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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Musculoskeletal Injury In Military Special Operations Forces: A Systematic Review, Joanne Stannard, L. Fortington Jul 2021

Musculoskeletal Injury In Military Special Operations Forces: A Systematic Review, Joanne Stannard, L. Fortington

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Introduction: Special Operations Forces conduct military activities using specialised and unconventional techniques that offer a unique and complementary capability to conventional forces. These activities expose Special Operations Forces personnel to different injury risks in comparison with personnel in the conventional forces. Consequently, different injury patterns are expected in this population. The purpose of this research is to establish high-level evidence informing what is known about musculoskeletal injury epidemiology in Special Operations Forces. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using three online databases to identify …


The Effects Of Acute Exercise On Bone Turnover Markers In Middle-Aged And Older Adults: A Systematic Review, Cassandra Smith, Alexander Tacey, Jakub Mesinovic, David Scott, Xuzhu Lin, Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Joshua R. Lewis, Gustavo Duque, Itamar Levinger Feb 2021

The Effects Of Acute Exercise On Bone Turnover Markers In Middle-Aged And Older Adults: A Systematic Review, Cassandra Smith, Alexander Tacey, Jakub Mesinovic, David Scott, Xuzhu Lin, Tara C. Brennan-Speranza, Joshua R. Lewis, Gustavo Duque, Itamar Levinger

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Background: Bone turnover is the cellular machinery responsible for bone integrity and strength and, in the clinical setting, it is assessed using bone turnover markers (BTMs). Acute exercise can induce mechanical stress on bone which is needed for bone remodelling, but to date, there are conflicting results in regards to the effects of varying mechanical stimuli on BTMs. Objectives: This systematic review examines the effects of acute aerobic, resistance and impact exercises on BTMs in middle and older-aged adults and examines whether the responses are determined by the exercise mode, intensity, age and sex. Methods: We …


Effects Of Spaceflight On Musculoskeletal Health: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Considerations For Interplanetary Travel, Paul Comfort, John J. Mcmahon, Paul A. Jones, Matthew Cuthbert, Kristina Kendall, Jason P. Lake, G. Gregory Haff Jan 2021

Effects Of Spaceflight On Musculoskeletal Health: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Considerations For Interplanetary Travel, Paul Comfort, John J. Mcmahon, Paul A. Jones, Matthew Cuthbert, Kristina Kendall, Jason P. Lake, G. Gregory Haff

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: If interplanetary travel is to be successful over the coming decades, it is essential that countermeasures to minimize deterioration of the musculoskeletal system are as effective as possible, given the increased duration of spaceflight associated with such missions. The aim of this review, therefore, is to determine the magnitude of deconditioning of the musculoskeletal system during prolonged spaceflight and recommend possible methods to enhance the existing countermeasures. Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Ovid and Scopus databases. 5541 studies were identified prior to the removal of duplicates and the application of the following inclusion criteria: (1) group …


Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Muscle Weakness Identifies 15 Susceptibility Loci In Older Men And Women, Garan Jones, Katerina Trajanoska, Adam J. Santanasto, Najada Stringa, Chia-Ling Kuo, Janice L. Atkins, Joshua R. Lewis, Thuyvy Duong, Shengjun Hong, Mary L. Biggs, Jian’An Luan, Chloe Sarnowski, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Toshiko Tanaka, Mary K. Wojczynski, Ryan Cvejkus, Maria Nethander, Sahar Ghasemi, Jingyun Yang, M. Carola Zillikens, Stefan Walter, Kamil Sicinski, Erika Kague, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Dan E. Arking, B. Gwen Windham, Eric Boerwinkle Jan 2021

Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Muscle Weakness Identifies 15 Susceptibility Loci In Older Men And Women, Garan Jones, Katerina Trajanoska, Adam J. Santanasto, Najada Stringa, Chia-Ling Kuo, Janice L. Atkins, Joshua R. Lewis, Thuyvy Duong, Shengjun Hong, Mary L. Biggs, Jian’An Luan, Chloe Sarnowski, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Toshiko Tanaka, Mary K. Wojczynski, Ryan Cvejkus, Maria Nethander, Sahar Ghasemi, Jingyun Yang, M. Carola Zillikens, Stefan Walter, Kamil Sicinski, Erika Kague, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Dan E. Arking, B. Gwen Windham, Eric Boerwinkle

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2021, The Author(s). Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256, 523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1p = 4 × 10−17), arthritis (GDF5p = 4 × 10−13), cell cycle …


Application Of A Brain-Inspired Spiking Neural Network Architecture To Odor Data Classification, Anup Vanarse, Josafath Israel Espinosa-Ramos, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Nikola Kasabov Jan 2020

Application Of A Brain-Inspired Spiking Neural Network Architecture To Odor Data Classification, Anup Vanarse, Josafath Israel Espinosa-Ramos, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Nikola Kasabov

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Existing methods in neuromorphic olfaction mainly focus on implementing the data transformation based on the neurobiological architecture of the olfactory pathway. While the transformation is pivotal for the sparse spike-based representation of odor data, classification techniques based on the bio-computations of the higher brain areas, which process the spiking data for identification of odor, remain largely unexplored. This paper argues that brain-inspired spiking neural networks constitute a promising approach for the next generation of machine intelligence for odor data processing. Inspired by principles of brain information processing, here we propose the first spiking neural network method and associated deep machine …


A Hardware-Deployable Neuromorphic Solution For Encoding And Classification Of Electronic Nose Data, Anup Vanarse, Alexander Rassau, Peter Van Der Made Jan 2019

A Hardware-Deployable Neuromorphic Solution For Encoding And Classification Of Electronic Nose Data, Anup Vanarse, Alexander Rassau, Peter Van Der Made

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

In several application domains, electronic nose systems employing conventional data processing approaches incur substantial power and computational costs and limitations, such as significant latency and poor accuracy for classification. Recent developments in spike-based bio-inspired approaches have delivered solutions for the highly accurate classification of multivariate sensor data with minimized computational and power requirements. Although these methods have addressed issues related to efficient data processing and classification accuracy, other areas, such as reducing the processing latency to support real-time application and deploying spike-based solutions on supported hardware, have yet to be studied in detail. Through this investigation, we proposed a spiking …


Real-Time Classification Of Multivariate Olfaction Data Using Spiking Neural Networks, Arnup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Therese O'Sullivan, Jonny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2019

Real-Time Classification Of Multivariate Olfaction Data Using Spiking Neural Networks, Arnup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Therese O'Sullivan, Jonny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Recent studies in bioinspired artificial olfaction, especially those detailing the application of spike-based neuromorphic methods, have led to promising developments towards overcoming the limitations of traditional approaches, such as complexity in handling multivariate data, computational and power requirements, poor accuracy, and substantial delay for processing and classification of odors. Rank-order-based olfactory systems provide an interesting approach for detection of target gases by encoding multi-variate data generated by artificial olfactory systems into temporal signatures. However, the utilization of traditional pattern-matching methods and unpredictable shuffling of spikes in the rank-order impedes the performance of the system. In this paper, we present an …


Correction To: Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction Induced Injury, Andrew N. Billin, Samuel E. Honeycutt, Alan V. Mcdougal, Jaclyn P. Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M. Freudenberg, Deepak K. Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S. Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V. Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C. Hinken, Alan J. Russell Dec 2018

Correction To: Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction Induced Injury, Andrew N. Billin, Samuel E. Honeycutt, Alan V. Mcdougal, Jaclyn P. Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M. Freudenberg, Deepak K. Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S. Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V. Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C. Hinken, Alan J. Russell

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors flagged that there is a discrepancy with the Availability of data and materials statement on page 12 of the article.


Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell Nov 2018

Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: In muscular dystrophy and old age, skeletal muscle repair is compromised leading to fibrosis and fatty tissue accumulation. Therefore, therapies that protect skeletal muscle or enhance repair would be valuable medical treatments. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate gene transcription under conditions of low oxygen, and HIF target genes EPO and VEGF have been associated with muscle protection and repair. We tested the importance of HIF activation following skeletal muscle injury, in both a murine model and human volunteers, using prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that stabilize and activate HIF.

METHODS: Using a mouse eccentric limb injury model, we characterized the protective effects …


Cognitive Impairment And Risk Of All-Cause And Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Over 20-Year Follow-Up: Results From The Blsa, Ji An, Haibin Li, Zhe Tang, Deqiang Zheng, Jin Guo, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Xia Li, Anxin Wang, Xiangtong Liu, Lixin Tao, Chengbei Hou, Feng Zhang, Xinghua Yang, Qi Gao, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo, Yanxia Luo Jan 2018

Cognitive Impairment And Risk Of All-Cause And Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Over 20-Year Follow-Up: Results From The Blsa, Ji An, Haibin Li, Zhe Tang, Deqiang Zheng, Jin Guo, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Xia Li, Anxin Wang, Xiangtong Liu, Lixin Tao, Chengbei Hou, Feng Zhang, Xinghua Yang, Qi Gao, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo, Yanxia Luo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background-Cognitive impairment may increase the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. This study examined the association between cognitive function and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among the elderly in Beijing, China. Methods and Results-A total of 1996 participants aged ≥55 years at baseline were enrolled from the BLSA (Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging). Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and participants were categorized as:


An Investigation Into Spike-Based Neuromorphic Approaches For Artificial Olfactory Systems, Anup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau Jan 2017

An Investigation Into Spike-Based Neuromorphic Approaches For Artificial Olfactory Systems, Anup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The implementation of neuromorphic methods has delivered promising results for vision and auditory sensors. These methods focus on mimicking the neuro-biological architecture to generate and process spike-based information with minimal power consumption. With increasing interest in developing low-power and robust chemical sensors, the application of neuromorphic engineering concepts for electronic noses has provided an impetus for research focusing on improving these instruments. While conventional e-noses apply computationally expensive and power-consuming data-processing strategies, neuromorphic olfactory sensors implement the biological olfaction principles found in humans and insects to simplify the handling of multivariate sensory data by generating and processing spike-based information. Over …


Medical Help-Seeking For Sexual Concerns In Prostate Cancer Survivors, Melissa K. Hyde, Leah Zajdlewicz, Addie C. Wootten, Christian J. Nelson, Anthony Lowe, Jeff Dunn, Suzanne K. Chambers Mar 2016

Medical Help-Seeking For Sexual Concerns In Prostate Cancer Survivors, Melissa K. Hyde, Leah Zajdlewicz, Addie C. Wootten, Christian J. Nelson, Anthony Lowe, Jeff Dunn, Suzanne K. Chambers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Introduction: Although sexual dysfunction is common after prostate cancer, men's decisions to seek help for sexual concerns are not well understood.

Aim: Describe predictors of actual prior help-seeking and intended future medical help-seeking for sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer survivors.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 510 prostate cancer survivors assessed masculine beliefs, attitudes, support/approval from partner/peer networks (subjective norm), and perceived control as predictors of medical help-seeking for sexual concerns. A theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective was used to examine actual prior and planned future behavior and contributing factors. Statistical analyses included multiple and logistic regressions.

Main Outcome Measures: …


Abcb5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells, Tobias Schatton, Jun Yang, Sonja Kleffel, Mayuko Uehara, Steven R. Barthel, Christoph Schlapbach, Qian Zhan, Stephen Dudeney, Hansgeorg Mueller, Nayoung Lee, Juliane C. De Vries, Barbara Meier, Seppe Vander Beken, Mark M. Kluth, Christoph Ganss, Arlene H. Sharpe, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Reza Abdi, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, George F. Murphy, Thomas S. Kupper, Natasha Y. Frank, Markus H. Frank Jan 2015

Abcb5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells, Tobias Schatton, Jun Yang, Sonja Kleffel, Mayuko Uehara, Steven R. Barthel, Christoph Schlapbach, Qian Zhan, Stephen Dudeney, Hansgeorg Mueller, Nayoung Lee, Juliane C. De Vries, Barbara Meier, Seppe Vander Beken, Mark M. Kluth, Christoph Ganss, Arlene H. Sharpe, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Reza Abdi, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek, George F. Murphy, Thomas S. Kupper, Natasha Y. Frank, Markus H. Frank

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs) capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of …


Segmental Musculoskeletal Examinations Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (Dxa): Positioning And Analysis Considerations, Nicolas H. Hart, Sophia Nimphius, Tania Spiteri, Jodie L. Cochrane, Robert U. Newton Jan 2015

Segmental Musculoskeletal Examinations Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (Dxa): Positioning And Analysis Considerations, Nicolas H. Hart, Sophia Nimphius, Tania Spiteri, Jodie L. Cochrane, Robert U. Newton

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Musculoskeletal examinations provide informative and valuable quantitative insight into muscle and bone health. DXA is one mainstream tool used to accurately and reliably determine body composition components and bone mass characteristics in-vivo. Presently, whole body scan models separate the body into axial and appendicular regions, however there is a need for localised appendicular segmentation models to further examine regions of interest within the upper and lower extremities. Similarly, in-consistencies pertaining to patient positioning exist in the litera-ture which influence measurement precision and analysis out-comes highlighting a need for standardised procedure. This paper provides standardised and reproducible: 1) positioning and analysis …