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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Perceptions Of Climate Change And Occupational Heat Stress Risks And Adaptation Strategies Of Mining Workers In Ghana, Victor Fannam Nunfam, Jacques Oosthuizen, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante, Eddie Van Etten, Kwasi Frimpong Jan 2019

Perceptions Of Climate Change And Occupational Heat Stress Risks And Adaptation Strategies Of Mining Workers In Ghana, Victor Fannam Nunfam, Jacques Oosthuizen, Kwadwo Adusei-Asante, Eddie Van Etten, Kwasi Frimpong

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Heavy physical workload for long hours coupled with increasing workplace heat exposure due to rising temperatures stemming from climate change, especially where there are inadequate prevention and control policies, adversely affect workers' health and safety, productive capacity and social well-being. However, variations in workers' concerns and awareness of occupational heat stress and climate change risks impede the effectiveness of heat stress management. A mixed method approach was used to assess climate change perceptions and occupational heat stress risks and adaptation strategies of Ghanaian mining workers. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect data from 320 respondents. Quantitative and …


Effects Of Ambient Carbon Monoxide On Daily Hospitalizations For Cardiovascular Disease: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study Of 460,938 Cases In Beijing, China From 2013 To 2017, Haibin Li, Jingwei Wu, Anxin Wang, Xia Li, Songxi Chen, Tianqi Wang, Endawoke Amsalu, Qi Gao, Yanxia Luo, Xinghua Yang, Wei Wang, Jin Guo, Yuming Guo, Xiuhua Guo Nov 2018

Effects Of Ambient Carbon Monoxide On Daily Hospitalizations For Cardiovascular Disease: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study Of 460,938 Cases In Beijing, China From 2013 To 2017, Haibin Li, Jingwei Wu, Anxin Wang, Xia Li, Songxi Chen, Tianqi Wang, Endawoke Amsalu, Qi Gao, Yanxia Luo, Xinghua Yang, Wei Wang, Jin Guo, Yuming Guo, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Evidence focused on exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and the risk of hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is lacking in developing countries. This study aimed to examine the effect of CO exposure on hospitalizations for CVD in Beijing, China.

METHODS: A total of 460,938 hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases were obtained from electronic hospitalization summary reports from 2013 to 2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to investigate the association between CO exposure and hospitalizations for total and cause-specific CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and heart failure (HF). Stratified analysis was also conducted by age …


Spatial And Temporal Clustering Analysis Of Tuberculosis In The Mainland Of China At The Prefecture Level, 2005-2015, Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo Oct 2018

Spatial And Temporal Clustering Analysis Of Tuberculosis In The Mainland Of China At The Prefecture Level, 2005-2015, Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most serious infectious diseases in the mainland of China. So it was urgent for the formulation of more effective measures to prevent and control it.

METHODS: The data of reported TB cases in 340 prefectures from the mainland of China were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) during January 2005 to December 2015. The Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistics was used to identify the temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of reported TB in the mainland of China by using the discrete Poisson probability model. Spatio-temporal clusters …


Suicidal Ideation In The Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review, Avril O'Connor, Sadie Geraghty, Gemma Doleman, Annemarie De Leo Jan 2018

Suicidal Ideation In The Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review, Avril O'Connor, Sadie Geraghty, Gemma Doleman, Annemarie De Leo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objective: To examine literature surrounding suicidal ideation and suicidality in the perinatal period. Design: Systematic Literature Review of published 15 research studies. Findings: There is a scarcity of prospective studies conducted in suicidal ideation during the perinatal period. More research is needed to ensure childbearing women at risk of suicidal ideation during pregnancy receive the appropriate care and maternity services required to support them throughout this period. Key conclusions: Midwives play an important role in screening women for possible emotional distress and mood disorders during pregnancy. Therefore, midwives need to have knowledge of risk factors so vulnerable women are monitored …


Rare Single Gene Disorders: Estimating Baseline Prevalence And Outcomes Worldwide, Hannah Blencowe, Sowmiya Moorthie, Mary Petrou, Hanan Hamamy, Alan Bittles, Stephen Gibbons, Matthew Darlison, Bernadette Modell, Congenital Disorders Expert Group . Jan 2018

Rare Single Gene Disorders: Estimating Baseline Prevalence And Outcomes Worldwide, Hannah Blencowe, Sowmiya Moorthie, Mary Petrou, Hanan Hamamy, Alan Bittles, Stephen Gibbons, Matthew Darlison, Bernadette Modell, Congenital Disorders Expert Group .

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

As child mortality rates overall are decreasing, non-communicable conditions, such as genetic disorders, constitute an increasing proportion of child mortality, morbidity and disability. To date, policy and public health programmes have focused on common genetic disorders. Rare single gene disorders are an important source of morbidity and premature mortality for affected families. When considered collectively, they account for an important public health burden, which is frequently under-recognised. To document the collective frequency and health burden of rare single gene disorders, it is necessary to aggregate them into large manageable groupings and take account of their family implications, effective interventions and …


High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley Feb 2017

High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Clostridium difficile is a well-established hospital pathogen. Recently, it has been detected increasingly in patients without hospital contact. Given this rise in community associated infections with C. difficile, we hypothesized that the environment could play an important role in transmission of spores outside the hospital. Lawn samples (311) collected in public spaces in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia, from February to June 2016 were cultured for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from the samples by direct and enrichment culture, and characterized by standard molecular methods using toxin gene PCR and ribotyping. The overall prevalence of …


Over-Provision Of Discretionary Foods At Childcare Dilutes The Nutritional Quality Of Diets For Children, Ruth M. Wallace, Leesa N. Costello, Amanda Devine Jan 2017

Over-Provision Of Discretionary Foods At Childcare Dilutes The Nutritional Quality Of Diets For Children, Ruth M. Wallace, Leesa N. Costello, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The childcare setting can significantly influence the lifelong eating habits and health outcomes of children.It is ideal for health-promoting interventions that optimise the provision of nutritious food and nutrition education. Unfortunately, these interventions are neither offered nor promoted in many childcare settings. Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of overweight/obesity with childcare attendance, which if present in early life is associated with increased risk of chronic disease and reduced psychological wellbeing.


The Association Between Environmental Factors And Scarlet Fever Incidence In Beijing Region: Using Gis And Spatial Regression Models, Gehendra Mahara, Chao Wang, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Jin Guo, Qi Gao, Wei Wang, Quanyi Wang, Xiuhua Guo Nov 2016

The Association Between Environmental Factors And Scarlet Fever Incidence In Beijing Region: Using Gis And Spatial Regression Models, Gehendra Mahara, Chao Wang, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Jin Guo, Qi Gao, Wei Wang, Quanyi Wang, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background:

Evidence regarding scarlet fever and its relationship with meteorological, including air pollution factors, is not very available. This study aimed to examine the relationship between ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors with scarlet fever occurrence in Beijing, China.

Methods:

A retrospective ecological study was carried out to distinguish the epidemic characteristics of scarlet fever incidence in Beijing districts from 2013 to 2014. Daily incidence and corresponding air pollutant and meteorological data were used to develop the model. Global Moran’s I statistic and Anselin’s local Moran’s I (LISA) were applied to detect the spatial autocorrelation (spatial dependency) and clusters of …


Exploring Ecosystems And Health By Shifting To A Regional Focus: Perspectives From The Oceania Ecohealth Chapter, Jonathan Kingsley, Rebecca Patrick, Pierre Horwitz, Margot Parkes, Aaron Jenkins, Charles Massy, Claire Henderson-Wilson, Kerry Arabena Oct 2015

Exploring Ecosystems And Health By Shifting To A Regional Focus: Perspectives From The Oceania Ecohealth Chapter, Jonathan Kingsley, Rebecca Patrick, Pierre Horwitz, Margot Parkes, Aaron Jenkins, Charles Massy, Claire Henderson-Wilson, Kerry Arabena

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This article highlights contributions that can be made to the public health field by incorporating “ecosystem approaches to health” to tackle future environmental and health challenges at a regional level. This qualitative research reviews attitudes and understandings of the relationship between public health and the environment and the priorities, aspirations and challenges of a newly established group (the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter) who are attempting to promote these principles. Ten semi-structured interviews with Oceania EcoHealth Chapter members highlighted the important role such groups can play in informing organisations working in the Oceania region to improve both public health and environmental outcomes …


Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman Jan 2015

Effects Of Ambient Coarse, Fine, And Ultrafine Particles And Their Biological Constituents On Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human Exposure Study, Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R. Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Few studies have compared how various particle size fractions affect systemic biomarkers. Objectives: We examined changes of blood and urinary biomarkers following exposures to three particle sizes. Methods: Fifty healthy nonsmoking volunteers, mean age of 28 years, were exposed to coarse (2.5–10 μm; mean, 213 μg/m3) and fine (0.15–2.5 μm; mean, 238 μg/m3) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), and filtered ambient and/or medical air. Twenty-five participants were exposed to ultrafine CAP (< 0.3 μm; mean, 136 μg/m3) and filtered medical air. Exposures lasted 130 min, separated by ≥ 2 weeks. Blood/urine samples were collected preexposure and 1 hr and 21 hr postexposure to determine blood interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (inflammation), endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular mediators), and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation); as well as urinary VEGF, 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (DNA oxidation), and malondialdehyde. Mixed-model regressions assessed pre- and postexposure differences. results: One hour postexposure, for every 100-μg/m3 increase, coarse CAP was associated with increased blood VEGF (2.41 pg/mL; 95% CI: 0.41, 4.40) in models adjusted for O3, fine CAP with increased urinary malondialdehyde in single- (0.31 nmol/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.60) and two-pollutant models, and ultrafine CAP with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in single- (0.69 ng/mg creatinine; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.29) and two-pollutant models, lasting < 21 hr. Endotoxin was significantly associated with biomarker changes similar to those found with CAPs. conclusions: Ambient particles with various sizes/constituents may influence systemic biomarkers differently. Endotoxin in ambient particles may contribute to vascular mediator changes and oxidative stress.


Estimation Of Bias With The Single-Zone Assumption In Measurement Of Residential Air Exchange Using The Perfluorocarbon Tracer Gas Method, K Van Ryswyk, L. Wallace, D. Fugler, M. Macneill, M. E. Heroux, M. D. Gibson, J. R. Guernsey, W. Kindzierski, A. J. Wheeler Jan 2015

Estimation Of Bias With The Single-Zone Assumption In Measurement Of Residential Air Exchange Using The Perfluorocarbon Tracer Gas Method, K Van Ryswyk, L. Wallace, D. Fugler, M. Macneill, M. E. Heroux, M. D. Gibson, J. R. Guernsey, W. Kindzierski, A. J. Wheeler

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well‐mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single‐zone AER (AER1z). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in …


Using Global Positioning Systems (Gps) And Temperature Data To Generate Time-Activity Classifications For Estimating Personal Exposure In Air Monitoring Studies: An Automated Method, Elizabeth Nethery, Gary Mallach, Daniel Rainham, Mark S. Goldberg, Amanda J. Wheeler May 2014

Using Global Positioning Systems (Gps) And Temperature Data To Generate Time-Activity Classifications For Estimating Personal Exposure In Air Monitoring Studies: An Automated Method, Elizabeth Nethery, Gary Mallach, Daniel Rainham, Mark S. Goldberg, Amanda J. Wheeler

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Personal exposure studies of air pollution generally use self-reported diaries to capture individuals’ time-activity data. Enhancements in the accuracy, size, memory and battery life of personal Global Positioning Systems (GPS) units have allowed for higher resolution tracking of study participants’ locations. Improved time activity classifications combined with personal continuous air pollution sampling can improve assessments of location-related air pollution exposures for health studies. Methods: Data was collected using a GPS and personal temperature from 54 children with asthma living in Montreal, Canada, who participated in a 10-day personal air pollution exposure study. A method was developed that …