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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Microglia At Sites Of Atrophy Restrict The Progression Of Retinal Degeneration Via Galectin-3 And Trem2, Chen Yu, Yun Chen, Jinchao Hou, Marco Colonna, Et Al. Mar 2024

Microglia At Sites Of Atrophy Restrict The Progression Of Retinal Degeneration Via Galectin-3 And Trem2, Chen Yu, Yun Chen, Jinchao Hou, Marco Colonna, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Outer retinal degenerations, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are characterized by photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy. In these blinding diseases, macrophages accumulate at atrophic sites, but their ontogeny and niche specialization remain poorly understood, especially in humans. We uncovered a unique profile of microglia, marked by galectin-3 upregulation, at atrophic sites in mouse models of retinal degeneration and human AMD. In disease models, conditional deletion of galectin-3 in microglia led to phagocytosis defects and consequent augmented photoreceptor death, RPE damage, and vision loss, indicating protective roles. Mechanistically, Trem2 signaling orchestrated microglial migration to atrophic sites and induced galectin-3 …


Aducanumab Anti-Amyloid Immunotherapy Induces Sustained Microglial And Immune Alterations, Mika P Cadiz, Katelin A Gibson, Kennedi T Todd, David G Nascari, Nashali Massa, Meredith T Lilley, Kimberly C Olney, Md Mamun Al-Amin, Hong Jiang, David M Holtzman, John D Fryer Feb 2024

Aducanumab Anti-Amyloid Immunotherapy Induces Sustained Microglial And Immune Alterations, Mika P Cadiz, Katelin A Gibson, Kennedi T Todd, David G Nascari, Nashali Massa, Meredith T Lilley, Kimberly C Olney, Md Mamun Al-Amin, Hong Jiang, David M Holtzman, John D Fryer

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Aducanumab, an anti-amyloid immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease, efficiently reduces Aβ, though its plaque clearance mechanisms, long-term effects, and effects of discontinuation are not fully understood. We assessed the effect of aducanumab treatment and withdrawal on Aβ, neuritic dystrophy, astrocytes, and microglia in the APP/PS1 amyloid mouse model. We found that reductions in amyloid and neuritic dystrophy during acute treatment were accompanied by microglial and astrocytic activation, and microglial recruitment to plaques and adoption of an aducanumab-specific pro-phagocytic and pro-degradation transcriptomic signature, indicating a role for microglia in aducanumab-mediated Aβ clearance. Reductions in Aβ and dystrophy were sustained 15 but not …


Multiomic Profiling Reveals Metabolic Alterations Mediating Aberrant Platelet Activity And Inflammation In Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Fan He, Angelo Ba Laranjeira, Tim Kong, Shuyang Lin, Katrina J. Ashworth, Alice Liu, Nina M. Lasky, Daniel Ac Fisher, Maggie J. Cox, Mary C. Fulbright, Lilian Antunes-Heck, Layow Yu, Molly Brakhane, Bei Gao, Stephen M. Sykes, Angelo D'Alessandro, Jorge Di Paola, Stephen T. Oh Feb 2024

Multiomic Profiling Reveals Metabolic Alterations Mediating Aberrant Platelet Activity And Inflammation In Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Fan He, Angelo Ba Laranjeira, Tim Kong, Shuyang Lin, Katrina J. Ashworth, Alice Liu, Nina M. Lasky, Daniel Ac Fisher, Maggie J. Cox, Mary C. Fulbright, Lilian Antunes-Heck, Layow Yu, Molly Brakhane, Bei Gao, Stephen M. Sykes, Angelo D'Alessandro, Jorge Di Paola, Stephen T. Oh

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Platelets from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) exhibit a hyperreactive phenotype. Here, we found elevated P-selectin exposure and platelet-leukocyte aggregates indicating activation of platelets from essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of primary samples revealed significant enrichment of transcripts related to platelet activation, mTOR, and oxidative phosphorylation in ET patient platelets. These observations were validated via proteomic profiling. Platelet metabolomics revealed distinct metabolic phenotypes consisting of elevated ATP generation accompanied by increases in the levels of multiple intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but lower α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in MPN patients. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling significantly reduced metabolic responses and …


Association Of Genetic Variation In Col11a1 With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Hao Yu, Lilian Antunes, Christina A Gurnett, Et Al. Jan 2024

Association Of Genetic Variation In Col11a1 With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Hao Yu, Lilian Antunes, Christina A Gurnett, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common and progressive spinal deformity in children that exhibits striking sexual dimorphism, with girls at more than fivefold greater risk of severe disease compared to boys. Despite its medical impact, the molecular mechanisms that drive AIS are largely unknown. We previously defined a female-specific AIS genetic risk locus in an enhancer near the


Neuronal Deletion Of The Circadian Clock Gene Bmal1 Induces Cell-Autonomous Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration, Michael K. Kanan, Patrick W. Sheehan, Jessica N. Haines, Pedro G. Gomez, Adya Dhuler, Collin J. Nadarajah, Zachary M. Wargel, Brittany M. Freeberg, Hemanth R. Nelvagal, Mariko Izumo, Joseph S. Takahashi, Jonathan D. Cooper, Albert A. Davis, Erik S. Musiek Jan 2024

Neuronal Deletion Of The Circadian Clock Gene Bmal1 Induces Cell-Autonomous Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration, Michael K. Kanan, Patrick W. Sheehan, Jessica N. Haines, Pedro G. Gomez, Adya Dhuler, Collin J. Nadarajah, Zachary M. Wargel, Brittany M. Freeberg, Hemanth R. Nelvagal, Mariko Izumo, Joseph S. Takahashi, Jonathan D. Cooper, Albert A. Davis, Erik S. Musiek

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Circadian rhythm dysfunction is a hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD), and diminished expression of the core clock gene Bmal1 has been described in patients with PD. BMAL1 is required for core circadian clock function but also serves nonrhythmic functions. Germline Bmal1 deletion can cause brain oxidative stress and synapse loss in mice, and it can exacerbate dopaminergic neurodegeneration in response to the toxin MPTP. Here we examined the effect of cell type-specific Bmal1 deletion on dopaminergic neuron viability in vivo. We observed that global, postnatal deletion of Bmal1 caused spontaneous loss of tyrosine hydroxylase+ (TH+) dopaminergic neurons in the substantia …


An Orally Available Compound Suppresses Glucagon Hypersecretion And Normalizes Hyperglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes, Farzad Asadi, Subhadra C. Gunawardana, Roland E. Dolle, David W. Piston Jan 2024

An Orally Available Compound Suppresses Glucagon Hypersecretion And Normalizes Hyperglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes, Farzad Asadi, Subhadra C. Gunawardana, Roland E. Dolle, David W. Piston

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Suppression of glucagon hypersecretion can normalize hyperglycemia during type 1 diabetes (T1D). Activating erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular receptor type-A4 (EphA4) on α cells reduced glucagon hypersecretion from dispersed α cells and T1D islets from both human donor and mouse models. We synthesized a high-affinity small molecule agonist for the EphA4 receptor, WCDD301, which showed robust plasma and liver microsome metabolic stability in both mouse and human preparations. In islets and dispersed islet cells from nondiabetic and T1D human donors, WCDD301 reduced glucagon secretion comparable to the natural EphA4 ligand, Ephrin-A5. In diabetic NOD and streptozotocin-treated mice, once-daily oral administration of WCDD301 …


Microglia-Derived Exosomes Modulate Myelin Regeneration Via Mir-615-5p/Myrf Axis, Xiao-Yu Ji, Yu-Xin Guo, Li-Bin Wang, Wen-Cheng Wu, Jia-Qi Wang, Jin He, Rui Gao, Javad Rasouli, Meng-Yuan Gao, Zhen-Hai Wang, Dan Xiao, Wei-Feng Zhang, Bogoljub Ciric, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li Jan 2024

Microglia-Derived Exosomes Modulate Myelin Regeneration Via Mir-615-5p/Myrf Axis, Xiao-Yu Ji, Yu-Xin Guo, Li-Bin Wang, Wen-Cheng Wu, Jia-Qi Wang, Jin He, Rui Gao, Javad Rasouli, Meng-Yuan Gao, Zhen-Hai Wang, Dan Xiao, Wei-Feng Zhang, Bogoljub Ciric, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Demyelination and failure of remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) characterize a number of neurological disorders. Spontaneous remyelination in demyelinating diseases is limited, as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are often present in demyelinated lesions in abundance, mostly fail to differentiate into oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells in the CNS. In addition to OPCs, the lesions are assembled numbers of activated resident microglia/infiltrated macrophages; however, the mechanisms and potential role of interactions between the microglia/macrophages and OPCs are poorly understood. Here, we generated a transcriptional profile of exosomes from activated microglia, and found that miR-615-5p was elevated. miR-615-5p bound to …


A New Perspective On Intervertebral Disc Calcification-From Bench To Bedside, Emanuel Novais, Rajkishen Narayanan, Jose Canseco, Koen Van De Wetering, Christopher Kepler, Alan Hilibrand, Alex Vaccaro, Makarand Risbud Jan 2024

A New Perspective On Intervertebral Disc Calcification-From Bench To Bedside, Emanuel Novais, Rajkishen Narayanan, Jose Canseco, Koen Van De Wetering, Christopher Kepler, Alan Hilibrand, Alex Vaccaro, Makarand Risbud

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

Disc degeneration primarily contributes to chronic low back and neck pain. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand the spectrum of disc degeneration phenotypes such as fibrosis, ectopic calcification, herniation, or mixed phenotypes. Amongst these phenotypes, disc calcification is the least studied. Ectopic calcification, by definition, is the pathological mineralization of soft tissues, widely studied in the context of conditions that afflict vasculature, skin, and cartilage. Clinically, disc calcification is associated with poor surgical outcomes and back pain refractory to conservative treatment. It is frequently seen as a consequence of disc aging and progressive degeneration but exhibits unique molecular …


Susceptibility Of Toxoplasma Gondii To Autophagy In Human Cells Relies On Multiple Interacting Parasite Loci, Nicholas Rinkenberger, Alex Rosenberg, Joshua B Radke, Jaya Bhushan, Tadakimi Tomita, Louis M Weiss, L David Sibley Jan 2024

Susceptibility Of Toxoplasma Gondii To Autophagy In Human Cells Relies On Multiple Interacting Parasite Loci, Nicholas Rinkenberger, Alex Rosenberg, Joshua B Radke, Jaya Bhushan, Tadakimi Tomita, Louis M Weiss, L David Sibley

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Autophagy is a process used by cells to recycle organelles and macromolecules and to eliminate intracellular pathogens. Previous studies have shown that some stains of


Ephrinb2 Knockdown In Cervical Spinal Cord Preserves Diaphragm Innervation In A Mutant Sod1 Mouse Model Of Als, Mark W. Urban, Brittany A. Charsar, Nicolette M. Heinsinger, Shashirekha S. Markandaiah, Lindsay Sprimont, Wei Zhou, Eric V. Brown, Nathan T. Henderson, Samantha J. Thomas, Biswarup Ghosh, Rachel E. Cain, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli, Megan C. Wright, Matthew B. Dalva, Angelo C. Lepore Jan 2024

Ephrinb2 Knockdown In Cervical Spinal Cord Preserves Diaphragm Innervation In A Mutant Sod1 Mouse Model Of Als, Mark W. Urban, Brittany A. Charsar, Nicolette M. Heinsinger, Shashirekha S. Markandaiah, Lindsay Sprimont, Wei Zhou, Eric V. Brown, Nathan T. Henderson, Samantha J. Thomas, Biswarup Ghosh, Rachel E. Cain, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli, Megan C. Wright, Matthew B. Dalva, Angelo C. Lepore

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Staff Papers and Presentations

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss. Importantly, non-neuronal cell types such as astrocytes also play significant roles in disease pathogenesis. However, mechanisms of astrocyte contribution to ALS remain incompletely understood. Astrocyte involvement suggests that transcellular signaling may play a role in disease. We examined contribution of transmembrane signaling molecule ephrinB2 to ALS pathogenesis, in particular its role in driving motor neuron damage by spinal cord astrocytes. In symptomatic SOD1G93A mice (a well-established ALS model), ephrinB2 expression was dramatically increased in ventral horn astrocytes. Reducing ephrinB2 in the cervical spinal cord ventral horn via …


A Flexible, Quantitative Plasmonic-Fluor Lateral Flow Assay For The Rapid Detection Of Orthoebolavirus Zairense And Orthoebolavirus Sudanense, Abraham J Qavi, Qisheng Jiang, M Javad Aman, Hong Vu, Larry Zetlin, John M Dye, Jeffrey W Froude, Daisy W Leung, Frederick Holtsberg, Scott L Crick, Gaya K Amarasinghe Jan 2024

A Flexible, Quantitative Plasmonic-Fluor Lateral Flow Assay For The Rapid Detection Of Orthoebolavirus Zairense And Orthoebolavirus Sudanense, Abraham J Qavi, Qisheng Jiang, M Javad Aman, Hong Vu, Larry Zetlin, John M Dye, Jeffrey W Froude, Daisy W Leung, Frederick Holtsberg, Scott L Crick, Gaya K Amarasinghe

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Filoviruses comprise a family of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses with a significant impact on human health. Given the risk for disease outbreaks, as highlighted by the recent outbreaks across Africa, there is an unmet need for flexible diagnostic technologies that can be deployed in resource-limited settings. Herein, we highlight the use of plasmonic-fluor lateral flow assays (PF-LFA) for the rapid, quantitative detection of an Ebolavirus-secreted glycoprotein, a marker for infection. Plasmonic fluors are a class of ultrabright reporter molecules that combine engineered nanorods with conventional fluorophores, resulting in improved analytical sensitivity. We have developed a PF-LFA for


Investigating Clot-Flow Interactions By Integrating Intravital Imaging With In Silico Modeling For Analysis Of Flow, Transport, And Hemodynamic Forces, Chayut Teeraratkul, Maurizio Tomaiuolo, Timothy Stalker, Debanjan Mukherjee Jan 2024

Investigating Clot-Flow Interactions By Integrating Intravital Imaging With In Silico Modeling For Analysis Of Flow, Transport, And Hemodynamic Forces, Chayut Teeraratkul, Maurizio Tomaiuolo, Timothy Stalker, Debanjan Mukherjee

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research

As a blood clot forms, grows, deforms, and embolizes following a vascular injury, local clot-flow interactions lead to a highly dynamic flow environment. The local flow influences transport of biochemical species relevant for clotting, and determines the forces on the clot that in turn lead to clot deformation and embolization. Despite this central role, quantitative characterization of this dynamic clot-flow interaction and flow environment in the clot neighborhood remains a major challenge. Here, we propose an approach that integrates dynamic intravital imaging with computer geometric modeling and computational flow and transport modeling to develop a unified in silico framework to …


Inhibiting Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 After Stroke Restores Brain Function And Connectivity, Jakob Hakon, Miriana J Quattromani, Carin Sjölund, Daniela Talhada, Byungchan Kim, Slavianka Moyanova, Federica Mastroiacovo, Luisa Di Menna, Roger Olsson, Elisabet Englund, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Karsten Ruscher, Adam Q Bauer, Tadeusz Wieloch Jan 2024

Inhibiting Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 After Stroke Restores Brain Function And Connectivity, Jakob Hakon, Miriana J Quattromani, Carin Sjölund, Daniela Talhada, Byungchan Kim, Slavianka Moyanova, Federica Mastroiacovo, Luisa Di Menna, Roger Olsson, Elisabet Englund, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Karsten Ruscher, Adam Q Bauer, Tadeusz Wieloch

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Stroke results in local neural disconnection and brain-wide neuronal network dysfunction leading to neurological deficits. Beyond the hyper-acute phase of ischaemic stroke, there is no clinically-approved pharmacological treatment that alleviates sensorimotor impairments. Functional recovery after stroke involves the formation of new or alternative neuronal circuits including existing neural connections. The type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) has been shown to modulate brain plasticity and function and is a therapeutic target in neurological diseases outside of stroke. We investigated whether mGluR5 influences functional recovery and network reorganization rodent models of focal ischaemia. Using multiple behavioural tests, we observed that treatment with negative …


Hat: De Novo Variant Calling For Highly Accurate Short-Read And Long-Read Sequencing Data, Jeffrey K Ng, Tychele N Turner Jan 2024

Hat: De Novo Variant Calling For Highly Accurate Short-Read And Long-Read Sequencing Data, Jeffrey K Ng, Tychele N Turner

2020-Current year OA Pubs

MOTIVATION: de novo variants (DNVs) are variants that are present in offspring but not in their parents. DNVs are both important for examining mutation rates as well as in the identification of disease-related variation. While efforts have been made to call DNVs, calling of DNVs is still challenging from parent-child sequenced trio data. We developed Hare And Tortoise (HAT) as an automated DNV detection workflow for highly accurate short-read and long-read sequencing data. Reliable detection of DNVs is important for human genomics and HAT addresses this need.

RESULTS: HAT is a computational workflow that begins with aligned read data (i.e. …


Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang Jan 2024

Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mutations in fused in sarcoma (fust-1) are linked to ALS. However, how these ALS causative mutations alter physiological processes and lead to the onset of ALS remains largely unknown. By obtaining humanized fust-1 ALS mutations via CRISPR-CAS9, we generated a C. elegans ALS model. Homozygous fust-1 ALS mutant and fust-1 deletion animals are viable in C. elegans. This allows us to better characterize the molecular mechanisms of fust-1-dependent responses. We found FUST-1 plays a role in regulating superoxide dismutase, glutamate signaling, and oxidative stress. FUST-1 suppresses SOD-1 and VGLUT/EAT-4 in the nervous system. FUST-1 also regulates synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor …


Sirtuin3 Ensures The Metabolic Plasticity Of Neurotransmission During Glucose Deprivation, Anupama Tiwari, Arsalan Hashemiaghdam, Marissa A Laramie, Dario Maschi, Tristaan Haddad, Marion I Stunault, Carmen Bergom, Ali Javaheri, Vitaly Klyachko, Ghazaleh Ashrafi Jan 2024

Sirtuin3 Ensures The Metabolic Plasticity Of Neurotransmission During Glucose Deprivation, Anupama Tiwari, Arsalan Hashemiaghdam, Marissa A Laramie, Dario Maschi, Tristaan Haddad, Marion I Stunault, Carmen Bergom, Ali Javaheri, Vitaly Klyachko, Ghazaleh Ashrafi

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Neurotransmission is an energetically expensive process that underlies cognition. During intense electrical activity or dietary restrictions, the glucose level in the brain plummets, forcing neurons to utilize alternative fuels. However, the molecular mechanisms of neuronal metabolic plasticity remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived neurons activate the CREB and PGC1α transcriptional program, which induces expression of the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) both in vitro and in vivo. We show that Sirt3 localizes to axonal mitochondria and stimulates mitochondrial oxidative capacity in hippocampal nerve terminals. Sirt3 plays an essential role in sustaining synaptic transmission in the absence of glucose …


The Forkhead Transcription Factor Foxj1 Controls Vertebrate Olfactory Cilia Biogenesis And Sensory Neuron Differentiation, Dheeraj Rayamajhi, Steven L. Brody, Et Al. Jan 2024

The Forkhead Transcription Factor Foxj1 Controls Vertebrate Olfactory Cilia Biogenesis And Sensory Neuron Differentiation, Dheeraj Rayamajhi, Steven L. Brody, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

In vertebrates, olfactory receptors localize on multiple cilia elaborated on dendritic knobs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Although olfactory cilia dysfunction can cause anosmia, how their differentiation is programmed at the transcriptional level has remained largely unexplored. We discovered in zebrafish and mice that Foxj1, a forkhead domain-containing transcription factor traditionally linked with motile cilia biogenesis, is expressed in OSNs and required for olfactory epithelium (OE) formation. In keeping with the immotile nature of olfactory cilia, we observed that ciliary motility genes are repressed in zebrafish, mouse, and human OSNs. Strikingly, we also found that besides ciliogenesis, Foxj1 controls the …


Ddr2-Regulated Arginase Activity In Ovarian Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promotes Collagen Production And Tumor Progression, Favour A Akinjiyan, Zainab Ibitoye, Peinan Zhao, Leah P Shriver, Gary J Patti, Gregory D Longmore, Katherine C Fuh Jan 2024

Ddr2-Regulated Arginase Activity In Ovarian Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promotes Collagen Production And Tumor Progression, Favour A Akinjiyan, Zainab Ibitoye, Peinan Zhao, Leah P Shriver, Gary J Patti, Gregory D Longmore, Katherine C Fuh

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Ovarian cancer has poor survival outcomes particularly for advanced stage, metastatic disease. Metastasis is promoted by interactions of stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), with tumor cells. CAFs play a key role in tumor progression by remodeling the TME and extracellular matrix (ECM) to result in a more permissive environment for tumor progression. It has been shown that fibroblasts, in particular myofibroblasts, utilize metabolism to support ECM remodeling. However, the intricate mechanisms by which CAFs support collagen production and tumor progression are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the fibrillar collagen receptor, …


Effect Of Flecainide And Ibutilide Alone And In Combination To Terminate And Prevent Recurrence Of Atrial Fibrillation, Alexander Burashnikov, José M. Di Diego, Bence Patocskai, Debra S. Echt, Luiz Belardinelli, Charles Antzelevitch Dec 2023

Effect Of Flecainide And Ibutilide Alone And In Combination To Terminate And Prevent Recurrence Of Atrial Fibrillation, Alexander Burashnikov, José M. Di Diego, Bence Patocskai, Debra S. Echt, Luiz Belardinelli, Charles Antzelevitch

Division of Cardiology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved approaches to rhythm control therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF).

METHODS: The effectiveness of flecainide (1.5 µmol/L) and ibutilide (20 nmol/L), alone and in combination, to cardiovert and prevent AF recurrence was studied in canine-isolated coronary-perfused right atrioventricular preparations. We also examined the safety of the combination of flecainide (1.5 µmol/L) and ibutilide (50 nmol/L) using canine left ventricular wedge preparations.

RESULTS: Sustained AF (>1 hour) was inducible in 100%, 60%, 20%, and 0% of atria in the presence of acetylcholine alone, acetylcholine+ibutilide, acetylcholine+flecainide, and acetylcholine+ibutilide+flecainide, respectively. When used alone, flecainide and ibutilide …


The Function Of Ask1 In Sepsis And Stress-Induced Disorders, John Kostyak, Steven Mckenzie, Ulhas Naik Dec 2023

The Function Of Ask1 In Sepsis And Stress-Induced Disorders, John Kostyak, Steven Mckenzie, Ulhas Naik

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a serine-threonine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed in nucleated cells and is responsible for the activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) to regulate cell stress. Activation of ASK1 via cellular stress leads to activation of downstream signaling components, activation of transcription factors, and proinflammatory cytokine production. ASK1 is also expressed in anucleate platelets and is a key player in platelet activation as it is important for signaling. Interestingly, the mechanism of ASK1 activation is cell type-dependent. In this review we will explore how ASK1 regulates a variety of cellular processes from innate immune …


Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka Dec 2023

Needle Biopsy Accelerates Pro-Metastatic Changes And Systemic Dissemination In Breast Cancer: Implications For Mortality By Surgery Delay, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Priya Dondapati, Reese Simmons, Macall Leslie, John Langenheim, Yunguang Sun, Misung Yi, Aubrey Rottschaefer, Rashmi Pathak, Shreya Nuguri, Kar-Ming Fung, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui, Takemi Tanaka

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

ncreased breast cancer (BC) mortality risk posed by delayed surgical resection of tumor after diagnosis is a growing concern, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our cohort analyses of early-stage BC patients reveal the emergence of a significantly rising mortality risk when the biopsy-to-surgery interval was extended beyond 53 days. Additionally, histology of post-biopsy tumors shows prolonged retention of a metastasis-permissive wound stroma dominated by M2-like macrophages capable of promoting cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. We show that needle biopsy promotes systemic dissemination of cancer cells through a mechanism of sustained activation of the COX-2/PGE2/EP2 feedforward loop, …


Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu Dec 2023

Nucleus Accumbens Core Single Cell Ensembles Bidirectionally Respond To Experienced Versus Observed Aversive Events, Oyku Dinckol, Noah Harris Wenger, Jennifer E Zachry, Munir Gunes Kutlu

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Fear learning is a critical feature of survival skills among mammals. In rodents, fear learning manifests itself through direct experience of the aversive event or social transmission of aversive stimuli such as observing and acting on conspecifics' distress. The neuronal network underlying the social transmission of information largely overlaps with the brain regions that mediate behavioral responses to aversive and rewarding stimuli. In this study, we recorded single cell activity patterns of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core neurons using in vivo optical imaging of calcium transients via miniature scopes. This cutting-edge imaging methodology not only allows us to record activity patterns …


Apobec-1 Deletion Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury, Xiaojia Guo, Valerie Blanc, Nicholas O Davidson, Heino Velazquez, Tian-Min Chen, Dennis G Moledina, Gilbert W Moeckel, Robert L Safirstein, Gary V Desir Dec 2023

Apobec-1 Deletion Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury, Xiaojia Guo, Valerie Blanc, Nicholas O Davidson, Heino Velazquez, Tian-Min Chen, Dennis G Moledina, Gilbert W Moeckel, Robert L Safirstein, Gary V Desir

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Cisplatin (CP) induces acute kidney injury (AKI) whereby proximal tubules undergo regulated necrosis. Repair is almost complete after a single dose. We now demonstrate a role for Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (Apobec-1) that is prominently expressed at the interface between acute and chronic kidney injury (CKD), in the recovery from AKI. Apobec-1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited greater mortality than in wild type (WT) and more severe AKI in both CP- and unilateral ischemia reperfusion (IR) with nephrectomy. Specifically, plasma creatinine (pCr) 2.6 ± 0.70 mg/dL for KO, n = 10 and 0.16 ± 0.02 for WT, …


Xtx101, A Tumor-Activated, Fc-Enhanced Anti-Ctla-4 Monoclonal Antibody, Demonstrates Tumor-Growth Inhibition And Tumor-Selective Pharmacodynamics In Mouse Models Of Cancer, Kurt A. Jenkins, Miso Park, Magali Pederzoli-Ribeil, Ugur Eskiocak, Parker Johnson, Wilson Guzman, Megan Mclaughlin, Deborah Moore-Lai, Caitlin O'Toole, Zhen Liu, Benjamin Nicholson, Veronica Flesch, Huawei Qiu, Tim Clackson, Ronan C. O'Hagan, Ulrich Rodeck, Margaret Karow, Jennifer O'Neil, John C. Williams Dec 2023

Xtx101, A Tumor-Activated, Fc-Enhanced Anti-Ctla-4 Monoclonal Antibody, Demonstrates Tumor-Growth Inhibition And Tumor-Selective Pharmacodynamics In Mouse Models Of Cancer, Kurt A. Jenkins, Miso Park, Magali Pederzoli-Ribeil, Ugur Eskiocak, Parker Johnson, Wilson Guzman, Megan Mclaughlin, Deborah Moore-Lai, Caitlin O'Toole, Zhen Liu, Benjamin Nicholson, Veronica Flesch, Huawei Qiu, Tim Clackson, Ronan C. O'Hagan, Ulrich Rodeck, Margaret Karow, Jennifer O'Neil, John C. Williams

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: The clinical benefit of the anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) ipilimumab has been well established but limited by immune-related adverse events, especially when ipilimumab is used in combination with anti-PD-(L)1 mAb therapy. To overcome these limitations, we have developed XTX101, a tumor-activated, Fc-enhanced anti-CTLA-4 mAb.

METHODS: XTX101 consists of an anti-human CTLA-4 mAb covalently linked to masking peptides that block the complementarity-determining regions, thereby minimizing the mAb binding to CTLA-4. The masking peptides are designed to be released by proteases that are typically dysregulated within the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in activation of XTX101 intratumorally. Mutations within the Fc region …


Interleukin 31 Receptor Α Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction And Airway Hyperresponsiveness In Asthma, Santhoshi Akkenepally, Dan Yombo, Sanjana Yerubandi, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, Deepak Deshpande, Francis Mccormack, Satish Madala Dec 2023

Interleukin 31 Receptor Α Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction And Airway Hyperresponsiveness In Asthma, Santhoshi Akkenepally, Dan Yombo, Sanjana Yerubandi, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, Deepak Deshpande, Francis Mccormack, Satish Madala

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Multiple cytokines, including IFNγ, IL-4, and IL-13 are associated with asthma; however, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these cytokines remain unclear. Here, we report a significant increase in the expression of IL-31RA, but not its cognate ligand IL-31, in mouse models of allergic asthma. In support of this, IFNγ, IL-4, and IL-13 upregulated IL-31RA but not IL-31 in both human and mice primary airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) isolated from the airways of murine and human lungs. Importantly, the loss of IL-31RA …


Sirtuin 6 Activation Rescues The Age-Related Decline In Dna Damage Repair In Primary Human Chondrocytes, Michaela E. Copp, Jacqueline Shine, Hannon L. Brown, Kirti R. Nimmala, Oliver B. Hansen, Susan Chubinskaya, John A. Collins, Richard F. Loeser, Brian O. Diekman Dec 2023

Sirtuin 6 Activation Rescues The Age-Related Decline In Dna Damage Repair In Primary Human Chondrocytes, Michaela E. Copp, Jacqueline Shine, Hannon L. Brown, Kirti R. Nimmala, Oliver B. Hansen, Susan Chubinskaya, John A. Collins, Richard F. Loeser, Brian O. Diekman

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

While advanced age is widely recognized as the greatest risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the biological mechanisms behind this connection remain unclear. Previous work has demonstrated that chondrocytes from older cadaveric donors have elevated levels of DNA damage as compared to chondrocytes from younger donors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a decline in DNA repair efficiency is one explanation for the accumulation of DNA damage with age, and to quantify the improvement in repair with activation of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6). After acute damage with irradiation, DNA repair was shown to be more efficient in chondrocytes from …


Docking For Ep4r Antagonists Active Against Inflammatory Pain, Stefan Gahbauer, Tao Che, Et Al. Dec 2023

Docking For Ep4r Antagonists Active Against Inflammatory Pain, Stefan Gahbauer, Tao Che, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The lipid prostaglandin E


Design And Structural Validation Of Peptide-Drug Conjugate Ligands Of The Kappa-Opioid Receptor, Edin Muratspahić, Jianming Han, Balazs R Varga, Kevin Appourchaux, Susruta Majumdar, Tao Che, Et Al. Dec 2023

Design And Structural Validation Of Peptide-Drug Conjugate Ligands Of The Kappa-Opioid Receptor, Edin Muratspahić, Jianming Han, Balazs R Varga, Kevin Appourchaux, Susruta Majumdar, Tao Che, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Despite the increasing number of GPCR structures and recent advances in peptide design, the development of efficient technologies allowing rational design of high-affinity peptide ligands for single GPCRs remains an unmet challenge. Here, we develop a computational approach for designing conjugates of lariat-shaped macrocyclized peptides and a small molecule opioid ligand. We demonstrate its feasibility by discovering chemical scaffolds for the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) with desired pharmacological activities. The designed De Novo Cyclic Peptide (DNCP)-β-naloxamine (NalA) exhibit in vitro potent mixed KOR agonism/mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonism, nanomolar binding affinity, selectivity, and efficacy bias at KOR. Proof-of-concept in vivo efficacy studies …


Antiseizure Effects Of Peganum Harmala L. And Lavandula Angustifolia, Zahra Rahimian, Seyedhassan Sadrian, Mina Shahisavandi, Hadi Aligholi, Mohammad M. Zarshenas, Alireza Abyar, Zahra Zeraatpisheh, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya Dec 2023

Antiseizure Effects Of Peganum Harmala L. And Lavandula Angustifolia, Zahra Rahimian, Seyedhassan Sadrian, Mina Shahisavandi, Hadi Aligholi, Mohammad M. Zarshenas, Alireza Abyar, Zahra Zeraatpisheh, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Peganum harmala L. and Lavandula angustifolia are two traditional herbs with probable antiseizure effects. This study evaluated the effects of these two herbal extracts on pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice. We prepared hydroalcoholic extracts using P. harmala seeds and the aerial parts of L. angustifolia and then randomly divided 190 mice into 19 groups. Normal saline (10 mg/kg), diazepam (2 mg/kg), P. harmala (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg), and L. angustifolia (200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally (IP) administrated 30 min before an IP administration of PTZ (90 mg/kg). Animals were observed for …


Maternal Diet During Early Gestation Influences Postnatal Taste Activity-Dependent Pruning By Microglia, Chengsan Sun, Shuqiu Zheng, Justin S A Perry, Geoffrey T Norris, Mei Cheng, Fanzhen Kong, Rolf Skyberg, Jianhua Cang, Alev Erisir, Jonathan Kipnis, David L Hill Dec 2023

Maternal Diet During Early Gestation Influences Postnatal Taste Activity-Dependent Pruning By Microglia, Chengsan Sun, Shuqiu Zheng, Justin S A Perry, Geoffrey T Norris, Mei Cheng, Fanzhen Kong, Rolf Skyberg, Jianhua Cang, Alev Erisir, Jonathan Kipnis, David L Hill

2020-Current year OA Pubs

A key process in central sensory circuit development involves activity-dependent pruning of exuberant terminals. Here, we studied gustatory terminal field maturation in the postnatal mouse nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) during normal development and in mice where their mothers were fed a low NaCl diet for a limited period soon after conception. Pruning of terminal fields of gustatory nerves in controls involved the complement system and is likely driven by NaCl-elicited taste activity. In contrast, offspring of mothers with an early dietary manipulation failed to prune gustatory terminal fields even though peripheral taste activity developed normally. The ability to …