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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Locus‐Specific Concordance Of Genomic Alterations Between Tissue And Plasma Circulating Tumor Dna In Metastatic Melanoma, Leslie Calapre, Tindaro Giardina, Cleo Robinson, Anna L. Reid, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Michelle R. Pereira, Ashleigh C. Mcevoy, Lydia Warburton, Nicholas K. Hayward, Muhammad A. Khattak, Tarek M. Meniawy, Michael Millward, Benhur Amanuel, Melanie R. Ziman, Elin S. Gray Feb 2019

Locus‐Specific Concordance Of Genomic Alterations Between Tissue And Plasma Circulating Tumor Dna In Metastatic Melanoma, Leslie Calapre, Tindaro Giardina, Cleo Robinson, Anna L. Reid, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Michelle R. Pereira, Ashleigh C. Mcevoy, Lydia Warburton, Nicholas K. Hayward, Muhammad A. Khattak, Tarek M. Meniawy, Michael Millward, Benhur Amanuel, Melanie R. Ziman, Elin S. Gray

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may serve as a surrogate to tissue biopsy for noninvasive identification of mutations across multiple genetic loci and for disease monitoring in melanoma. In this study, we compared the mutation profiles of tumor biopsies and plasma ctDNA from metastatic melanoma patients using custom sequencing panels targeting 30 melanoma-associated genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 20 of 24 melanoma biopsies, and 16 of 20 (70%) matched-patient plasmas had detectable ctDNA. In a subgroup of seven patients for whom matching tumor tissue and plasma were sequenced, 80% of the mutations found in tumor tissue were also detected in …


Low-Level Cadmium Exposure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Elderly Australian Women: A Cohort Study, Kane Deering, Anna C. Callan, Richard Prince, Wai Lim, Peter Thompson, Joshua Lewis, Andrea Hinwood, Amanda Devine Jan 2018

Low-Level Cadmium Exposure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Elderly Australian Women: A Cohort Study, Kane Deering, Anna C. Callan, Richard Prince, Wai Lim, Peter Thompson, Joshua Lewis, Andrea Hinwood, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background

Cadmium has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in observational studies, however there has been a limited focus on this relationship in women.

Objectives

This study investigated the association of urinary cadmium (UCd) concentrations with CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality in elderly Western Australian (WA) women.

Methods

UCd excretion was measured at baseline in 1359 women, mean age 75.2 ± 2.7 years and 14.5 years of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) hospitalisations and deaths, including both the principle cause of death and all associated causes of death. Health outcome data were retrieved from the Western Australian Data …


Myocardial Infarction In The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: The Interaction Among Environmental, Health, Social, Behavioural And Genetic Factors, Tina K. Gonzales, James A. Yonker, Vicky Chang, Carol L. Roan, Pamela Herd, Craig S. Atwood Oct 2017

Myocardial Infarction In The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: The Interaction Among Environmental, Health, Social, Behavioural And Genetic Factors, Tina K. Gonzales, James A. Yonker, Vicky Chang, Carol L. Roan, Pamela Herd, Craig S. Atwood

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objectives This study examined how environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors interact to contribute to myocardial infarction (MI) risk.

Design Survey data collected by Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), USA, from 1957 to 2011, including 235 environmental, health, social and behavioural factors, and 77 single- nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed for association with MI. To identify associations with MI we utilized recursive partitioning and random forest prior to logistic regression and chi-squared analyses.

Participants 6198 WLS participants (2938 men; 3260 women) who (1) had a MI before 72 years and (2) had a MI between 65 and 72 years.

ResultsIn …


Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince Mar 2017

Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women.

Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia.

Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black …


Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia In Male Sprague Dawley Rats And Exacerbates Recovery From Functional Deficits Induced By A Controlled Cortical Impact Injury, Rastafa I. Gedde, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M. Anderson, Alex D. Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E. Ziegler, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Ian M. Bird, Craig S. Atwood Jan 2017

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia In Male Sprague Dawley Rats And Exacerbates Recovery From Functional Deficits Induced By A Controlled Cortical Impact Injury, Rastafa I. Gedde, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M. Anderson, Alex D. Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E. Ziegler, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Ian M. Bird, Craig S. Atwood

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5–6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with …


Real-Time Netnography: Rejecting The Passive Shift, Leesa Costello, Marie-Louise Mcdermott Apr 2016

Real-Time Netnography: Rejecting The Passive Shift, Leesa Costello, Marie-Louise Mcdermott

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Although netnography emerged in the 1990s, it is a term unfamiliar to many ethnographers and is still touted as a new methodology. Once explained, ethnographers often understand it in terms of online ethnography. While this is helpful, netnography, however, offers a set of steps and analytic approaches that can be applied across a spectrum of involvement online. Its focus is on gaining entree to an online community, distinguishing between participant observation and nonparticipant observation.


The Effects Of Testosterone Supplementation On Cognitive Functioning In Older Men, Eka Wahjoepramono, Prita Asih, Vilia Aniwiyanti, Kevin Taddei, Satvinder Dhaliwal, Stephanie Fuller, Jonathan Foster, Malcolm Carruthers, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph Martins Jan 2016

The Effects Of Testosterone Supplementation On Cognitive Functioning In Older Men, Eka Wahjoepramono, Prita Asih, Vilia Aniwiyanti, Kevin Taddei, Satvinder Dhaliwal, Stephanie Fuller, Jonathan Foster, Malcolm Carruthers, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Reduction in testosterone levels in men during aging is associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Animal studies have shown benefits for testosterone supplementation in improving cognition and reducing Alzheimer’s disease pathology. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of men with subjective memory complaint and low testosterone levels, we investigated whether testosterone treatment significantly improved performance on various measures of cognitive functioning. Forty-four men were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to establish the baseline prior to being randomly divided into two groups. The first group (Group A) received 24 weeks of testosterone treatment (T treatment) followed by 4 …


The Effectiveness Of Self-Management Mobile Phone And Tablet Apps In Long-Term Condition Management: A Systematic Review, Lisa Whitehead, Philippa Seaton Jan 2016

The Effectiveness Of Self-Management Mobile Phone And Tablet Apps In Long-Term Condition Management: A Systematic Review, Lisa Whitehead, Philippa Seaton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background:

Long-term conditions and their concomitant management place considerable pressure on patients, communities, and health care systems worldwide. International clinical guidelines on the majority of long-term conditions recommend the inclusion of self-management programs in routine management. Self-management programs have been associated with improved health outcomes; however, the successful and sustainable transfer of research programs into clinical practice has been inconsistent. Recent developments in mobile technology, such as mobile phone and tablet computer apps, could help in developing a platform for the delivery of self-management interventions that are adaptable, of low cost, and easily accessible.

Objective:

We conducted a systematic review …


Reductions In Circulating Levels Of Il-16, Il-7 And Vegf-A In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Abdolamir Landi, David Broadhurst, Suxanne D. Vernon, D. Lorne J. Tyrell, Michael Houghton Jan 2016

Reductions In Circulating Levels Of Il-16, Il-7 And Vegf-A In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Abdolamir Landi, David Broadhurst, Suxanne D. Vernon, D. Lorne J. Tyrell, Michael Houghton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Recently, differences in the levels of various chemokines and cytokines were reported in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) as compared with controls. Moreover, the analyte profile differed between chronic ME/CFS patients of long duration versus patients with disease of less than 3 years. In the current study, we measured the plasma levels of 34 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in 100 chronic ME/CFS patients of long duration and in 79 gender and age-matched controls. We observed highly significant reductions in the concentration of circulating interleukin (IL)-16, IL-7, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) in ME/CFS patients. All …


Discriminant Validity Of The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (Ii) And Beck Anxiety Inventory To Confirmed Clinical Diagnosis Of Depression And Anxiety In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Tina Phan, Owen Carter, Claire Adams, Grant Waterer, Li Ping Chung, Maxine Hawkins, Cobie Rudd, Mel R. Ziman, Natalie Strobel Jan 2016

Discriminant Validity Of The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (Ii) And Beck Anxiety Inventory To Confirmed Clinical Diagnosis Of Depression And Anxiety In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Tina Phan, Owen Carter, Claire Adams, Grant Waterer, Li Ping Chung, Maxine Hawkins, Cobie Rudd, Mel R. Ziman, Natalie Strobel

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The objective of this study was to investigate the discriminant validity of commonly used depresson and anxiety screening tools in order to determine the most suitable tool for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients (n = 56) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). These scores were compared to confirmed clinical diagnosis of depression and anxiety using the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview. HADS depression subscale (HADS-D) sensitivity/specificity was 78/81 %; BDI-II 89/77 %; HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) 71/81 %; and BAI 89/62 %. HADS-D sensitivity/specificity was improved …


Developing And Evaluating Complex Interventions: Enhancing The Role Of Qualitative Research, Lisa Whitehead, Marie Crowe, Carol Bugge, Kirsten Coppell Jan 2016

Developing And Evaluating Complex Interventions: Enhancing The Role Of Qualitative Research, Lisa Whitehead, Marie Crowe, Carol Bugge, Kirsten Coppell

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The use of qualitative research methods alongside randomized controlled trials of health-care interventions have the potential to contribute to the development and evaluation of both complex and other health interventions. Qualitative evaluations of interventions are rarely reported but can provide insight into the intervention process, and the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, to improve and adapt interventions.


Arterial Or Venous: Where Are The Circulating Tumor Cells?, Elin S. Gray Sep 2015

Arterial Or Venous: Where Are The Circulating Tumor Cells?, Elin S. Gray

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The study of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been largely confounded by the low number of these cells in the blood stream amid billions of other cells. To overcome this challenge numerous methodologies for CTC isolation have been described. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (Nedosekin et al., 2013), dielectrophoresis array (Maltoni et al., 2015) and microfluidics (Warkiani et al., 2015) are among the most sophisticated of these methodologies. However, methods based on immunecapture and immunestaining are still the more frequently utilized, with CellSearch® remaining the most commonly used method to date and the only US FDA approved (Alix-Panabieres and Pantel, 2014). Irrespective …


Abcb5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells, Tobias Schatton, Jun Yang, Sonja Kleffel, Mayuko Uehara, Steven R. Barthel, Christoph Schlapbach, Qian Zhan, Stephen Dudeney, Hansgeorg Mueller, Nayoung Lee, Juliane C. De Vries, Barbara Meier, Seppe Vander Beken, Mark M. Kluth, Christoph Ganss, Arlene H. Sharpe, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Reza Abdi, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, George F. Murphy, Thomas S. Kupper, Natasha Y. Frank, Markus H. Frank Jan 2015

Abcb5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells, Tobias Schatton, Jun Yang, Sonja Kleffel, Mayuko Uehara, Steven R. Barthel, Christoph Schlapbach, Qian Zhan, Stephen Dudeney, Hansgeorg Mueller, Nayoung Lee, Juliane C. De Vries, Barbara Meier, Seppe Vander Beken, Mark M. Kluth, Christoph Ganss, Arlene H. Sharpe, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Reza Abdi, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, George F. Murphy, Thomas S. Kupper, Natasha Y. Frank, Markus H. Frank

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs) capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of …


Guidelines For The Standardization Of Preanalytic Variables For Blood-Based Biomarker Studies In Alzheimer's Disease Research, Sid O'Bryant, Veer Gupta, Kim Henriksen, Melissa Edwards, Andreas Jeromin, Simone Lista, Chantal Bazenet, Holly Soares, Simon Lovestone, Harald Hampel, Thomas Montine, Kaj Blennow, Tatiana Foroud, Maria Carrillo, Neill Graff-Radford, Christoph Laske, Monique Breteler, Leslie Shaw, John Q. Trojanowski, Nicole Schupf, Robert A. Rissman, Anne M. Fagan, Pankaj Oberoi, Robert Umek, Michael W. Weiner, Paula Grammas, Holly Posner, Ralph Martins Jan 2015

Guidelines For The Standardization Of Preanalytic Variables For Blood-Based Biomarker Studies In Alzheimer's Disease Research, Sid O'Bryant, Veer Gupta, Kim Henriksen, Melissa Edwards, Andreas Jeromin, Simone Lista, Chantal Bazenet, Holly Soares, Simon Lovestone, Harald Hampel, Thomas Montine, Kaj Blennow, Tatiana Foroud, Maria Carrillo, Neill Graff-Radford, Christoph Laske, Monique Breteler, Leslie Shaw, John Q. Trojanowski, Nicole Schupf, Robert A. Rissman, Anne M. Fagan, Pankaj Oberoi, Robert Umek, Michael W. Weiner, Paula Grammas, Holly Posner, Ralph Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The lack of readily available biomarkers is a significant hindrance toward progressing to effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Blood-based biomarkers have potential to overcome access and cost barriers and greatly facilitate advanced neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker approaches. Despite the fact that preanalytical processing is the largest source of variability in laboratory testing, there are no currently available standardized preanalytical guidelines. The current international working group provides the initial starting point for such guidelines for standardized operating procedures (SOPs). It is anticipated that these guidelines will be updated as additional research findings become available. The statement …


Segmental Musculoskeletal Examinations Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (Dxa): Positioning And Analysis Considerations, Nicolas H. Hart, Sophia Nimphius, Tania Spiteri, Jodie L. Cochrane, Robert U. Newton Jan 2015

Segmental Musculoskeletal Examinations Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (Dxa): Positioning And Analysis Considerations, Nicolas H. Hart, Sophia Nimphius, Tania Spiteri, Jodie L. Cochrane, Robert U. Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Musculoskeletal examinations provide informative and valuable quantitative insight into muscle and bone health. DXA is one mainstream tool used to accurately and reliably determine body composition components and bone mass characteristics in-vivo. Presently, whole body scan models separate the body into axial and appendicular regions, however there is a need for localised appendicular segmentation models to further examine regions of interest within the upper and lower extremities. Similarly, in-consistencies pertaining to patient positioning exist in the litera-ture which influence measurement precision and analysis out-comes highlighting a need for standardised procedure. This paper provides standardised and reproducible: 1) positioning and analysis …


Young Australian Adults’ Reactions To Viewing Personalised Uv Photoaged Photographs, Lori L. Presti, Paul Chang, Myra F. Taylor Jan 2014

Young Australian Adults’ Reactions To Viewing Personalised Uv Photoaged Photographs, Lori L. Presti, Paul Chang, Myra F. Taylor

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Despite two nationwide sun-protection awareness campaigns, young Australian adults continue to sunbathe. Since their primary motivation for tanning is appearance enhancement, it may well be that campaigns that highlight the negative effects of tanning on appearance are more effective than campaigns that emphasise the health risks associated with sun exposure.Aims: This study aims to explore young adults’ reactions to viewing a photoaged photograph of the sun damage already visible in their facial image.Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven females and three males aged 20-30 years. The interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim and were then subjected to Interpretive Phenomenological …