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Toward A New Approach To Job-Related Distress: A Three-Sample Study Of The Occupational Depression Inventory, Renzo Bianchi, James Sowden, Jay Verkuilen, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Jan 2023

Toward A New Approach To Job-Related Distress: A Three-Sample Study Of The Occupational Depression Inventory, Renzo Bianchi, James Sowden, Jay Verkuilen, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) was recently developed to assess depressive symptoms that individuals specifically attribute to their work. One purpose of the ODI is to respond to limitations of current assessments of job-related distress, most notably, assessments relying on the burnout construct. In this study, we conducted a thorough examination of the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI using exploratory structural equation modelling bifactor analysis and Mokken scale analysis. The study involved three samples of employed individuals, recruited in France (N = 3454), Switzerland (N = 1971), and Australia (N = 1485). Results were consistent across the three …


Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics, Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Dec 2022

Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics, Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Background: The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) reflects a new approach to job-related distress centered on work-attributed depressive symptoms. The instrument was developed with reference to the characterization of major depression found in the DSM-5. The ODI has been validated in English, French, and Spanish. This study (a) investigated the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI’s Italian version and (b) inquired into the nomological network of occupational depression. Methods: A convenience sample of 963 employed individuals was recruited in Italy (69.9% female; mean age = 40.433). We notably relied on exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis, common-practice …


Distinct Thalamic And Frontal Neuroanatomical Substrates In Children With Familial Vs. Non-Familial Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Rahman Baboli, Meng Cao, Jeffrey M. Halperin, Xiaobo Li Dec 2022

Distinct Thalamic And Frontal Neuroanatomical Substrates In Children With Familial Vs. Non-Familial Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Rahman Baboli, Meng Cao, Jeffrey M. Halperin, Xiaobo Li

Publications and Research

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, inheritable, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. Children with a family history of ADHD are at elevated risk of having ADHD and persisting its symptoms into adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of having or not having positive family risk factor in the neuroanatomy of the brain in children with ADHD. Cortical thickness-, surface area-, and volume-based measures were extracted and compared in a total of 606 participants, including 132, 165, and 309 in groups of familial ADHD (ADHD-F), non-familial ADHD (ADHD-NF), and typically developed children, respectively. Compared to controls, …


Distress In The Workplace: Characterizing The Relationship Of Burnout Measures To The Occupational Depression Inventory, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi Dec 2022

Distress In The Workplace: Characterizing The Relationship Of Burnout Measures To The Occupational Depression Inventory, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Renzo Bianchi

Publications and Research

Burnout has been found to problematically overlap with depression. However, the generalizability of this finding remains disputed. This study examined burnout–depression overlap using the recently developed Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) and two burnout measures, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). The study involved two teacher samples employed in France (N = 1,450) and New Zealand (N = 492). We found the correlations of the ODI with (a) the MBI’s emotional exhaustion (EE) subscale and (b) the CBI to reach .80. An explanation of these high correlations based on content overlap in fatigue-related items was ruled …


A Survey Based-Study Reviewing The Career Opportunities For Student In Radiological Technology, Tatiana Ryzhakova, Mikhail Kun, Peber Dejesus, Zoya Vinokur Dec 2022

A Survey Based-Study Reviewing The Career Opportunities For Student In Radiological Technology, Tatiana Ryzhakova, Mikhail Kun, Peber Dejesus, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

Recent graduates lack the knowledge of many career opportunities there is after earning a Radiology Technology (RT) certification. The purpose of this study is to investigate how much knowledge students have as a student becomes certified for RT. This study will also represent RT workers' experience today. Questionnaires will be spread to the students in order to determine the level of knowledge of career opportunities they have in the career. The in-depth questions will target the career options in the radiology field; they also will include questions that ask for the age and demographics of students forming the part of …


Designing Of X-Ray Beams To Assess Mineral Loss In Dehydrated Fruits – Radiology Readiness During Climate Change, Angela Moore, Katie Tam Dec 2022

Designing Of X-Ray Beams To Assess Mineral Loss In Dehydrated Fruits – Radiology Readiness During Climate Change, Angela Moore, Katie Tam

Publications and Research

Key minerals such as iron, manganese and copper are necessary for optimal health and vitality of human beings. These minerals are within the biomolecules of food, particularly in fruits and are not detectable without destroying their natural biochemical roles. A compilation was done on average mineral compositions for multiple apple varieties from USDA and academic horticulture research labs to design the x-ray beams in the low energy ranges in our mammography system that provide “soft” x-rays for imaging light-weight atoms. In this project homemade external filters like Aluminum sheets, Iodine and Gadolinium contrast media were developed to modify low energy …


Health Effects Of Indigenous Language Use And Revitalization: A Realist Review, D. H. Whalen, Melissa E. Lewis, Stefanie Gillson, Brittany Mcbeath, Bri Alexander, Kate Nyhan Nov 2022

Health Effects Of Indigenous Language Use And Revitalization: A Realist Review, D. H. Whalen, Melissa E. Lewis, Stefanie Gillson, Brittany Mcbeath, Bri Alexander, Kate Nyhan

Publications and Research

Background: Indigenous populations across the world are more likely to suffer from poor health outcomes when compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Although these disparities have many sources, one protective factor that has become increasingly apparent is the continued use and/or revitalization of traditional Indigenous lifeways: Indigenous language in particular. This realist review is aimed at bringing together the literature that addresses effects of language use and revitalization on mental and physical health.

Methods: Purposive bibliographic searches on Scopus were conducted to identify relevant publications, further augmented by forward citation chaining. Included publications (qualitative and quantitative) described health …


Addressing A Labor Market Need For Health Managers And Policy Professionals: Development Of A Non-Clinical Health Science Degree Program For Health Policy And Management, Noemi Rodriguez Nov 2022

Addressing A Labor Market Need For Health Managers And Policy Professionals: Development Of A Non-Clinical Health Science Degree Program For Health Policy And Management, Noemi Rodriguez

Publications and Research

Given the United States of America's health care’s rapidly shifting dynamics and demands to recalibrate its traditional operational and financial models particularly under the emergence of unprecedented strains to the healthcare system such as COVID-19, the Department of Health Sciences at the New York City College of Technology (NYCCT), City University of New York developed a four-year undergraduate degree program in healthcare policy and management. It utilizes a didactic and experiential curriculum to prepare students with very little or no healthcare experience to go into a robust and technology oriented labor market in healthcare planning, operations, and policy. The new …


Microalbuminuria And Hypertension Among Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Gustavo G. Zarini, Lemia H. Shaban, Joan A. Vaccaro, Fatma G. Huffman Oct 2022

Microalbuminuria And Hypertension Among Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Gustavo G. Zarini, Lemia H. Shaban, Joan A. Vaccaro, Fatma G. Huffman

Publications and Research

Purpose: This study examined the association of microalbuminuria (MAU), as determined by albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), with hypertension (HTN) among Turkish immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) living in deprived neighborhoods of The Hague, Netherlands. Methods: A total of 110 participants, physician-diagnosed with T2D, aged ≥ 30 years were recruited from multiple sources from The Hague, Netherlands in a cross-sectional design. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated office blood pressure equipment. Urine albumin was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. Urine creatinine was determined using the Jaffe method. MAU was defined as ACR ≥ 3.5 mg/mmol …


Microalbuminuria And Hypertension Among Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Gustavo Zarini, Lemia H. Shaban, Joan A. Vaccaro, Fatma G. Huffman Oct 2022

Microalbuminuria And Hypertension Among Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Gustavo Zarini, Lemia H. Shaban, Joan A. Vaccaro, Fatma G. Huffman

Publications and Research

Purpose: This study examined the association of microalbuminuria (MAU), as determined by albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), with hypertension (HTN) among Turkish immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) living in deprived neighborhoods of The Hague, Netherlands.

Methods: A total of 110 participants, physician-diagnosed with T2D, aged 30 years were recruited from multiple sources from The Hague, Netherlands in a cross-sectional design. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated office blood pressure equipment. Urine albumin was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. Urine creatinine was determined using the Jaffe method. MAU was defined as ACR 3.5 mg/mmol for females …


Incidence And Factors Related To Nonmotorized Scooter Injuries In New York State And New York City, 2005–2020, Peter Tuckel Oct 2022

Incidence And Factors Related To Nonmotorized Scooter Injuries In New York State And New York City, 2005–2020, Peter Tuckel

Publications and Research

Background: This study provides an analysis of contemporary trends and demographics of patients treated for injuries from nonmotorized scooters in emergency departments in New York state excluding New York City (NYS) and New York City (NYC).

Methods: The study tracks the incidence of nonmotorized scooter injuries in NYS and NYC from 2005 to 2020 and furnishes a detailed profile of the injured patients using patient-level records from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS). A negative binomial regression analysis is performed on the SPARCS data to measure the simultaneous effects of demographic variables on scooter injuries for NYS and …


Rescue Of Deficits By Brwd1 Copy Number Restoration In The Ts65dn Mouse Model Of Down Syndrome, Sasha L. Fulton, Wendy Wenderski, Ashley E. Lepack, Andrew L. Eagle, Tomas Fanutza, Ryan M. Bastle, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Emma C. Hays, Arianna Neal, Jaroslav Bendl, Lorna A. Farrelly, Amni Al-Kachak, Yang Lyu, Bulent Cetin, Jennifer C. Chan, Tina N. Tran, Rachael L. Neve, Randall J. Roper, Kristen J. Brennand, Panos Roussos, John C. Schimenti, Allyson K. Friedman, Li Shen, Robert D. Blitzer, Alfred J. Robison, Gerald R. Crabtree, Ian Maze Oct 2022

Rescue Of Deficits By Brwd1 Copy Number Restoration In The Ts65dn Mouse Model Of Down Syndrome, Sasha L. Fulton, Wendy Wenderski, Ashley E. Lepack, Andrew L. Eagle, Tomas Fanutza, Ryan M. Bastle, Aarthi Ramakrishnan, Emma C. Hays, Arianna Neal, Jaroslav Bendl, Lorna A. Farrelly, Amni Al-Kachak, Yang Lyu, Bulent Cetin, Jennifer C. Chan, Tina N. Tran, Rachael L. Neve, Randall J. Roper, Kristen J. Brennand, Panos Roussos, John C. Schimenti, Allyson K. Friedman, Li Shen, Robert D. Blitzer, Alfred J. Robison, Gerald R. Crabtree, Ian Maze

Publications and Research

With an incidence of ~1 in 800 births, Down syndrome (DS) is the most com- mon chromosomal condition linked to intellectual disability worldwide. While the genetic basis of DS has been identified as a triplication of chromosome 21 (HSA21), the genes encoded from HSA 21 that directly contribute to cognitive de fi cits remain incompletely understood. Here, we found that the HSA21- encoded chromatin effector, BRWD1, was upregulated in neurons derived from iPS cells from an individual with Down syndrome and brain of trisomic mice. We showed that selective copy number restoration of Brwd1 in trisomic animals rescued de fi …


Contrafreeloading In Kea (Nestor Notabilis) In Comparison To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith, Amalia P. M. Bastos, Martin Chodorow, Alex H. Taylor, Irene M. Pepperberg Oct 2022

Contrafreeloading In Kea (Nestor Notabilis) In Comparison To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith, Amalia P. M. Bastos, Martin Chodorow, Alex H. Taylor, Irene M. Pepperberg

Publications and Research

Contrafreeloading—working to access food that could be freely obtained—is rarely exhibited and poorly understood. Based on data from Grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), researchers proposed a correlation between contrafreeloading and play: that contrafreeloading is more likely when subjects view the task as play. We tested that hypothesis by subjecting a relatively more playful parrot species, the kea ( Nestor notabilis ), to the same experimental tasks. Experiment 1 presented eight kea with container pairs holding more- or less-preferred free or enclosed food items, and examined three types of contrafreeloading: calculated (working to access preferred food over less-preferred, freely available …


Genomic Data Mining Reveals Abundant Uncharacterized Transporters In Coccidioides Immitis And Coccidioides Posadasii, Hong Cai, Hao Zhang, Daniel H. Guo, Yufeng Wang, Jianying Gu Oct 2022

Genomic Data Mining Reveals Abundant Uncharacterized Transporters In Coccidioides Immitis And Coccidioides Posadasii, Hong Cai, Hao Zhang, Daniel H. Guo, Yufeng Wang, Jianying Gu

Publications and Research

Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are causative agents of coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as Valley Fever. The increasing Valley Fever cases in the past decades, the expansion of endemic regions, and the rising azole drug-resistant strains have underscored an urgent need for a better understanding of Coccidioides biology and new antifungal strategies. Transporters play essential roles in pathogen survival, growth, infection, and adaptation, and are considered as potential drug targets. However, the composition and roles of transport machinery in Coccidioides remain largely unknown. In this study, genomic data mining revealed an abundant, uncharacterized repertoire of transporters in Coccidioides genomes. The catalog …


Artificial Intelligence And The Situational Rationality Of Diagnosis: Human Problem-Solving And The Artifacts Of Health And Medicine, Michael W. Raphael Oct 2022

Artificial Intelligence And The Situational Rationality Of Diagnosis: Human Problem-Solving And The Artifacts Of Health And Medicine, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

What is the problem-solving capacity of artificial intelligence (AI) for health and medicine? This paper draws out the cognitive sociological context of diagnostic problem-solving for medical sociology regarding the limits of automation for decision-based medical tasks. Specifically, it presents a practical way of evaluating the artificiality of symptoms and signs in medical encounters, with an emphasis on the visualization of the problem-solving process in doctor-patient relationships. In doing so, the paper details the logical differences underlying diagnostic task performance between man and machine problem-solving: its principle of rationality, the priorities of its means of adaptation to abstraction, and the effects …


Lgbtq+ And Dental Education: Analyzing The Present And Recommendations For The Future, Colin M. Haley, Diana V. Macri, Herminio L. Perez, Scott B. Schwartz Oct 2022

Lgbtq+ And Dental Education: Analyzing The Present And Recommendations For The Future, Colin M. Haley, Diana V. Macri, Herminio L. Perez, Scott B. Schwartz

Publications and Research

LGBTQ+ populations constitute increasing proportions of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, this group suffers from health inequities, including oral health. The report “Oral Health: Advances and Challenges” identified the LGBTQ+ community as an underserved population which faces significant barriers in accessing oral health care. Coverage of LGBTQ+ topics in formal education settings in both dental schools and dental hygiene programs is scarce, which contributes to inequities within this group. Increasing curriculum content related to LGBTQ+ populations is of utmost importance to promote optimal patient-provider interactions while improving oral health outcomes. Ensuring equity …


Effectiveness And Safety Of Apixaban Vs Warfarin Among Venous Thromboembolism Patients At High-Risk Of Bleeding, Alexander T. Cohen, Janvi Sah, A. D. Dhamane, Theodore Lee, Lisa Rosenblatt, Patrick Hlavacek, Birol Emir, Allison V. Keshishian, Huseyin Yuce, Xuemei Luo Sep 2022

Effectiveness And Safety Of Apixaban Vs Warfarin Among Venous Thromboembolism Patients At High-Risk Of Bleeding, Alexander T. Cohen, Janvi Sah, A. D. Dhamane, Theodore Lee, Lisa Rosenblatt, Patrick Hlavacek, Birol Emir, Allison V. Keshishian, Huseyin Yuce, Xuemei Luo

Publications and Research

This study evaluated effectiveness and safety of apixaban versus warfarin among venous thromboembolism patients at high-risk of bleeding (defined as having at least one of the following bleeding risk factors: ≥75 years; used antiplatelet, NSAIDs, or corticosteroids; had prior gastrointestinal bleeding or gastrointestinal-related conditions; late stage chronic kidney disease). Adult venous thromboembolism patients initiating apixaban or warfarin with ≥1 bleeding risk factor were identified from Medicare and four commercial claims databases in the United States. To balance characteristics between apixaban and warfarin patients, stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting was conducted. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk …


Antidepressant Effect Of Ketamine On Inflammation-Mediated Cytokine Dysregulation In Adults With Treatment-Resistant Depression: Rapid Systematic Review, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Grozdena Yilmaz, Jianying Gu Sep 2022

Antidepressant Effect Of Ketamine On Inflammation-Mediated Cytokine Dysregulation In Adults With Treatment-Resistant Depression: Rapid Systematic Review, Shiryn D. Sukhram, Grozdena Yilmaz, Jianying Gu

Publications and Research

Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) represent a global source of societal and health burden. To advise proper management of inflammation-related depression among TRD patients, it is important to identify therapeutic clinical treatments. A key factor is related to proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Ketamine may provide an anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy by targeting proinflammatory pathways associated with depressive disorders, which may be exacerbated in the ageing population with TRD.

Objective. Despite a burgeoning body of …


Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru Sep 2022

Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru

Publications and Research

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants …


Burned-Out With Burnout? Insights From Historical Analysis, Renzo Bianchi, Katarzyna Wac, James Francis Sowden, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Sep 2022

Burned-Out With Burnout? Insights From Historical Analysis, Renzo Bianchi, Katarzyna Wac, James Francis Sowden, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Fierce debates surround the conceptualization and measurement of job-related distress in occupational health science. The use of burnout as an index of job-related distress, though commonplace, has increasingly been called into question. In this paper, we first highlight foundational problems that undermine the burnout construct and its legacy measure, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Next, we report on advances in research on job-related distress that depart from the use of the burnout construct. Tracing the genesis of the burnout construct, we observe that (a) burnout’s definition was preestablished rather than derived from a rigorous research process and (b) the MBI …


Risk Levels And Adverse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulants, Gregory Lip, Richard R. Murphy, Farhad Sahiar, Timothy J. Ingall, Amol Dhamane, Mauricio Ferri, Patrick Hlavacek, Madison T. Preib, Allison V. Keshishian, Cristina Russ, Lisa Rosenblatt, Huseyin Yuce, Steve Deitelzweig Aug 2022

Risk Levels And Adverse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulants, Gregory Lip, Richard R. Murphy, Farhad Sahiar, Timothy J. Ingall, Amol Dhamane, Mauricio Ferri, Patrick Hlavacek, Madison T. Preib, Allison V. Keshishian, Cristina Russ, Lisa Rosenblatt, Huseyin Yuce, Steve Deitelzweig

Publications and Research

Importance The CHA2DS2-VASc score (calculated as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years and older, diabetes, stroke or TIA, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, and sex category) is the standard for assessing risk of stroke and systemic embolism and includes age and thromboembolic history. To our knowledge, no studies have comprehensively evaluated safety and effectiveness outcomes among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulants according to independent, categorical risk strata.

Objective To evaluate the incidence of key adverse outcomes among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulants by CHA2DS2 …


Development And Modification Of A Culturally Tailored Education Program To Prevent Breast Cancer In Korean Immigrant Women In New York City, Jin Young Seo, So-Hyun Park, Sung-Eun Choi, Minkyung Lee, Shiela M. Strauss Aug 2022

Development And Modification Of A Culturally Tailored Education Program To Prevent Breast Cancer In Korean Immigrant Women In New York City, Jin Young Seo, So-Hyun Park, Sung-Eun Choi, Minkyung Lee, Shiela M. Strauss

Publications and Research

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in Korean American (KA) women. In view of its high prevalence in these women, their low screening rates, and the cultural influence of BC risk factors in their lifestyles, we developed a community-based culturally tailored BC prevention program, the Korean Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program (KBCRRP). Guided by the PRECEDE-PROCEDE and health belief models, the KBCRRP was developed to achieve four goals: (1) healthy weight, (2) physically active lifestyle, (3) healthy diet, and (4) BC screening and adherence. KBCRRP combines effective multicomponent strategies for BC screening and a group-based lifestyle intervention incorporating …


Recognizing And Disrupting Stigma In Implementation Of Hiv Prevention And Care: A Call To Research And Action, Sarit A. Golub, Rachel A. Fikslin Jul 2022

Recognizing And Disrupting Stigma In Implementation Of Hiv Prevention And Care: A Call To Research And Action, Sarit A. Golub, Rachel A. Fikslin

Publications and Research

Introduction: There is robust evidence that stigma negatively impacts both people living with HIV and those who might benefit from HIV prevention interventions. Within healthcare settings, research on HIV stigma has focused on intra-personal processes (i.e. knowledge or internalization of community-level stigma that might limit clients’ engagement in care) or inter-personal processes (i.e. stigmatized interactions with service providers). Intersectional approaches to stigma call us to examine the ways that intersecting systems of power and oppression produce stigma not only at the individual and interpersonal levels, but also within healthcare service delivery systems. This commentary argues for the importance of analysing …


Oral Anticoagulant Underutilization Among Elderly Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Insights From The United States Medicare Database, Muhammad Bilal Munir, Patrick Hlavacek, Allison V. Keshishian, Jennifer D. Guo, Rajesh Mallampati, Mauricio Ferri, Cristina Russ, Birol Emir, Matthew Cato, Huseyin Yuce, Jonathan C. Hsu Jul 2022

Oral Anticoagulant Underutilization Among Elderly Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Insights From The United States Medicare Database, Muhammad Bilal Munir, Patrick Hlavacek, Allison V. Keshishian, Jennifer D. Guo, Rajesh Mallampati, Mauricio Ferri, Cristina Russ, Birol Emir, Matthew Cato, Huseyin Yuce, Jonathan C. Hsu

Publications and Research

Background

Oral anticoagulants (OACs) mitigate stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The study aim was to analyze prevalence and predictors of OAC underutilization.

Methods

Newly diagnosed AF patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 were identified from the US CMS Database (January 1, 2013–December 31, 2017). Patients were stratified based on having an OAC prescription versus not and the OAC prescription group was stratified by direct OAC (DOACs) versus warfarin. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of OAC underutilization.

Results

Among 1,204,507 identified AF patients, 617,611 patients (51.3%) were not prescribed an OAC during follow-up …


Community Engagement Education In Academic Health Centers, Colleges, And Universities, Chyke A. Doubeni, David Nelson, Elizabeth Gross Cohn, Electra Paskett, Seleshi Ayalew Asfaw, Mehek Sumar, Syed M. Ahmed, Rhonda Mcclinton-Brown, Mark L. Wieland, Anita Kinney, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Lisa G. Rosas, Cecilia M. Patino Jul 2022

Community Engagement Education In Academic Health Centers, Colleges, And Universities, Chyke A. Doubeni, David Nelson, Elizabeth Gross Cohn, Electra Paskett, Seleshi Ayalew Asfaw, Mehek Sumar, Syed M. Ahmed, Rhonda Mcclinton-Brown, Mark L. Wieland, Anita Kinney, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Lisa G. Rosas, Cecilia M. Patino

Publications and Research

Community engagement (CE) is critical for advancing health equity and a key approach for promoting inclusive clinical and translational science. However, it requires a workforce trained to effectively design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and improvement strategies through meaningful collaboration with community members. This paper presents an approach for designing CE curricula for research, education, clinical care, and public health learners. A general pedagogical framework is presented to support curriculum development with the inclusion of community members as facilitators or faculty. The overall goal of the curriculum is envisioned as enabling learners to effectively demonstrate the principles of CE in …


Precision Dentistry In Practice, Diana V. Macri Jul 2022

Precision Dentistry In Practice, Diana V. Macri

Publications and Research

A paradigm shift is necessary to improve healthcare delivery and outcomes. Precision medicine and precision dentistry may be able to shift the burden of disease and improve the nation’s oral and overall health.


Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On The Care Continuum Of Youth Living With Hiv: Qualitative Study Of The Scale It Up Program Clinical Sites, Tyra Dark, Sitaji Gurung, Mary Dooley, Kit N. Simpson, Seyram A. Butame, Sylvie Naar Jun 2022

Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On The Care Continuum Of Youth Living With Hiv: Qualitative Study Of The Scale It Up Program Clinical Sites, Tyra Dark, Sitaji Gurung, Mary Dooley, Kit N. Simpson, Seyram A. Butame, Sylvie Naar

Publications and Research

The study objective was to explore the impact of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on the clinics’ ability to provide continuous healthcare services to youth (15–24 years) living with HIV (YLWH). One focused semi-structured interview was conducted with each HIV clinic site—resulting in ten interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques assisted by NVIVO coding software and themes indicating barriers and facilitators to providing uninterrupted healthcare were elicited. Six themes were identified that affected the care continuum of YLWH: Timeframe of clinic preparation to address COVID-19 restrictions; impact on treatment cascade monitoring data; impact on patient care; impact on staff and …


Is The Phq-9 A Unidimensional Measure Of Depression? A 58,272-Participant Study, Renzo Bianchi, Jay Verkuilen, Sharon Toker, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Markus Gerber, Elmar Brähler, Kurt Kroenke Jun 2022

Is The Phq-9 A Unidimensional Measure Of Depression? A 58,272-Participant Study, Renzo Bianchi, Jay Verkuilen, Sharon Toker, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Markus Gerber, Elmar Brähler, Kurt Kroenke

Publications and Research

The PHQ-9 has become a measure of reference in depression research and clinical practice. However, the issue of the PHQ-9’s unidimensionality has not been fully elucidated, and the usability of the PHQ-9’s total score requires clarification. In this study, we examined the dimensionality, scalability, and monotonicity properties of the PHQ-9 as well as the scale’s total-score reliability. We did so based on exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) bifactor analysis and Mokken scale analysis (MSA). We relied on a total of 58,272 participants (63% female; Mage = 43, SDage = 13) from 29 samples involving seven different countries (e.g., Germany, the …


Longitudinal Patterns Of Suicidality Among Heroin Users In Johannesburg, South Africa: A Need For Suicide Screening And Intervention, Nirvana Morgan, Ellen-Ge Denton, Ugasvaree Subramaney, William Daniels, Tilman Steinert May 2022

Longitudinal Patterns Of Suicidality Among Heroin Users In Johannesburg, South Africa: A Need For Suicide Screening And Intervention, Nirvana Morgan, Ellen-Ge Denton, Ugasvaree Subramaney, William Daniels, Tilman Steinert

Publications and Research

Objectives: The objective of the study was to longitudinally assess the outcomes and correlates of suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB) among heroin users who attended inpatient detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation. SIB was assessed in 300 heroin users upon entry into inpatient detoxification (baseline) as well as 3-months (t1) (n = 252; 84%) and 9-months (t2) (n = 225; 75%) post treatment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the demographic, clinical and treatment related factors that increased the risk for a high SIB score.

Results: From baseline to t1 there was a significant decrease in the proportion of …


Imaging Of Transmetallation And Chelation Phenomena Involving Radiological Contrast Agents In Mineral-Rich Fruits, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur, Bleidis Buitrago, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Analia Basilicata, Jodi-Ann Douglas, Seanetta Reddock May 2022

Imaging Of Transmetallation And Chelation Phenomena Involving Radiological Contrast Agents In Mineral-Rich Fruits, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur, Bleidis Buitrago, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Analia Basilicata, Jodi-Ann Douglas, Seanetta Reddock

Publications and Research

Exogenous heavy metals or non-metallic waste products, for example lanthanide or iodinated contrast media for radiological procedures, may interfere with the biochemical pools in patients and in common food sources, creating an excess buildup of exogenous compounds which may reach toxic levels. Although the mechanisms are unknown, our experiments were designed to test if this toxicity can be attributed to “transmetallation” or “chelation” reactions freeing up lanthanides or chelated transition metals in acidic fruits used as phantoms representing the biologically active and mineral-rich carbohydrate matrix. The rapid breakdown of stable contrast agents have been reported at a lower pH. The …