and dissemination strategies, advancing VMMC and PrEP as vital prevention interventions in the global discourse. SOAR’s biomedical prevention portfolio has supported data-driven planning, implementation, and monitoring …


Optimizing Delivery Of Hiv Testing Services To Strengthen The Continuum Of Care, Project Soar Apr 2021

Optimizing Delivery Of Hiv Testing Services To Strengthen The Continuum Of Care, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

HIV testing is a critical entry point to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for those diagnosed with HIV and to prevention services for those at high risk of acquiring HIV. Despite advances in testing, there remain a variety of social and programmatic challenges that prevent access to HIV testing services, particularly for men and key populations. HIV program managers and policymakers are increasingly invested in understanding how best to deliver HIV testing services to different populations and to maximize health system resources at facility and community levels. Project SOAR has contributed to the evidence base and catalyzed research use by examining …