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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Microrna-1 Attenuates The Growth And Metastasis Of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through Cxcr4/Foxm1/Rrm2 Axis, Parvez Khan, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Prakash Kshirsagar Dr., Ramakanth Chirravuri Venkata, Shailendra K. Maurya, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Naveenkumar Perumal, Sanjib Chaudhary, Ranjana K. Kanchan, Mahek Fatima, Md Arafat Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Sidharth Mahapatra, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Prakash Kulkarni, Apar Kishor Ganti, Maneesh Jain, Ravi Salgia, Surinder K. Batra, Mohd W. Nasser Jan 2023

Microrna-1 Attenuates The Growth And Metastasis Of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through Cxcr4/Foxm1/Rrm2 Axis, Parvez Khan, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Prakash Kshirsagar Dr., Ramakanth Chirravuri Venkata, Shailendra K. Maurya, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Naveenkumar Perumal, Sanjib Chaudhary, Ranjana K. Kanchan, Mahek Fatima, Md Arafat Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Sidharth Mahapatra, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Prakash Kulkarni, Apar Kishor Ganti, Maneesh Jain, Ravi Salgia, Surinder K. Batra, Mohd W. Nasser

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung cancer subtype that is associated with high recurrence and poor prognosis. Due to lack of potential drug targets, SCLC patients have few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide an interesting repertoire of therapeutic molecules; however, the identification of miRNAs regulating SCLC growth and metastasis and their precise regulatory mechanisms are not well understood.

METHODS: To identify novel miRNAs regulating SCLC, we performed miRNA-sequencing from donor/patient serum samples and analyzed the bulk RNA-sequencing data from the tumors of SCLC patients. Further, we developed a nanotechnology-based, highly sensitive method to detect microRNA-1 (miR-1, …


Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al. Dec 2022

Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Alterations in phospholipids have long been associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, their specific roles and signaling cascades in mediating cell death and tissue repair remain unclear. Here we investigated whether alterations of cardiolipin (CL), a family of mitochondrion-specific phospholipids, play a crucial role in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death following SCI. Lipidomic analysis was used to determine the profile of CL alteration in the adult rat spinal cord following a moderate contusive SCI at the 10th thoracic (T10) level. Cellular, molecular, and genetic assessments were performed to determine whether CL alterations mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death after …


Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan Dec 2022

Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The role of NK cells against HIV-1 infections remains to be elucidated in vivo. While humanized mouse models potentially could be used to directly evaluate human NK cell responses during HIV-1 infection, improved functional development of human NK cells in these hosts is needed. Here, we report the humanized MISTRG-6-15 mouse model, in which NK cells were quick to expand and exhibit degranulation, cytotoxicity, and proinflammatory cytokine production in nonlymphoid organs upon HIV-1 infection but had reduced functionality in lymphoid organs. Although HIV-1 infection induced functional impairment of NK cells, antiretroviral therapy reinvigorated NK cells in response to HIV-1 rebound …


Gata1 Controls Numbers Of Hematopoietic Progenitors And Their Response To Autoimmune Neuroinflammation, Daniel Hwang, Larissa Ishikawa, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Elisabeth R. Mari, Ezgi Kasimoglu, Ziver Sahin, Alexandra Boehm, Soohwa Jang, Javad Rasouli, Courtney Vaccaro, Michael Gonzalez, Hakon Hakonarson, Mohamad Rostami, Guang-Xian Zhang, Bogoljub Ciric Dec 2022

Gata1 Controls Numbers Of Hematopoietic Progenitors And Their Response To Autoimmune Neuroinflammation, Daniel Hwang, Larissa Ishikawa, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Elisabeth R. Mari, Ezgi Kasimoglu, Ziver Sahin, Alexandra Boehm, Soohwa Jang, Javad Rasouli, Courtney Vaccaro, Michael Gonzalez, Hakon Hakonarson, Mohamad Rostami, Guang-Xian Zhang, Bogoljub Ciric

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

GATA-binding factor 1 (GATA1) is a transcription factor that governs the development and function of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. GATA1 is expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and is essential for erythroid lineage commitment; however, whether it plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology and the development of myeloid cells, and what that role might be, remains unclear. We initially set out to test the role of eosinophils in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of central nervous system autoimmunity, using mice lacking a double GATA-site (ΔdblGATA), which lacks eosinophils due to the deletion of the …


Acetyl-Coa-Mediated Autoacetylation Of Fatty Acid Synthase As A Metabolic Switch Of De Novo Lipogenesis In Drosophila, Ting Miao, Jinoh Kim, Ping Kang, Hideji Fujiwara, Fong-Fu Hsu, Hua Bai Dec 2022

Acetyl-Coa-Mediated Autoacetylation Of Fatty Acid Synthase As A Metabolic Switch Of De Novo Lipogenesis In Drosophila, Ting Miao, Jinoh Kim, Ping Kang, Hideji Fujiwara, Fong-Fu Hsu, Hua Bai

2020-Current year OA Pubs

De novo lipogenesis is a highly regulated metabolic process, which is known to be activated through transcriptional regulation of lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN). Unexpectedly, we find that the expression of FASN protein remains unchanged during


The Lack Of Natural Igm Increases Susceptibility And Impairs Anti-Vi Polysaccharide Igg Responses In A Mouse Model Of Typhoid, Akhil S. Alugupalli, Matthew P. Cravens, Justin A. Walker, Dania Gulandijany, Gregory S. Dickinson, Genevieve Lewis, Gudrun F. Debes, Dieter M. Schifferli, Andreas J. Bäumler, Kishore R. Alugupalli Dec 2022

The Lack Of Natural Igm Increases Susceptibility And Impairs Anti-Vi Polysaccharide Igg Responses In A Mouse Model Of Typhoid, Akhil S. Alugupalli, Matthew P. Cravens, Justin A. Walker, Dania Gulandijany, Gregory S. Dickinson, Genevieve Lewis, Gudrun F. Debes, Dieter M. Schifferli, Andreas J. Bäumler, Kishore R. Alugupalli

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Circulating IgM present in the body prior to any apparent Ag exposure is referred to as natural IgM. Natural IgM provides protective immunity against a variety of pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans. Because mice are not permissive to S. Typhi infection, we employed a murine model of typhoid using S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing the Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) of S. Typhi (S. Typhimurium strain RC60) to evaluate the role of natural IgM in pathogenesis. We found that natural mouse IgM binds to S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium. The severity …


Epidemiology And Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococci Other Than Staphylococcus Aureus From Domestic Animals And Livestock In Africa: A Systematic Review, Remous Ocloo, Justin Nyasinga, Mohammed Munshi, Aisha Hamdy, Tessa Marciniak, Manonmani Soundararajan, Mae Newton-Foot, Wilma Ziebuhr, Manonmani Soundararajan, Gunturu Revathi Dec 2022

Epidemiology And Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococci Other Than Staphylococcus Aureus From Domestic Animals And Livestock In Africa: A Systematic Review, Remous Ocloo, Justin Nyasinga, Mohammed Munshi, Aisha Hamdy, Tessa Marciniak, Manonmani Soundararajan, Mae Newton-Foot, Wilma Ziebuhr, Manonmani Soundararajan, Gunturu Revathi

Pathology, East Africa

Introduction: Staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus (SOSA) in animals are becoming more pathogenic and antibiotic resistant and can potentially disseminate to humans. However, there is little synthesized information regarding SOSA from animals in Africa. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of SOSA in companion animals (pets) and livestock in Africa.

Method: This systematic review (PROSPERO-CRD42021252303) was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, and 75 eligible studies from 13 countries were identified until August 2022. Three electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science) were employed.

Results: The frequently isolated SOSA …


Macrophage Depletion Blocks Congenital Sarm1-Dependent Neuropathy, Caitlin B Dingwall, Amy Strickland, Sabrina W Yum, Aldrin Ky Yim, Jian Zhu, Peter L. Wang, Yurie Yamada, Robert E. Schmidt, Yo Sasaki, A. Joseph Bloom, Aaron Diantonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt Dec 2022

Macrophage Depletion Blocks Congenital Sarm1-Dependent Neuropathy, Caitlin B Dingwall, Amy Strickland, Sabrina W Yum, Aldrin Ky Yim, Jian Zhu, Peter L. Wang, Yurie Yamada, Robert E. Schmidt, Yo Sasaki, A. Joseph Bloom, Aaron Diantonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Axon loss contributes to many common neurodegenerative disorders. In healthy axons, the axon survival factor NMNAT2 inhibits SARM1, the central executioner of programmed axon degeneration. We identified 2 rare NMNAT2 missense variants in 2 brothers afflicted with a progressive neuropathy syndrome. The polymorphisms resulted in amino acid substitutions V98M and R232Q, which reduced NMNAT2 NAD+-synthetase activity. We generated a mouse model to mirror the human syndrome and found that Nmnat2V98M/R232Q compound-heterozygous CRISPR mice survived to adulthood but developed progressive motor dysfunction, peripheral axon loss, and macrophage infiltration. These disease phenotypes were all SARM1-dependent. Remarkably, macrophage depletion therapy blocked and reversed …


Comparing Antigenaemia- And Microfilaraemia As Criteria For Stopping Decisions In Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes In Africa, Wilma A. Stolk, Luc E. Coffeng, Fatorma K. Bolay, Obiora A. Eneanya, Peter U. Fischer, T. Déirdre Hollingsworth, Benjamin G. Koudou, Aboulaye Méité, Edwin Michael, Joaquin M. Prada, Rocio M. Caja Rivera, Swarnali Sharma, Panayiota Touloupou, Gary J. Weil, Sake J. De Vlas Dec 2022

Comparing Antigenaemia- And Microfilaraemia As Criteria For Stopping Decisions In Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes In Africa, Wilma A. Stolk, Luc E. Coffeng, Fatorma K. Bolay, Obiora A. Eneanya, Peter U. Fischer, T. Déirdre Hollingsworth, Benjamin G. Koudou, Aboulaye Méité, Edwin Michael, Joaquin M. Prada, Rocio M. Caja Rivera, Swarnali Sharma, Panayiota Touloupou, Gary J. Weil, Sake J. De Vlas

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) is the main strategy towards lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination. Progress is monitored by assessing microfilaraemia (Mf) or circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) prevalence, the latter being more practical for field surveys. The current criterion for stopping MDA requires <2% CFA prevalence in 6- to 7-year olds, but this criterion is not evidence-based. We used mathematical modelling to investigate the validity of different thresholds regarding testing method and age group for African MDA programmes using ivermectin plus albendazole.

METHODOLGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We verified that our model captures observed patterns in Mf and CFA prevalence during annual MDA, assuming that CFA tests are positive if at least one adult worm is present. We then assessed how well elimination can be predicted from CFA prevalence in 6-7-year-old children or from Mf or CFA prevalence in the 5+ or 15+ …


A Sarm1-Mitochondrial Feedback Loop Drives Neuropathogenesis In A Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 2a Rat Model, Yurie Sato-Yamada, Amy Strickland, Yo Sasaki, Joseph Bloom, Aaron Diantonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt Dec 2022

A Sarm1-Mitochondrial Feedback Loop Drives Neuropathogenesis In A Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 2a Rat Model, Yurie Sato-Yamada, Amy Strickland, Yo Sasaki, Joseph Bloom, Aaron Diantonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A) is an axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene. MFN2 mutations result in profound mitochondrial abnormalities, but the mechanism underlying the axonal pathology is unknown. Sterile α and Toll/IL-1 receptor motif-containing 1 (SARM1), the central executioner of axon degeneration, can induce neuropathy and is activated by dysfunctional mitochondria. We tested the role of SARM1 in a rat model carrying a dominant CMT2A mutation (Mfn2H361Y) that exhibits progressive dying-back axonal degeneration, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities, muscle atrophy, and mitochondrial abnormalities - all hallmarks of the human disease. We generated Sarm1-KO (Sarm1-/-) and …


Piperine Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress, Lung Inflammation, And Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition By Modulating The Sirt1/Nrf2 Axis, Pritam Saha, Sneha Durugkar, Siddhi Jain, P A Shantanu, Samir R Panda, Aishwarya Jala, Sharad Gokhale, Pawan Sharma, V G M Naidu Nov 2022

Piperine Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress, Lung Inflammation, And Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition By Modulating The Sirt1/Nrf2 Axis, Pritam Saha, Sneha Durugkar, Siddhi Jain, P A Shantanu, Samir R Panda, Aishwarya Jala, Sharad Gokhale, Pawan Sharma, V G M Naidu

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

Piperine (PIP) is a major phytoconstituent in black pepper which is responsible for various pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activity. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of PIP on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung pathology using both in-vitro and in-vivo models. BEAS-2B and A549 cells were exposed to CS extract (CSE) for 48 h; BALB/c mice were exposed to CS (9 cigarettes/day, 4 days) to induce features of airway disease. PIP at doses of (0.25, 1.25, and 6.25 µM, in vitro; 1 and 10 mg/kg, in vivo, i.n) and DEX (1 µM, in vitro; 1 mg/kg, in vivo, …


Mahpic Malaria Systems Biology Data From Plasmodium Cynomolgi Sporozoite Longitudinal Infections In Macaques, Jeremy D Debarry, Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S Ory, Et Al. Nov 2022

Mahpic Malaria Systems Biology Data From Plasmodium Cynomolgi Sporozoite Longitudinal Infections In Macaques, Jeremy D Debarry, Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S Ory, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Plasmodium cynomolgi causes zoonotic malarial infections in Southeast Asia and this parasite species is important as a model for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Each of these species produces hypnozoites in the liver, which can cause relapsing infections in the blood. Here we present methods and data generated from iterative longitudinal systems biology infection experiments designed and performed by the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC) to delve deeper into the biology, pathogenesis, and immune responses of P. cynomolgi in the Macaca mulatta host. Infections were initiated by sporozoite inoculation. Blood and bone marrow samples were collected at defined timepoints for …


Interferon Partly Dictates A Divergent Transcriptional Response In Poxvirus-Infected And Bystander Inflammatory Monocytes, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Marisa I Roman, Cory J Knudson, Lingjuan Tang, Ren-Huan Xu, Michel Tassetto, Patrick Dolan, Raul Andino, Luis J. Sigal Nov 2022

Interferon Partly Dictates A Divergent Transcriptional Response In Poxvirus-Infected And Bystander Inflammatory Monocytes, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Marisa I Roman, Cory J Knudson, Lingjuan Tang, Ren-Huan Xu, Michel Tassetto, Patrick Dolan, Raul Andino, Luis J. Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Inflammatory monocytes (iMOs) and B cells are the main targets of the poxvirus ectromelia virus (ECTV) in the lymph nodes of mice and play distinct roles in surviving the infection. Infected and bystander iMOs control ECTV's systemic spread, preventing early death, while B cells make antibodies that eliminate ECTV. Our work demonstrates that within an infected animal that survives ECTV infection, intrinsic and bystander infection of iMOs and B cells differentially control the transcription of genes important for immune cell function and, perhaps, cell identity. Bystander cells upregulate metabolism, antigen presentation, and interferon-stimulated genes. Infected cells downregulate many cell-type-specific genes …


Evaluation Of Cisplatin-Induced Pathology In The Larval Zebrafish Lateral Line, David S Lee, Angela Schrader, Emily Bell, Mark E Warchol, Lavinia Sheets Nov 2022

Evaluation Of Cisplatin-Induced Pathology In The Larval Zebrafish Lateral Line, David S Lee, Angela Schrader, Emily Bell, Mark E Warchol, Lavinia Sheets

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Cisplatin is an effective anticancer agent, but also causes permanent hearing loss by damaging hair cells-the sensory receptors essential for hearing. There is an urgent clinical need to protect cochlear hair cells in patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy. The zebrafish lateral line organ contains hair cells and has been frequently used in studies to screen for otoprotective compounds. However, these studies have employed a wide range of cisplatin dosages and exposure times. We therefore performed a comprehensive evaluation of cisplatin ototoxicity in the zebrafish lateral line with the goal of producing a standardized, clinically relevant protocol for future studies. To define …


Human Dectin-1 Deficiency Impairs Macrophage-Mediated Defense Against Phaeohyphomycosis, Rebecca A. Drummond, Jigar V. Desai, Amy P. Hsu, Vasileios Oikonomou, Donald C. Vinh, Joshua A. Acklin, Michael S. Abers, Magdalena A. Walkiewicz, Sarah L. Anzick, Muthulekha Swamydas, Simon Vautier, Mukil Natarajan, Andrew J. Oler, Daisuke Yamanaka, Katrin D. Mayer-Barber, Yoichiro Iwakura, David Bianchi, Brian Driscoll, Ken Hauck, Ahnika Kline, Nicholas S.P. Viall, Christa S. Zerbe, Elise M.N. Ferré, Monica M. Schmitt, Tom Dimaggio, Stefania Pittaluga, John A. Butman, Adrian M. Zelazny, Yvonne R. Shea, Cesar A. Arias, Cameron Ashbaugh, Maryam Mahmood, Zelalem Temesgen, Alexander G. Theofiles, Masayuki Nigo, Varsha Moudgal, Karen C. Bloch, Sean G. Kelly, M. Suzanne Whitworth, Ganesh Rao, Cindy J. Whitener, Neema Mafi, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Lawrence C. Kenyon, William R. Miller, Katia Boggian, Andrea Gilbert, Matthew Sincock, Alexandra F. Freeman, John E. Bennett, Rodrigo Hasbun, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Yasmine Belkaid, Gordon D. Brown, Jean K. Lim, Douglas B. Kuhns, Steven M. Holland, Michail S. Lionakis Nov 2022

Human Dectin-1 Deficiency Impairs Macrophage-Mediated Defense Against Phaeohyphomycosis, Rebecca A. Drummond, Jigar V. Desai, Amy P. Hsu, Vasileios Oikonomou, Donald C. Vinh, Joshua A. Acklin, Michael S. Abers, Magdalena A. Walkiewicz, Sarah L. Anzick, Muthulekha Swamydas, Simon Vautier, Mukil Natarajan, Andrew J. Oler, Daisuke Yamanaka, Katrin D. Mayer-Barber, Yoichiro Iwakura, David Bianchi, Brian Driscoll, Ken Hauck, Ahnika Kline, Nicholas S.P. Viall, Christa S. Zerbe, Elise M.N. Ferré, Monica M. Schmitt, Tom Dimaggio, Stefania Pittaluga, John A. Butman, Adrian M. Zelazny, Yvonne R. Shea, Cesar A. Arias, Cameron Ashbaugh, Maryam Mahmood, Zelalem Temesgen, Alexander G. Theofiles, Masayuki Nigo, Varsha Moudgal, Karen C. Bloch, Sean G. Kelly, M. Suzanne Whitworth, Ganesh Rao, Cindy J. Whitener, Neema Mafi, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Lawrence C. Kenyon, William R. Miller, Katia Boggian, Andrea Gilbert, Matthew Sincock, Alexandra F. Freeman, John E. Bennett, Rodrigo Hasbun, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Yasmine Belkaid, Gordon D. Brown, Jean K. Lim, Douglas B. Kuhns, Steven M. Holland, Michail S. Lionakis

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis typically affects immunocompetent individuals following traumatic inoculation. Severe or disseminated infection can occur in CARD9 deficiency or after transplantation, but the mechanisms protecting against phaeohyphomycosis remain unclear. We evaluated a patient with progressive, refractory Corynespora cassiicola phaeohyphomycosis and found that he carried biallelic deleterious mutations in CLEC7A encoding the CARD9-coupled, β-glucan-binding receptor, Dectin-1. The patient's PBMCs failed to produce TNF-α and IL-1β in response to β-glucan and/or C. cassiicola. To confirm the cellular and molecular requirements for immunity against C. cassiicola, we developed a mouse model of this infection. Mouse macrophages required Dectin-1 and CARD9 for IL-1β and …


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Heat-Labile Toxin Drives Enteropathic Changes In Small Intestinal Epithelia, Alaullah Sheikh, Brunda Tumala, Tim J Vickers, John C Martin, Bruce A Rosa, Subrata Sabui, Supratim Basu, Rita D Simoes, Makedonka Mitreva, Chad Storer, Erik Tyksen, Richard D Head, Wandy Beatty, Hamid M Said, James M Fleckenstein Nov 2022

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Heat-Labile Toxin Drives Enteropathic Changes In Small Intestinal Epithelia, Alaullah Sheikh, Brunda Tumala, Tim J Vickers, John C Martin, Bruce A Rosa, Subrata Sabui, Supratim Basu, Rita D Simoes, Makedonka Mitreva, Chad Storer, Erik Tyksen, Richard D Head, Wandy Beatty, Hamid M Said, James M Fleckenstein

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins, and commonly cause diarrhea in resource-poor regions. ETEC have been linked repeatedly to sequelae in children including enteropathy, malnutrition, and growth impairment. Although cellular actions of ETEC enterotoxins leading to diarrhea are well-established, their contributions to sequelae remain unclear. LT increases cellular cAMP to activate protein kinase A (PKA) that phosphorylates ion channels driving intestinal export of salt and water resulting in diarrhea. As PKA also modulates transcription of many genes, we interrogated transcriptional profiles of LT-treated intestinal epithelia. Here we show that LT significantly alters intestinal epithelial gene …


Caspase-8 Inactivation Drives Autophagy-Dependent Inflammasome Activation In Myeloid Cells., Yung-Hsuan Wu, Shu-Ting Mo, I-Ting Chen, Fu-Yi Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Jianke Zhang, Ming-Zong Lai Nov 2022

Caspase-8 Inactivation Drives Autophagy-Dependent Inflammasome Activation In Myeloid Cells., Yung-Hsuan Wu, Shu-Ting Mo, I-Ting Chen, Fu-Yi Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Jianke Zhang, Ming-Zong Lai

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Caspase-8 activity controls the switch from cell death to pyroptosis when apoptosis and necroptosis are blocked, yet how caspase-8 inactivation induces inflammasome assembly remains unclear. We show that caspase-8 inhibition via IETD treatment in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-primed Fadd-/-Ripk3-/- myeloid cells promoted interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 production through inflammasome activation. Caspase-8, caspase-1/11, and functional GSDMD, but not NLRP3 or RIPK1 activity, proved essential for IETD-triggered inflammasome activation. Autophagy became prominent in IETD-treated Fadd-/-Ripk3-/- macrophages, and inhibiting it attenuated IETD-induced cell death and IL-1β/IL-18 production. In contrast, inhibiting GSDMD or autophagy did not prevent IETD-induced septic …


Ornithine Decarboxylase Supports Ilc3 Responses In Infectious And Autoimmune Colitis Through Positive Regulation Of Il-22 Transcription, Vincent Peng, Siyan Cao, Tihana Trsan, Jennifer K Bando, Julian Avila-Pacheco, John L Cleveland, Clary Clish, Ramnik J Xavier, Marco Colonna Nov 2022

Ornithine Decarboxylase Supports Ilc3 Responses In Infectious And Autoimmune Colitis Through Positive Regulation Of Il-22 Transcription, Vincent Peng, Siyan Cao, Tihana Trsan, Jennifer K Bando, Julian Avila-Pacheco, John L Cleveland, Clary Clish, Ramnik J Xavier, Marco Colonna

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are RORγT


A Human Stat3 Gain-Of-Function Variant Confers T Cell Dysregulation Without Predominant Treg Dysfunction In Mice, Erica G Schmitt, Kelsey A Toth, Samuel I Risma, Ana Kolicheski, Nermina Saucier, Rafael J. Feliciano Berríos, Zev J. Greenberg, Jennifer W. Leiding, Jack J. Bleesing, Akaluck Thatayatikom, Laura G. Schuettpelz, John R. Edwards, Tiphanie P. Vogel, Megan A Cooper Nov 2022

A Human Stat3 Gain-Of-Function Variant Confers T Cell Dysregulation Without Predominant Treg Dysfunction In Mice, Erica G Schmitt, Kelsey A Toth, Samuel I Risma, Ana Kolicheski, Nermina Saucier, Rafael J. Feliciano Berríos, Zev J. Greenberg, Jennifer W. Leiding, Jack J. Bleesing, Akaluck Thatayatikom, Laura G. Schuettpelz, John R. Edwards, Tiphanie P. Vogel, Megan A Cooper

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD) represent a group of disorders characterized by immune dysregulation, presenting with a wide range of clinical disease, including autoimmunity, autoinflammation, or lymphoproliferation. Autosomal dominant germline gain-of-function (GOF) variants in STAT3 result in a PIRD with a broad clinical spectrum. Studies in patients have documented a decreased frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs and an increased frequency of Th17 cells in some patients with active disease. However, the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in STAT3 GOF syndrome remain largely unknown, and treatment is challenging. We developed a knock-in mouse model harboring a de novo pathogenic human STAT3 variant (p.G421R) …


The Nogo Receptor Ngr2, A Novel Αvβ3 Integrin Effector, Induces Neuroendocrine Differentiation In Prostate Cancer, Fabio Quaglia, Shiv Ram Krishn, Khalid Sossey-Alaoui, Priyanka Shailendra Rana, Elzbieta Pluskota, Pyung Hun Park, Christopher D. Shields, Stephen Lin, Peter Mccue, Andrew V. Kossenkov, Yanqing Wang, David W. Goodrich, Sheng-Yu Ku, Himisha Beltran, William K. Kelly, Eva Corey, Maja Klose, Christine Bandtlow, Qin Liu, Dario C. Altieri, Edward F. Plow, Lucia R. Languino Nov 2022

The Nogo Receptor Ngr2, A Novel Αvβ3 Integrin Effector, Induces Neuroendocrine Differentiation In Prostate Cancer, Fabio Quaglia, Shiv Ram Krishn, Khalid Sossey-Alaoui, Priyanka Shailendra Rana, Elzbieta Pluskota, Pyung Hun Park, Christopher D. Shields, Stephen Lin, Peter Mccue, Andrew V. Kossenkov, Yanqing Wang, David W. Goodrich, Sheng-Yu Ku, Himisha Beltran, William K. Kelly, Eva Corey, Maja Klose, Christine Bandtlow, Qin Liu, Dario C. Altieri, Edward F. Plow, Lucia R. Languino

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Androgen deprivation therapies aimed to target prostate cancer (PrCa) are only partially successful given the occurrence of neuroendocrine PrCa (NEPrCa), a highly aggressive and highly metastatic form of PrCa, for which there is no effective therapeutic approach. Our group has demonstrated that while absent in prostate adenocarcinoma, the αVβ3 integrin expression is increased during PrCa progression toward NEPrCa. Here, we show a novel pathway activated by αVβ3 that promotes NE differentiation (NED). This novel pathway requires the expression of a GPI-linked surface molecule, NgR2, also known as Nogo-66 receptor homolog 1. We show here that NgR2 is upregulated by αVβ3, …


Uremic Myopathy And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Kidney Disease, Eurico Serrano, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Zhao Lin, Megan Roche, Maria Paula Martinez Cantarin Nov 2022

Uremic Myopathy And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Kidney Disease, Eurico Serrano, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Zhao Lin, Megan Roche, Maria Paula Martinez Cantarin

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Alterations in muscle structure and function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are associated with poor outcomes. As key organelles in muscle cell homeostasis, mitochondrial metabolism has been studied in the context of muscle dysfunction in CKD. We conducted a study to determine the contribution of oxidative metabolism, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation to the muscle metabolism in CKD. Mice developed CKD by exposure to adenine in the diet. Muscle of CKD mice showed significant weight loss compared to non-CKD mice, but only extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed a decreased number of fibers. There was no difference in the …


Single-Cell Multiomics Identifies Clinically Relevant Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells And Key Regulators For Mpnst Malignancy, Lai Man Natalie Wu, Joshua Rubin, Et Al. Nov 2022

Single-Cell Multiomics Identifies Clinically Relevant Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells And Key Regulators For Mpnst Malignancy, Lai Man Natalie Wu, Joshua Rubin, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly aggressive Schwann cell (SC)-derived soft tissue sarcoma, arises from benign neurofibroma (NF); however, the identity, heterogeneity and origins of tumor populations remain elusive. Nestin


A New Mouse Model Of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2j Neuropathy Replicates Human Axonopathy And Suggest Alteration In Axo-Glia Communication, Ghjuvan'ghjacumu Shackleford, Yo Sasaki, Et Al. Nov 2022

A New Mouse Model Of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2j Neuropathy Replicates Human Axonopathy And Suggest Alteration In Axo-Glia Communication, Ghjuvan'ghjacumu Shackleford, Yo Sasaki, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Myelin is essential for rapid nerve impulse propagation and axon protection. Accordingly, defects in myelination or myelin maintenance lead to secondary axonal damage and subsequent degeneration. Studies utilizing genetic (CNPase-, MAG-, and PLP-null mice) and naturally occurring neuropathy models suggest that myelinating glia also support axons independently from myelin. Myelin protein zero (MPZ or P0), which is expressed only by Schwann cells, is critical for myelin formation and maintenance in the peripheral nervous system. Many mutations in MPZ are associated with demyelinating neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B [CMT1B]). Surprisingly, the substitution of threonine by methionine at position 124 of P0 …


Transgenic Force Sensors And Software To Measure Force Transmission Across The Mammalian Nuclear Envelope In Vivo, Kelli D Fenelon, Evan Thomas, Mohammad Samani, Min Zhu, Hirotaka Tao, Yu Sun, Helen Mcneill, Sevan Hopyan Nov 2022

Transgenic Force Sensors And Software To Measure Force Transmission Across The Mammalian Nuclear Envelope In Vivo, Kelli D Fenelon, Evan Thomas, Mohammad Samani, Min Zhu, Hirotaka Tao, Yu Sun, Helen Mcneill, Sevan Hopyan

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Nuclear mechanotransduction is a growing field with exciting implications for the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Mechanical signals may be transduced to the nuclear interior biochemically or physically through connections between the cell surface and chromatin. To define mechanical stresses upon the nucleus in physiological settings, we generated transgenic mouse strains that harbour FRET-based tension sensors or control constructs in the outer and inner aspects of the nuclear envelope. We knocked-in a published esprin-2G sensor to measure tensions across the LINC complex and generated a new sensor that links the inner nuclear membrane to chromatin. To mitigate challenges …


Terminase Subunits From The Pseudomonas-Phage E217, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Steven G Doll, Fenglin Li, Richard E Gillilan, Francesca Forti, David S Horner, Federica Briani, Gino Cingolani Oct 2022

Terminase Subunits From The Pseudomonas-Phage E217, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Steven G Doll, Fenglin Li, Richard E Gillilan, Francesca Forti, David S Horner, Federica Briani, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Pseudomonas phages are increasingly important biomedicines for phage therapy, but little is known about how these viruses package DNA. This paper explores the terminase subunits from the Myoviridae E217, a Pseudomonas-phage used in an experimental cocktail to eradicate P. aeruginosa in vitro and in animal models. We identified the large (TerL) and small (TerS) terminase subunits in two genes ∼58 kbs away from each other in the E217 genome. TerL presents a classical two-domain architecture, consisting of an N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal nuclease domain arranged into a bean-shaped tertiary structure. A 2.05 Å crystal structure of the C-terminal domain revealed …


Desmoglein-2 Is Important For Islet Function And Β-Cell Survival, Kay K. Myo Min, Darling Rojas-Canales, Daniella Penko, Mark Denichilo, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Charlie B. Ffrench, Emma J. Thompson, Olof Asplund, Christopher J. Drogemuller, Rashmi B. Prasad, Leif Groop, Shane T Grey, Helen E. Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Thomas W. Kay, My G. Mahoney, Claire F. Jessup, P. Toby Coates, Claudine S. Bonder Oct 2022

Desmoglein-2 Is Important For Islet Function And Β-Cell Survival, Kay K. Myo Min, Darling Rojas-Canales, Daniella Penko, Mark Denichilo, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Charlie B. Ffrench, Emma J. Thompson, Olof Asplund, Christopher J. Drogemuller, Rashmi B. Prasad, Leif Groop, Shane T Grey, Helen E. Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Thomas W. Kay, My G. Mahoney, Claire F. Jessup, P. Toby Coates, Claudine S. Bonder

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease characterized by the lack of endogenous insulin secreted from the pancreatic β-cells. Although β-cell targeted autoimmune processes and β-cell dysfunction are known to occur in type 1 diabetes, a complete understanding of the cell-to-cell interactions that support pancreatic function is still lacking. To characterize the pancreatic endocrine compartment, we studied pancreata from healthy adult donors and investigated a single cell surface adhesion molecule, desmoglein-2 (DSG2). Genetically-modified mice lacking Dsg2 were examined for islet cell mass, insulin production, responses to glucose, susceptibility to a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of hyperglycaemia, and ability to cure diabetes …


Discovery And Characterization Of Potent, Efficacious, Orally Available Antimalarial Plasmepsin X Inhibitors And Preclinical Safety Assessment Of Ucb7362, Martin A Lowe, Daniel E Goldberg, Et Al. Oct 2022

Discovery And Characterization Of Potent, Efficacious, Orally Available Antimalarial Plasmepsin X Inhibitors And Preclinical Safety Assessment Of Ucb7362, Martin A Lowe, Daniel E Goldberg, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Plasmepsin X (PMX) is an essential aspartyl protease controlling malaria parasite egress and invasion of erythrocytes, development of functional liver merozoites (prophylactic activity), and blocking transmission to mosquitoes, making it a potential multistage drug target. We report the optimization of an aspartyl protease binding scaffold and the discovery of potent, orally active PMX inhibitors with in vivo antimalarial efficacy. Incorporation of safety evaluation early in the characterization of PMX inhibitors precluded compounds with a long human half-life (


Human Neutrophil Development And Functionality Are Enabled In A Humanized Mouse Model, Yunjiang Zheng, Esen Sefik, John Astle, Kutay Karatepe, Hasan H Öz, Angel G Solis, Ruaidhrí Jackson, Hongbo R Luo, Emanuela M Bruscia, Stephanie Halene, Liang Shan, Richard A Flavell Oct 2022

Human Neutrophil Development And Functionality Are Enabled In A Humanized Mouse Model, Yunjiang Zheng, Esen Sefik, John Astle, Kutay Karatepe, Hasan H Öz, Angel G Solis, Ruaidhrí Jackson, Hongbo R Luo, Emanuela M Bruscia, Stephanie Halene, Liang Shan, Richard A Flavell

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Mice with a functional human immune system serve as an invaluable tool to study the development and function of the human immune system in vivo. A major technological limitation of all current humanized mouse models is the lack of mature and functional human neutrophils in circulation and tissues. To overcome this, we generated a humanized mouse model named MISTRGGR, in which the mouse granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was replaced with human G-CSF and the mouse G-CSF receptor gene was deleted in existing MISTRG mice. By targeting the G-CSF cytokine-receptor axis, we dramatically improved the reconstitution of mature circulating and tissue-infiltrating …


Sex Difference Leads To Differential Gene Expression Patterns And Therapeutic Efficacy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Iva Murine Model Receiving Aav8 Gene Therapy, Matthew Matthew Piechnik, Paige C. Amendum, Kazuki Sawamoto, Molly Stapleton, Shaukat Khan, Nidhi Fnu, Victor Álvarez, Angelica Maria Herreño Pachon, Olivier Danos, Joseph T. Bruder, Subha Karumuthil-Melethil, Shunji Tomatsu Oct 2022

Sex Difference Leads To Differential Gene Expression Patterns And Therapeutic Efficacy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Iva Murine Model Receiving Aav8 Gene Therapy, Matthew Matthew Piechnik, Paige C. Amendum, Kazuki Sawamoto, Molly Stapleton, Shaukat Khan, Nidhi Fnu, Victor Álvarez, Angelica Maria Herreño Pachon, Olivier Danos, Joseph T. Bruder, Subha Karumuthil-Melethil, Shunji Tomatsu

Student Papers & Posters

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-based therapies can effectively correct some disease pathology in murine models with mucopolysaccharidoses. However, immunogenicity can limit therapeutic effect as immune responses target capsid proteins, transduced cells, and gene therapy products, ultimately resulting in loss of enzyme activity. Inherent differences in male versus female immune response can significantly impact AAV gene transfer. We aim to investigate sex differences in the immune response to AAV gene therapies in mice with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). MPS IVA mice, treated with different AAV vectors expressing human N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), demonstrated a more robust antibody response in female mice resulting …


Il-1Β-Dependent Extravasation Of Preexisting Lung-Restricted Autoantibodies During Lung Transplantation Activates Complement And Mediates Primary Graft Dysfunction, Wenbin Yang, Daniel Kreisel, Et Al. Oct 2022

Il-1Β-Dependent Extravasation Of Preexisting Lung-Restricted Autoantibodies During Lung Transplantation Activates Complement And Mediates Primary Graft Dysfunction, Wenbin Yang, Daniel Kreisel, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Preexisting lung-restricted autoantibodies (LRAs) are associated with a higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction (PGD), although it remains unclear whether LRAs can drive its pathogenesis. In syngeneic murine left lung transplant recipients, preexisting LRAs worsened graft dysfunction, which was evident by impaired gas exchange, increased pulmonary edema, and activation of damage-associated pathways in lung epithelial cells. LRA-mediated injury was distinct from ischemia-reperfusion injury since deletion of donor nonclassical monocytes and host neutrophils could not prevent graft dysfunction in LRA-pretreated recipients. Whole LRA IgG molecules were necessary for lung injury, which was mediated by the classical and alternative complement pathways and …