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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Testing, Training, And Optimising Performance Of Track Cyclists: A Systematic Mapping Review, Antony M. Stadnyk, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Jamie Stanley, Paolo Menaspà, Katie M. Slattery Sep 2021

Testing, Training, And Optimising Performance Of Track Cyclists: A Systematic Mapping Review, Antony M. Stadnyk, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Jamie Stanley, Paolo Menaspà, Katie M. Slattery

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Track cyclists must develop mental, physical, tactical and technical capabilities to achieve success at an elite level. Given the importance of these components in determining performance, it is of interest to understand the volume of evidence to support implementation in practice by coaches, practitioners, and athletes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic mapping review to describe the current scale and density of research for testing, training and optimising performance in track cycling. METHODS: All publications involving track cyclist participants were reviewed from four databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Library) plus additional sources. …


Win, Draw, Or Lose? Global Positioning System-Based Variables’ Effect On The Match Outcome: A Full-Season Study On An Iranian Professional Soccer Team, Hadi Nobari, Norbert Keshish Banoocy, Rafael Oliveira, Jorge Pérez-Gómez Aug 2021

Win, Draw, Or Lose? Global Positioning System-Based Variables’ Effect On The Match Outcome: A Full-Season Study On An Iranian Professional Soccer Team, Hadi Nobari, Norbert Keshish Banoocy, Rafael Oliveira, Jorge Pérez-Gómez

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The aim of the study was to determine the between-match and between-halves match variability of various Global Positioning System (GPS) variables and metabolic power average (MPA) in competitions, based on the match results obtained by professional soccer players over a full season. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on thirteen outfield players competing in the Iranian Premier League. The measures selected for analysis included total duration, accelerations in zones (AccZ1, 2, and 3), decelerations in zones (DecZ1, 2, and 3), and MPA collected by the Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit (WIMU). The GPS manufacturer set the thresholds for the …


Does Education Level Influence The Practice Profile Of Advanced Practice Nursing?, Christine Duffield, Glenn Gardner, Anna Doubrovsky, Marg Adams Jun 2021

Does Education Level Influence The Practice Profile Of Advanced Practice Nursing?, Christine Duffield, Glenn Gardner, Anna Doubrovsky, Marg Adams

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background Advanced practice nursing is recognised globally as central to meeting this community need. Whilst there is increasing recognition that advanced practice nurses should be educated to at least a master degree level, there is scant evidence on the influence of higher education on the practice profile of advanced practice nursing. Aim To investigate the relationship between level of education and domain practice scores of nurses in advanced practice roles. Methods The validated Advanced Practice Nursing Role Delineation (APRD) tool was used to measure the practice profile of advanced practice nurses at different postgraduate education levels, across five domains of …


Association Of Genetic Variances In Adrb1 And Ppargc1a With Two-Kilometre Running Time-Trial Performance In Australian Football League Players: A Preliminary Study, Ysabel Jacob, Ryan S. Anderton, Jodie L. Cochrane Wilkie, Brent Rogalski, Simon M. Laws, Anthony Jones, Tania Spiteri, Nicolas H. Hart Jan 2021

Association Of Genetic Variances In Adrb1 And Ppargc1a With Two-Kilometre Running Time-Trial Performance In Australian Football League Players: A Preliminary Study, Ysabel Jacob, Ryan S. Anderton, Jodie L. Cochrane Wilkie, Brent Rogalski, Simon M. Laws, Anthony Jones, Tania Spiteri, Nicolas H. Hart

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Abstract: Genetic variants in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (rs4343), alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) (rs1815739), adrenoceptor-beta-1 (ADRB1) (rs1801253), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) (rs8192678) genes have previously been associated with elite athletic performance. This study assessed the influence of polymorphisms in these candidate genes towards endurance test performance in 46 players from a single Australian Football League (AFL) team. Each player provided saliva buccal swab samples for DNA analysis and genotyping and were required to perform two independent two-kilometre running time-trials, six weeks apart. Linear mixed models were created to account for repeated measures over time and to determine whether …


Sleep Characteristics And Mood Of Professional Esports Athletes: A Multi-National Study, Sangha Lee, Daniel Bonnar, Brandy Roane, Michael Gradisar, Ian C. Dunican, Michele Lastella, Gemma Maisey, Sooyeon Suh Jan 2021

Sleep Characteristics And Mood Of Professional Esports Athletes: A Multi-National Study, Sangha Lee, Daniel Bonnar, Brandy Roane, Michael Gradisar, Ian C. Dunican, Michele Lastella, Gemma Maisey, Sooyeon Suh

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Esports is becoming increasingly professionalized, yet research on performance management is remarkably lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the sleep and mood of professional esports athletes. Participants were 17 professional esports athletes from South Korea (N = 8), Australia (N = 4), and the United States (N = 5) who played first person shooter games (mean age 20 ± 3.5 years, 100% male). All participants wore a wrist-activity monitor for 7–14 days and completed subjective sleep and mood questionnaires. Participants had a median total sleep time of 6.8 h and …


Profiling Combat Sports Athletes: Competitive History And Outcomes According To Sports Type And Current Level Of Competition, Oliver R. Barley, Craig A. Harms Jan 2021

Profiling Combat Sports Athletes: Competitive History And Outcomes According To Sports Type And Current Level Of Competition, Oliver R. Barley, Craig A. Harms

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background

This study aimed to investigate the competitive history (the age when training and competing started), training habits and patterns of winning and losing of competitive combat sports athletes across different combat sports as well as the level of competition (e.g. amateurs, state-level and elite).

Methods

Competitors (N = 298) from mixed martial arts (MMA), Muay Thai/kickboxing, boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), wrestling, judo and traditional striking sports (TSS) completed an online questionnaire.

Results

Most athletes began competing in their mid-teenage years and competing soon after except for wrestlers who began earlier. Elite athletes began training earlier than amateurs (13.75 …


Global Challenges Of Being A Strength Athlete During A Pandemic: Impacts And Sports-Specific Training Considerations And Recommendations, Christopher Latella, G. Gregory Haff Jul 2020

Global Challenges Of Being A Strength Athlete During A Pandemic: Impacts And Sports-Specific Training Considerations And Recommendations, Christopher Latella, G. Gregory Haff

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The ongoing global pandemic brought about by Coronavirus II (SARS-Cov-2 or COVID-19) has caused an ongoing cessation of sporting competitions and training facility closures. This is a fundamental challenge for amateur and elite sporting professionals. Although recommendations have been provided for team-sport athletes to maintain general and sport-specific conditioning, these methods are often not optimal for strength athletes (i.e., powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL)) due to the unique and narrow set of performance requirements posed by these sports. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence-based information and recommendations and highlight potential strategies and approaches that may be used …


Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Large Reductions In Match Play Physical Performance Variables Across A Professional Football Season With Control For Situational And Contextual Variables, Matthew Springham, Sean Williams, Mark Waldron, Darren Burgess, Robert Usher Newton Jan 2020

Large Reductions In Match Play Physical Performance Variables Across A Professional Football Season With Control For Situational And Contextual Variables, Matthew Springham, Sean Williams, Mark Waldron, Darren Burgess, Robert Usher Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This investigation examined match play physical performance across a professional football season using a multicamera computerized tracking system. A linear mixed-effects model, controlling for situational and contextual variables, identified decreases in team average total distance (TD): season quarter 1 (Q1) (11,047 m) > season quarter 2 (Q2) (10,473 m) ( = ; ES = ), season quarter 3 (Q3) (10,449 m) ( < 0.001; ES = ), and season quarter 4 (Q4) (10,385 m) ( < 0.001; ES = ); work rate (WR): Q1 (115 m/min) > Q3 (108 m/min) ( < 0.001; ES = ), Q4 (107 m/min) ( < 0.001; ES = ); Q2 (109 m/min) > Q4 (107 m/min) ( = 0.003; ES = ); high-speed running distance (HSR): Q1 (1,051 m) > Q2 (813 m) ( = 0.006; ES = ); number of high-speed runs (NHSR): Q1 (87) > Q2 (65) ( …


Autoregulation In Resistance Training: Addressing The Inconsistencies, Leon Greig, Ben Hayden Stephens Hemingway, Rodrigo R. Aspe, Kay Cooper, Paul Comfort, Paul A. Swinton Jan 2020

Autoregulation In Resistance Training: Addressing The Inconsistencies, Leon Greig, Ben Hayden Stephens Hemingway, Rodrigo R. Aspe, Kay Cooper, Paul Comfort, Paul A. Swinton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2020, The Author(s). Autoregulation is a process that is used to manipulate training based primarily on the measurement of an individual’s performance or their perceived capability to perform. Despite being established as a training framework since the 1940s, there has been limited systematic research investigating its broad utility. Instead, researchers have focused on disparate practices that can be considered specific examples of the broader autoregulation training framework. A primary limitation of previous research includes inconsistent use of key terminology (e.g., adaptation, readiness, fatigue, and response) and associated ambiguity of how to implement different autoregulation strategies. Crucially, this ambiguity in …


Power Output, Cadence, And Torque Are Similar Between The Forward Standing And Traditional Sprint Cycling Positions, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2020

Power Output, Cadence, And Torque Are Similar Between The Forward Standing And Traditional Sprint Cycling Positions, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose:

Compare power output, cadence, and torque in the seated, standing, and forward standing cycling sprint positions.

Methods:

On three separated occasions (ie, one for each position), 11 recreational male road cyclists performed a 14 seconds sprint before and directly after a high-intensity lead-up. Power output, cadence, and torque were measured during each sprint. Results: No significant differences in peak and mean power output were observed between the forward standing (1125.5 ± 48.5 W and 896.0 ± 32.7 W, respectively) and either the seated or standing positions (1042.5 ± 46.8 W and 856.5 ± 29.4 W; 1175.4 ± 44.9 W …


Compression Garments Reduce Muscle Movement And Activation During Submaximal Running, James R. Broatch, Ned Brophy-Williams, Elissa J. Phillips, Steven J. O'Bryan, Shona Halson, Shannon Barnes, David J. Bishop Jan 2020

Compression Garments Reduce Muscle Movement And Activation During Submaximal Running, James R. Broatch, Ned Brophy-Williams, Elissa J. Phillips, Steven J. O'Bryan, Shona Halson, Shannon Barnes, David J. Bishop

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sports compression tights in reducing muscle movement and activation during running. Methods A total of 27 recreationally active males were recruited across two separate studies. For study 1, 13 participants (mean ± SD = 84.1 ± 9.4 kg, 22 ± 3 yr) completed two 4-min treadmill running bouts (2 min at 12 and 15 km·h-1) under two conditions: a no-compression control (CON1) and compression (COMP). For study 2, 14 participants (77.8 ± 8.4 kg, 27 ± 5 yr) completed four 9-min treadmill running bouts (3 min at 8, …


Absolute And Relative Strength, Power And Physiological Characteristics Of Indian Junior National-Level Judokas, Dale M. Harris, Kristina Kendall, G. Gregory Haff, Christopher Latella Jan 2020

Absolute And Relative Strength, Power And Physiological Characteristics Of Indian Junior National-Level Judokas, Dale M. Harris, Kristina Kendall, G. Gregory Haff, Christopher Latella

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The physical qualities that underpin successful junior judokas requires continuing investigation. We investigated the physical and physiological characteristics of junior national level judokas. We tested 25 (15 male, 10 female) Indian judokas for absolute and relative strength (back-squat and bench-press one-repetition maximum (1RM) as well as isometric handgrip), aerobic (RAMP test) and lower-body anaerobic power (Wingate 6-s sprint and countermovement jump), change-of-direction (5-0-5 test) and speed (30 m sprint). Athletes were grouped according to national-level competition placing (gold-medal winners (GM; n = 8), all medal winners (MW; n = 13), non-medallists (NM; n = 12), and NM plus silver and …


Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose:

To determine the validity of the Velocomp PowerPod power meter in comparison with the Verve Cycling InfoCrank power meter.

Methods:

This research involved 2 separate studies. In study 1, 12 recreational male road cyclists completed 7 maximal cycling efforts of a known duration (2 times 5 s and 15, 30, 60, 240, and 600 s). In study 2, 4 elite male road cyclists completed 13 outdoor cycling sessions. In both studies, power output of cyclists was continuously measured using both the PowerPod and InfoCrank power meters. Maximal mean power output was calculated for durations of 1, 5, …


Post-Activation Potentiation Versus Post-Activation Performance Enhancement In Humans: Historical Perspective, Underlying Mechanisms, And Current Issues, Anthony J. Blazevich, Nicolas Babault Jan 2019

Post-Activation Potentiation Versus Post-Activation Performance Enhancement In Humans: Historical Perspective, Underlying Mechanisms, And Current Issues, Anthony J. Blazevich, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a well-described phenomenon with a short half-life (~28 s) that enhances muscle force production at submaximal levels of calcium saturation (i.e., submaximal levels of muscle activation). It has been largely explained by an increased myosin light chain phosphorylation occurring in type II muscle fibers, and its effects have been quantified in humans by measuring muscle twitch force responses to a bout of muscular activity. However, enhancements in (sometimes maximal) voluntary force production detected several minutes after high-intensity muscle contractions are also observed, which are also most prominent in muscles with a high proportion of type II …


The Assessment Of Isometric, Dynamic, And Sports-Specific Upper-Body Strength In Male And Female Competitive Surfers, Joanna Parsonage, Josh Secomb, Rebecca Dowse, Brendon Ferrier, Jeremy Sheppard, Sophia Nimphius Jun 2018

The Assessment Of Isometric, Dynamic, And Sports-Specific Upper-Body Strength In Male And Female Competitive Surfers, Joanna Parsonage, Josh Secomb, Rebecca Dowse, Brendon Ferrier, Jeremy Sheppard, Sophia Nimphius

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic strength index (DSI): an assessment of upper-body dynamic strength relative to maximal isometric strength. The secondary purpose was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic skill deficit (DSD): an assessment of sports-specific dynamic strength relative to maximal isometric strength, and its association with a sports-specific performance measure in surfers. Nine male (age = 30.3 ± 7.3 yrs) and eight female (age = 25.5 ± 5.2 yrs) surfers undertook three upper-body assessments: isometric push-up, dynamic push-up, and a force plate pop-up to determine the DSI and DSD. …


Scoring Analysis Of The Men’S 2014, 2015 And 2016 World Championship Tour Of Surfing: The Importance Of Aerial Manoeuvres In Competitive Surfing, Brendon Ferrier, Jeremy Sheppard, Oliver R.L. Farley, Josh L. Secomb, Joanna Parsonage, Robert Newton, Sophia Nimphius Jan 2018

Scoring Analysis Of The Men’S 2014, 2015 And 2016 World Championship Tour Of Surfing: The Importance Of Aerial Manoeuvres In Competitive Surfing, Brendon Ferrier, Jeremy Sheppard, Oliver R.L. Farley, Josh L. Secomb, Joanna Parsonage, Robert Newton, Sophia Nimphius

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aerial manoeuvres on scoring in professional surfing. 23,631 waves were analysed for the number and types of aerial manoeuvres performed from the 2014, 2015 and 2016 Men’s World Championship Tour. Additionally, the awarded score, timing and order of the aerial was also analysed. Descriptive statistics and Two Way ANOVA’s were performed with Sidak Multiple Comparisons Post Hoc analysis. Results were a significantly higher score being awarded (P ≤ 0.0001) when including an aerial in competition across all three seasons. In 2015 surfers were awarded a significantly larger score …


The Potential Role Of Genetic Markers In Talent Identification And Athlete Assessment In Elite Sport, Ysabel Jacob, Tania Spiteri, Nicolas H. Hart, Ryan S. Anderson Jan 2018

The Potential Role Of Genetic Markers In Talent Identification And Athlete Assessment In Elite Sport, Ysabel Jacob, Tania Spiteri, Nicolas H. Hart, Ryan S. Anderson

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

In elite sporting codes, the identification and promotion of future athletes into specialised talent pathways is heavily reliant upon objective physical, technical, and tactical characteristics, in addition to subjective coach assessments. Despite the availability of a plethora of assessments, the dependence on subjective forms of identification remain commonplace in most sporting codes. More recently, genetic markers, including several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been correlated with enhanced aerobic capacity, strength, and an overall increase in athletic ability. In this review, we discuss the effects of a number of candidate genes on athletic performance, across single-skilled and multifaceted sporting codes, and …