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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims Jan 2020

Randomised Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Examining The Role Of Anamorelin In Mesothelioma (The Anthem Study): Rationale And Protocol, Siao Nge Hoon, Katrina Fyfe, Carolyn J. Peddle-Mcintyre, Samantha Bowyer, Felicity Hawkins, Emily Jeffery, Hui Jun Chih, Jenette Creaney, Anna Nowak, Fraser Brims

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction Cachexia is common in malignant mesothelioma (MM); half of patients have malnutrition and low skeletal muscle mass. Malnourished patients have worse quality of life (QoL). Weight loss is strongly associated with poor survival. Anamorelin is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist that improves appetite, body weight and QoL in advanced cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of anamorelin in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with MM with cachexia. Methods and analysis A single-centre, phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over pilot study with 28-day treatment periods and 3-day washout. Forty patients …


Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Fresh fruits and vegetables are a cornerstone of a balanced diet; their consumption has health, environmental, ethical, and economic implications. This pilot study aimed to: (i) measure fruit and vegetable consumption; (ii) understand consumer perceptions of the perceived importance of regionally grown fresh fruit and vegetables (RGFFV); and (iii) identify the barriers and enablers of access and consumption of RGFFV. The study took place in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA). A 54-item survey included questions relating to purchasing and consumption patterns; barriers and enablers related to access and consumption of RGFFV; and sociodemographic information. Survey data were analyzed …


Liquid Biopsy In Ovarian Cancer Using Circulating Tumor Dna And Cells: Ready For Prime Time?, Du-Bois Asante, Leslie Calapre, Melanie Ziman, Tarek M. Meniawy, Elin S. Gray Jan 2020

Liquid Biopsy In Ovarian Cancer Using Circulating Tumor Dna And Cells: Ready For Prime Time?, Du-Bois Asante, Leslie Calapre, Melanie Ziman, Tarek M. Meniawy, Elin S. Gray

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Liquid biopsies hold the potential to inform cancer patient prognosis and to guide treatment decisions at the time when direct tumor biopsy may be impractical due to its invasive nature, inaccessibility and associated complications. Specifically, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have shown promising results as companion diagnostic biomarkers for screening, prognostication and/or patient surveillance in many cancer types. In ovarian cancer (OC), CTC and ctDNA analysis allow comprehensive molecular profiling of the primary, metastatic and recurrent tumors. These biomarkers also correlate with overall tumor burden and thus, they provide minimally-invasive means for patient monitoring during clinical …


Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner Jan 2020

Effectiveness Of A Structured, Framework-Based Approach To Implementation: The Researching Effective Approaches To Cleaning In Hospitals (Reach) Trial, Lisa Hall, Nicole M. White, Michelle Allen, Alison Farrington, Brett G. Mitchell, Katie Page, Kate Halton, Thomas V. Riley, Christian A. Gericke, Nicholas Graves, Anne Gardner

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Implementing sustainable practice change in hospital cleaning has proven to be an ongoing challenge in reducing healthcare associated infections. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable framework-based approach to implement and quantitatively evaluate the implementation of evidence-based practice change in hospital cleaning. DESIGN/METHODS: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) trial was a pragmatic, stepped-wedge randomised trial of an environmental cleaning bundle implemented in 11 Australian hospitals from 2016 to 2017. Using a structured multi-step approach, we adapted the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework to support rigorous and …


Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche Jan 2020

Clarifying Workforce Flexibility From A Division Of Labor Perspective: A Mixed Methods Study Of An Emergency Department Team, Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The need for greater flexibility is often used to justify reforms that redistribute tasks through the workforce. However, "flexibility" is never defined or empirically examined. This study explores the nature of flexibility in a team of emergency doctors, nurse practitioners (NPs), and registered nurses (RNs), with the aim of clarifying the concept of workforce flexibility. Taking a holistic perspective on the team's division of labor, it measures task distribution to establish the extent of multiskilling and role overlap, and explores the behaviors and organizational conditions that drive flexibly.

Methods: The explanatory sequential mixed methods study was set in the …


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ergogenic effects of …


Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen Jan 2020

Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVES:

Previous Australian research has shown that following the 21% increase in patient copayments for medications on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2005, the use of lipid-lowering therapy declined by 5%. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who continued, reduced or ceased their use of statin medication in 2005.

STUDY TYPE:

Retrospective observational study using routinely collected administrative data.

METHOD:

We used pharmaceutical claims, hospital separations and mortality records from 2000 to 2005 for the Western Australian population. The cohort comprised stable users of statin medication in 2004. Based on changes in statin …


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral nerve …


A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe Jan 2020

A Sensorimotor Control Framework For Understanding Emotional Communication And Regulation, Justin H.G. Williams, Charlotte F. Huggins, Barbra Zupan, Megan Willis, Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Wataru Sato, Romina Palermo, Catherine Ortner, Martin Krippl, Mariska Kret, Joanne M. Dickson, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Leroy Lowe

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Our research team was asked to consider the relationship of the neuroscience of sensorimotor control to the language of emotions and feelings. Actions are the principal means for the communication of emotions and feelings in both humans and other animals, and the allostatic mechanisms controlling action also apply to the regulation of emotional states by the self and others. We consider how motor control of hierarchically organised, feedback-based, goal-directed action has evolved in humans, within a context of consciousness, appraisal and cultural learning, to serve emotions and feelings. In our linguistic analysis, we found that many emotion and feelings words …


The Gut Microbiota, Environmental Factors, And Links To The Development Of Food Allergy, Khui Hung Lee, Yong Song, Weidong Wu, Kan Yu, Guicheng Zhang Jan 2020

The Gut Microbiota, Environmental Factors, And Links To The Development Of Food Allergy, Khui Hung Lee, Yong Song, Weidong Wu, Kan Yu, Guicheng Zhang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Food allergy appears to have its roots in an insufficient exposure to a diverse range of environmental microbiota during early life. Microbial exposure ensures the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with commensal microbes, which is necessary for the induction of a balanced and tolerogenic immune function. High-throughput sequencing technology has facilitated in-depth studies of the gut microbiota as well as bacterial-derived metabolites. Although the role of the microbiota in allergies is now widely studied, its importance for food allergy was only recently noted. Studies in human cohorts have shown that there is an association of dysbiosis and pathogenesis of food …


Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group Jan 2020

Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved method to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, numerous research studies support the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as a cost-efficient, quick and equally valid method to define AD pathology. Methods: Using automated Elecsys® assays (Roche Diagnostics) for Aβ (1-42) (Aβ42), Aβ (1-40) (Aβ40), total tau (tTau) and phosphorylated tau (181P) (pTau), we examined CSF samples from 202 participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing cohort, to demonstrate the concordance with pathological AD via PET imaging. …


Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström Jan 2020

Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor's support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups' effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI). This study's aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for …


The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett Jan 2020

The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Key points: Sleep restriction has previously been associated with the loss of muscle mass in both human and animal models. The rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) is a key variable in regulating skeletal muscle mass and can be increased by performing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), although the effect of sleep restriction on MyoPS is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that participants undergoing a sleep restriction protocol (five nights, with 4 h in bed each night) had lower rates of skeletal muscle MyoPS; however, rates of MyoPS were maintained at control levels by performing HIIE during this period. …


First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang Jan 2020

First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

An emerging field of research is starting to examine the association of infectious pathogens with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An understudied parasite of interest is Toxoplasma gondii. Globally, very few studies have been conducted to investigate this association. Additionally, very little data exists on the prevalence of T. gondii in the general Australian population. Our group sought to determine the prevalence, association, and risk factors between T. gondii infection and T2DM from a representative Australian human population. Through a cross-sectional, age-A nd gender-matched case-control study, 150 subjects with T2DM together with 150 control subjects from the Busselton Health Study …


Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or …


South West Food Community: How Government And Community Initiatives Are Supporting Systemic Change Towards Enhanced Food Security, Stephanie Louise Godrich, Melissa Stoneham, Melinda Edmunds, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

South West Food Community: How Government And Community Initiatives Are Supporting Systemic Change Towards Enhanced Food Security, Stephanie Louise Godrich, Melissa Stoneham, Melinda Edmunds, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objective: Food security refers to adequate physical, social and economic access to food and is regarded as a complex, ‘wicked’ issue. This research aimed to understand the perspectives of initiative leaders (stakeholders), regarding their project relating to food security and its possession of characteristics associated with system change to enhance food security. Methods: Stakeholders (n=51) participated in semi-structured interviews that evaluated initiatives (n=52) against 36 desirable characteristics for system change. Transcripts were analysed using QSR NVivo and Wicked Lab’s Tool for Systemic Change. Results: Community-based initiatives often harnessed the passion of local communities to enhance food security through awareness-raising activities …


Limitations Of The Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (Diaas) And Choice Of Statistical Reporting. Comment On “A Comparison Of Dietary Protein Digestibility, Based On Diaas Scoring, In Vegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3106”, Angela Genoni, Joel C. Craddock, Emma Strutt Jan 2020

Limitations Of The Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (Diaas) And Choice Of Statistical Reporting. Comment On “A Comparison Of Dietary Protein Digestibility, Based On Diaas Scoring, In Vegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3106”, Angela Genoni, Joel C. Craddock, Emma Strutt

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

No abstract provided.


Somatic Acupoint Stimulation For Cancer-Related Sleep Disturbance: A Systematic Review Of Randomized Controlled Trials, Xian-Liang Liu, Hui Lin Cheng, Simon Moss, Carol Chunfeng Wang, Catherine Turner, Jing-Yu Tan Jan 2020

Somatic Acupoint Stimulation For Cancer-Related Sleep Disturbance: A Systematic Review Of Randomized Controlled Trials, Xian-Liang Liu, Hui Lin Cheng, Simon Moss, Carol Chunfeng Wang, Catherine Turner, Jing-Yu Tan

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Aim. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and synthesize available evidence for the effects of somatic acupoint stimulation (SAS) on cancer-related sleep disturbance in adults with cancer. Methods. Nine databases and four clinical trial registries were searched from their inception to July 2019 to identify potential articles and registered trials. Two authors independently extracted data and appraised the methodological quality of the included studies. The included studies could not be subjected to meta-analysis due to the significant variations in SAS intervention protocols and outcome measurement instruments. This systematic review therefore reported the results of the …


Kinetics And Kinematics Of The Squat And Step-Up In Well-Trained Rugby Players, Brendyn B. Appleby, Robert U. Newton, Stuart J. Cormack Jul 2019

Kinetics And Kinematics Of The Squat And Step-Up In Well-Trained Rugby Players, Brendyn B. Appleby, Robert U. Newton, Stuart J. Cormack

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the kinetics and kinematics of squat and step-up performance in well-trained athletes. Triaxial ground reaction force (GRF) and 3D kinematic data were collected in 4 maximal effort repetitions each at 70, 80, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat and step-up. The difference in concentric phase kinetics and kinematics between the squat and step-up was compared using effect sizes (ES ± 90% confidence limits [CLs]) classified as: less than 0.2 as trivial; 0.2-0.6 as small; 0.6-1.2 as moderate; and 1.2-2.0 as large. Where the 90% CL crossed negative …


Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine Jun 2019

Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n …


Spatial Distribution Of Tuberculosis And Its Association With Meteorological Factors In Mainland China, Yingjie Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Samuel S. Wu, Hui Jiang, Junjie Zhang, Songwang Wang, Wei Ma, Qihuan Li, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Weimin Li, Xiuhua Guo May 2019

Spatial Distribution Of Tuberculosis And Its Association With Meteorological Factors In Mainland China, Yingjie Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Samuel S. Wu, Hui Jiang, Junjie Zhang, Songwang Wang, Wei Ma, Qihuan Li, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Weimin Li, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) remains high worldwide. Current strategies will not eradicate TB by 2035; instead, by 2182 is more likely. Therefore, it is urgent that new risk factors be identified.

METHODS: An ecological study was conducted in 340 prefectures in China from 2005 to 2015. The spatial distribution of TB incidence was shown by clustering and hotspot analysis. The relationship between the distribution patterns and six meteorological factors was evaluated by the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model.

RESULTS: During the 11 years of the study period, TB incidence was persistently low in the east and high in …


Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia Apr 2019

Online Video Instruction On Hand Expression Of Colostrum In Pregnancy Is An Effective Educational Tool, Therese A. O'Sullivan, Joy Cooke, Chris Mccafferty, Roslyn Giglia

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The use of antenatal colostrum expression in the weeks prior to birth may help improve long-term breastfeeding, but few large-scale studies exist. Typically, antenatal colostrum expression instruction relies on face-to-face education, making large interventions costly. We aimed to determine whether an expert online instructional video can improve knowledge and confidence around antenatal colostrum expressing. Pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire pre- and post-watching the instructional video online. Ninety five pregnant women completed both pre- and post-questionnaires. Total antenatal colostrum expression knowledge scores improved after watching the video, from a mean of 3.05 ± 1.70 correct out of a …


The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine Apr 2019

The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Food literacy is seen as a key component in improving the increasing levels of food insecurity. While responsibility for providing training falls on the charitable service organizations, they may not have the capacity to adequately reach those in need. This paper proposes a tertiary education - (university or higher education) led model to support the food literacy training needs of the food charity sector. A cross-sectional study comprised of online surveys and discussions investigated food services offered by Western Australia (WA) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) agencies, food literacy training needs for staff, volunteers and clients, and challenges to delivering …


Abdominal Aortic Calcification, Bone Mineral Density And Fractures: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Protocol, Alexander J. Rodríguez, Kevin Leow, Pawel Szulc, David Scott, Peter Ebeling, Marc Sim, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, John T. Schousboe, Douglas P. Kiel, Richard L. Prince, Joshua R. Lewis Apr 2019

Abdominal Aortic Calcification, Bone Mineral Density And Fractures: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Protocol, Alexander J. Rodríguez, Kevin Leow, Pawel Szulc, David Scott, Peter Ebeling, Marc Sim, Germaine Wong, Wai H. Lim, John T. Schousboe, Douglas P. Kiel, Richard L. Prince, Joshua R. Lewis

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is associated with low bone mass and increased fracture risk. Two previous meta-analyses have investigated the association between AAC and fracture. However, these meta-analyses only identified articles until December 2016, undertook limited searches and did not explore potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. We aim to undertake a sensitive and comprehensive assessment of the relationship between AAC, bone mineral density (BMD) as well as prevalent and incident fractures.

METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science core collection and Google Scholar (top 200 articles sorted by relevance) from their inception to 1 June 2018. Reference …


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Apr 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVE: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness.

METHOD: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16-50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with 'support' (FootyFirst+S) or 'without support' (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1: FootyFirst+S in 2012/2013; …


Blood-Based Molecular Biomarkers For Alzheimer's Disease, Henrik Zetterberg, Samantha C. Burnham Mar 2019

Blood-Based Molecular Biomarkers For Alzheimer's Disease, Henrik Zetterberg, Samantha C. Burnham

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

A major barrier to the effective conduct of clinical trials of new drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identifying patients for receiving future disease-modifying treatments is the limited capacity of the current health system to find and diagnose patients with early AD pathology. This may be related in part to the limited capacity of the current health systems to select those people likely to have AD pathology in order to confirm the diagnosis with available cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers at memory clinics. In the current narrative review, we summarize the literature on candidate blood tests for AD …


Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers Mar 2019

Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: (i) determine whether there are differences in self-esteem and self-efficacy for healthy lifestyle choices between children living in food secure and food insecure households; and (ii) determine whether the association between household food insecurity (HFI), self-esteem and self-efficacy differs by gender. Survey responses of 5281 fifth-grade students (10 and 11 years of age) participating in the Canadian Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study II were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. HFI status was determined by the six-item short-form Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Students from food insecure households had significantly …


Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo Jan 2019

Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

NEW FINDINGS:

What is the central question of this study?

Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest.

What is the main finding and its importance?

At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically evoked responses (normalized to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased. Results suggest decreased spinal excitability but increased cortical excitability as the elbow is placed in a more extended position, an effect that is unlikely to be attributable to …


The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie Jan 2019

The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: International research has focused on screening and mass media campaigns to promote earlier patient presentation and detect lung cancer earlier. This trial tested the effect of a behavioural intervention in people at increased risk of lung cancer on help-seeking for respiratory symptoms.

Methods: Parallel, individually randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were long-term smokers with at least 20 pack-years, aged 55 and above. The CHEST intervention entailed a consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to encourage help-seeking for respiratory symptoms. The control group received a brief discussion about lung health. Both groups had baseline …