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Masters Theses

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Development Of A Low-Dose Radiation Therapy Device For Acute Respritory Distress Syndrome, Thomas Heath Davis Dec 2022

Development Of A Low-Dose Radiation Therapy Device For Acute Respritory Distress Syndrome, Thomas Heath Davis

Masters Theses

This research focuses on the development of a low dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) device for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a respiratory illness that affects millions of people a year. The use of orthovoltage (200 – 500 keV) X-ray energy provides many advantages over traditional radiotherapy delivery with linear accelerators, such as low cost and greater accessibility. In addition, X-ray tubes have been shown throughout history to provide good treatment outcomes for pneumonia, and research has shown LD-RT to be just as effective with ARDS. This proposal summarizes my efforts in determining the dosimetric properties of a LD-RT system …


Predicting Immunization Status At Arrival In Tennessee Stocker Calves, Claire E. Hunkler Dec 2022

Predicting Immunization Status At Arrival In Tennessee Stocker Calves, Claire E. Hunkler

Masters Theses

Bovine respiratory disease is a multifaceted disease with agent, host, and environmental factors. Stocker calves are at high risk of contracting the disease through many stressors like weaning, transportation, commingling, etc. The purpose of this project was to test if externally observed physical characteristics of calves on arrival at a stocker facility can be used to predict calfhood vaccination status determined based on antibody titer levels. Knowledge of highly correlated characteristics could allow stocker operators to reduce the occurrence of BRD through targeted management strategies, thus lowering morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs. Ear notches, blood, and visual characteristics were collected …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina Oct 2022

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


Feasibility, Acceptability And Process Evaluation Of A Physical Activity Intervention In Toddler Aged Children: The Tap-A-Long Study, Luke M. Sudarsky Oct 2022

Feasibility, Acceptability And Process Evaluation Of A Physical Activity Intervention In Toddler Aged Children: The Tap-A-Long Study, Luke M. Sudarsky

Masters Theses

Recent literature has suggested the importance of physical activity in early childhood such as during the toddler years (12 months - 3 years.) Despite this, most toddlers are not physically active. There is a need to determine the types of physical activity programs that would interest toddlers within the settings they spend a significant amount of time in (e.g., childcare center). Currently, data on the feasibility, implementation, and process evaluation of physical activity interventions in toddler age children attending childcare centers is lacking within the literature. Therefore, the purpose of the Toddler Activity Pilot (TAP-A-LONG) study was to examine the …


The Effects Of Footwear Longitudinal Bending Stiffness On The Energetics And Biomechanics Of Uphill Running, Justin Angelo Ortega Oct 2022

The Effects Of Footwear Longitudinal Bending Stiffness On The Energetics And Biomechanics Of Uphill Running, Justin Angelo Ortega

Masters Theses

There has been a prevalence of long-distance running footwear incorporating carbon-fiber plates within their midsoles, effectively increasing their longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS). This modification of modern racing footwear has occurred concurrently with large improvements in running times (Bermon et al., 2021), putting into question how these footwear components affect performance (Muniz-Pardos et al., 2021). The current literature has investigated this at level running, but with the increasing popularity of trail running, it is of interest to investigate whether the benefits found during level running translate to graded running. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to investigate the effects …


Impact Of Fatty Acid On Markers Of Exocrine Pancreatic Stimulation, Yunyi Zhang Aug 2022

Impact Of Fatty Acid On Markers Of Exocrine Pancreatic Stimulation, Yunyi Zhang

Masters Theses

Chronic pancreatitis in dogs is typically managed with a low-fat diet. Human research suggests consuming medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may lower pancreatic enzyme release compared to consuming long chain fatty acids (LCFA). Twelve healthy adult colony dogs were fed a meal of cod and rice with either 3% metabolizable energy (ME) fat (control), high MCT (25% ME MCT oil, 25% ME butter), high saturated LCFA (50% ME butter), or high unsaturated LCFA (50% ME canola oil) in a 4-period by 4-treatment crossover design. Serum concentrations of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, gastrin, amylase, cholecystokinin (CCK), cholesterol, triglycerides and serum activities of DGGR …


A Qualitative Exploration Of Upsr, Shelby Miller Aug 2022

A Qualitative Exploration Of Upsr, Shelby Miller

Masters Theses

Person-Centered Theory (PCT, Rogers, 1959) provides the understanding of how growth-promoting relationships facilitate holistic well-being through the provision of unconditional positive regard (UPR), genuiness, and empathy. Through coaches’ provision of UPR, athletes have reported experiencing an increase of motivation, enhanced performances, and greater trust in their coach (McHenry et al., 2022). Most intriguingly, athletes created a relationship with themselves (i.e., self-regard) that mirrored their coaches’ treatment of them (McHenry et al., 2021). While UPR has just recently been studied in the coach-athlete relationship, little to no attention has been given to the relationship an athlete has with themselves (i.e., self-regard). …


The Use Of Occupational Therapy Services In Outpatient Mental Health, Kelsey A. Wasik, Matt T. Valois, Kaylee M. Essenberg, Kelcie P. Beck Jun 2022

The Use Of Occupational Therapy Services In Outpatient Mental Health, Kelsey A. Wasik, Matt T. Valois, Kaylee M. Essenberg, Kelcie P. Beck

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study is aimed to explore the structure and utilization details of occupational therapy in outpatient behavioral health settings. Two occupational therapists participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews which were transcribed and analyzed using the thematic approach. A total of two themes emerged: billing and coverage, and education and advocacy. Participants identified there are necessary factors for reimbursement of services, in addition to the need for education and advocacy for occupational therapists to practice in outpatient behavioral health settings. Future research should be aimed at recruiting more participants, occupational therapists, and from other roles in these clinics such …


Investigating Bilingual Aac Practices In Bilingual Communities, Johanna R. Salisbury Jun 2022

Investigating Bilingual Aac Practices In Bilingual Communities, Johanna R. Salisbury

Masters Theses

This thesis investigates best practices for teaching and supporting bilingual augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) users as they develop their communication skills. Although there are guidelines that inform best practices for teaching and supporting bilingual AAC users, there is very little information on what these practices look like. This thesis investigates the techniques and strategies that bilingual speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who practice in Catalunya, a bilingual community in northeastern Spain, use to evaluate, teach, and support people who use pictogram-based AAC modalities to communicate.

To do this, six SLPs who practice in Catalunya participated in interviews regarding their practices when …


Development Of A Predictive Model For Frailty Utilizing Electronic Health Records, Kye Poronsky Jun 2022

Development Of A Predictive Model For Frailty Utilizing Electronic Health Records, Kye Poronsky

Masters Theses

Frailty is a multifaceted, geriatric syndrome that is associated with age-related declines in functional reserves resulting in increased risks of in-hospital death, readmissions and discharge to nursing homes. The risks associated with frailty highlights the need for providers to be able to quickly, and accurately, assess someone’s frailty level. Previous studies have shown that bedside clinician assessment is not a reliable or valid way to determine frailty, meaning that a more reliable, valid and concise method is needed. We developed a prediction model using discharge ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnostic codes and other demographic variables to predict Reported Edmonton Frail Scale scores. Participants …


The Effects Of Spoken Self-Disclosure Scripts On Nonaphasic Listeners' Perceptions Of People With Aphasia, Colleen B. Ward Jun 2022

The Effects Of Spoken Self-Disclosure Scripts On Nonaphasic Listeners' Perceptions Of People With Aphasia, Colleen B. Ward

Masters Theses

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of spoken self-disclosure scripts on nonaphasic listeners’ perceptions of people with aphasia (PWA). Self-disclosure is a tool that PWA can utilize in the event that they want a conversation partner to know of their communication disorder. However, limited research has been conducted on the effects of aphasia self-disclosure or whether it affects perceptions of PWA from neurotypical communication partners. If self-disclosure is determined to make a positive impact on a communicative interaction, it could be grounds for encouraging PWA who are interested to develop a self-disclosure script or use …


The Efficacy Of A Telepractice Service Delivery Model For Providing Speech And Language Services To Children With Asd, Myranda L. Marotta Jun 2022

The Efficacy Of A Telepractice Service Delivery Model For Providing Speech And Language Services To Children With Asd, Myranda L. Marotta

Masters Theses

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic required the use of remote technologies for society and the workforce to function under quarantine conditions. The literature on telepractice services for individuals with ASD has proliferated during the past decade, especially during the past two years. Still, many publications on the topic lack scientific merit. This study utilized a quasi-experimental, single-subject, multiple-group, time-series design to investigate whether telepractice SLP services are at least as effective as the traditional, face-to-face delivery model.

Twenty-one students with autism spectrum disorder were included in this study. Additionally, 22 speech-language pathology graduate students and four SLP school professionals …


Preterm Birth And Subsequent Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women In The Women’S Health Initiative, Aaron Holman-Vittone Jun 2022

Preterm Birth And Subsequent Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women In The Women’S Health Initiative, Aaron Holman-Vittone

Masters Theses

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in the United States, currently affecting 11.3% of the nation. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis suggests that environmental stresses in utero and in early stages of life, such as preterm birth (age), can lead to development of adulthood diseases, including T2D. However, research on the association between preterm birth and T2D is sparse and predominantly based on European ancestry populations. We examined this association in postmenopausal women (N = 85,356) from the Women’s Health Initiative, a nationwide prospective cohort. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between self-reported preterm …


The Relationship Between Pm2.5 And Chronic Respiratory Disease In Senegal, Bailey Glenn Jun 2022

The Relationship Between Pm2.5 And Chronic Respiratory Disease In Senegal, Bailey Glenn

Masters Theses

Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic bronchitis have significantly increased in prevalence in Africa over the past 10 years. Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to air pollution may be associated with an increased risk of chronic respiratory diseases. However, such studies have predominantly been conducted in western societies or often used urbanicity as a proxy for exposure to air pollution. Therefore, we evaluated the association between PM2.5 exposure and asthma/chronic bronchitis in Senegal. A cross-sectional study was conducted for the time period of 3 October 2010 to 28 April 2011 using annual concentrations of PM2.5 …


Three Dimensional Spatio-Temporal Cluster Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 Infections, Keith W. Allison Jun 2022

Three Dimensional Spatio-Temporal Cluster Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 Infections, Keith W. Allison

Masters Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the need for fine-scale analysis of the clustering of cases of infectious disease in order to better understand and prevent the localized spread of infection. The students living on the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus provided a unique opportunity to do so, due to frequent mandatory testing during the 2020-2021 academic year, and dense living conditions. The South-West dormitory area is of particular interest due to its extremely high population density, housing around half of students living on campus during normal conditions. Using data gathered by the Public Health Promotion Center (PHPC), we analyzed the …


Benzofuran Derivatives Substitute For The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Mdma) In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Candace Johnson Jun 2022

Benzofuran Derivatives Substitute For The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Mdma) In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Candace Johnson

Masters Theses

4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is currently under evaluation in phase III clinical trials as medication-assisted therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is expected to be approved by the FDA for clinical use in the near future. MDMA is also a popular abused substance with risks for cardiovascular toxicity and neurotoxicity, particularly when misused at higher doses. Characterization of the behavioral and neurochemical effects of novel psychoactive substances is an essential step in the development of safer alternative therapeutic agents. Drug discrimination is a preclinical behavioral assay with pharmacological specificity for characterizing in vivo drug actions in the central nervous system. This …


Characterization Of The Fecal Microbiome In Dogs Receiving Medical Management For Congenital Portosystemic Shunts, Nathan Squire May 2022

Characterization Of The Fecal Microbiome In Dogs Receiving Medical Management For Congenital Portosystemic Shunts, Nathan Squire

Masters Theses

Background: The GI microbiome has not been characterized in dogs being medically managed for congenital portosystemic shunts [CPSS].

Objectives: To characterize the fecal microbiome in a population of dogs being medically managed for CPSS.

Animals: 27 client-owned dogs.

Methods: Prospective cohort study enrollment of fecal samples was performed with follow-up data collected retrospectively. The overall fecal dysbiosis index [DI] and individual bacterial abundances were determined using real-time qPCR. Medical management, clinical findings, clinicopathologic, and outcome variables were collected, and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between these variables and overall DI and bacterial abundances. Numerical variables were evaluated …


Recovery Posture Post Hiit Exercise In The Active Population, Sydney Goll Apr 2022

Recovery Posture Post Hiit Exercise In The Active Population, Sydney Goll

Masters Theses

Introduction: By stimulating the sympathetic nervous system during a high intensity cycle HIIT workout, the effects of body posture on heart rate recovery can be recorded as the body is returning to a resting state. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the physiology of recovery related to different body positions after high intensity exercise in order to account for the quickest recovery. Design: Original research. Methods: 18 healthy college aged individuals, 9 males, 8 females, mean age 21.7 ± 2.22, performed a submaximal HIIT workout on a cycle ergometer with a metabolic cart to record respiratory data. …


An Examination Of The Underutilization Of Mental Health Resources In Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kathleen Olivia Glover Apr 2022

An Examination Of The Underutilization Of Mental Health Resources In Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kathleen Olivia Glover

Masters Theses

Previous and developing literature indicates that collegiate student-athletes, while more susceptible to psychological problems, are underutilizing mental health resources. This project examines the aforementioned problem through the use of extensive student-athlete mental health literature to identify themes that are affecting student-athlete’s likeliness of seeking psychological services. Throughout the themes, the need for additional support from student-athlete stakeholders is presented. A workshop series to guide increased mental health literacy in student-athlete stakeholders to create opportunities to recognize signs of mental illness and form cultures that encourage the utilization of psychological services is constructed. It is anticipated that by including stakeholders in …


Blood Flow Restriction And Various Intensity Exercise In The Upper Extremity, Noelle Ashlyn Kaminski, Andrew Lowe Apr 2022

Blood Flow Restriction And Various Intensity Exercise In The Upper Extremity, Noelle Ashlyn Kaminski, Andrew Lowe

Masters Theses

Purpose: To determine if using Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) combined with low-load exercise can elicit an increase in strength and tendon size of the distal biceps tendon when compared to high-load exercise protocol. Methods: Twenty-one participants (11 M, 10 F; 2 Left-handed: 19 Right-handed; Age range 18-25yoa) were randomized to either the treatment group (BFR + low load exercise) or the control group (high load exercise). Participants were enrolled in a 7-week exercise protocol, with exercise sessions held twice weekly. The first week included measurements of each participant's 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and ultrasound measurements of the dominant distal bicep’s …


Neurogenic Stuttering: Exploring Potential Emotional And Life Impact, Natalie Devries Apr 2022

Neurogenic Stuttering: Exploring Potential Emotional And Life Impact, Natalie Devries

Masters Theses

The purpose of the current study was to explore the potential emotional and life impact of living with neurogenic stuttering and how and when an impact develops, if present. The current diagnostic criteria for neurogenic stuttering includes no emotional impact (Canter, 1971). The literature is divided in supporting this criterion (Lebrun et al., 1990; Leder et al., 1996; Perino et al., 2000; Theys et al., 2008; Tani &Sakai, 2011; Ellis & Sheehy, 2013; Vanhoutte et al., 2014). The current study relied on qualitative interviewing which was analyzed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis to explore potential for emotional and life impact (Braun …


Exploring Discourse Markers As A Treatment Outcome Measure For Aphasia, Anna K. Cedoz Apr 2022

Exploring Discourse Markers As A Treatment Outcome Measure For Aphasia, Anna K. Cedoz

Masters Theses

Discourse Markers (DMs) are communicative tools or resources that people use to organize conversations. The use of DMs among individuals with aphasia has been documented to support their communicative competence (Simmons-Mackie & Damico, 1996). Further research on the use of DMs by individuals with aphasia has been limited. The current study features a secondary analysis using existing data from Devanga (2020), which studied the effects of Collaborative Referencing Intervention (CRI; Hengst et al., 2010) on three participants with chronic aphasia. This study analyzed 18 conversation probes from one participant across baseline, treatment, and maintenance phases with clinician and spouse partners. …


Living With Stuttering: Authenticity, Identity, And Mental Health, Sarah Musilli Apr 2022

Living With Stuttering: Authenticity, Identity, And Mental Health, Sarah Musilli

Masters Theses

In an effort to manage stigma, some PWS attempt to conceal stuttering and pass as a fluent speaker (Constantino et al., 2017). These efforts to conceal may be counterintuitive, as concealment of stuttering is predictive of elevated distress (Gerlach et al., 2021) and decreased quality of life among PWS (Boyle et. al., 2018). Although this association exists, the factors explaining how and why it exists are unexplored. Identity conflict and feelings of in/authenticity are two potential factors that are explored in this study. Qualitative interviewing supplemented with quantitative survey data is utilized to explore the lived experiences of identity conflict …


Mental Health Professionals' Beliefs About, Reactions Toward, And Overall Impression Of Stuttering, Elise Anne Nasser Apr 2022

Mental Health Professionals' Beliefs About, Reactions Toward, And Overall Impression Of Stuttering, Elise Anne Nasser

Masters Theses

The purpose of the current study is to better understand mental health professionals' beliefs, reactions, overall impression, and familiarity with stuttering to gain insight into areas where they may need more support. Some people who stutter develop increased levels of anxiety because of negative evaluation from the public (Iverach & Rapee, 2014). It is likely that a sub-group of people who stutter may benefit from mental health services; however, misinformation about stuttering may serve as a barrier in effective service provision for those who work with people who stutter (Ginsberg & Wexler, 2000). Quantitative survey data (Public Opinion Survey of …


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Fear Of Evaluation, Social Anxiety, And Depression, Michelle Ingraffia Jan 2022

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Fear Of Evaluation, Social Anxiety, And Depression, Michelle Ingraffia

Masters Theses

This study explores fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) across social anxiety and depression. The following assessment tools were used to measure fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety, and depression: Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation - Straightforward, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale – Self Report, The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale – Revised. A sample of two hundred and thirty-one participants completed forms online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Social anxiety was correlated positively with both FNE and FPE; likewise, depression was correlated positively with both FNE …


Conduct Professionals' Experiences With Student Misconduct And Mental Health, Robyn Bauer Jan 2022

Conduct Professionals' Experiences With Student Misconduct And Mental Health, Robyn Bauer

Masters Theses

Over the years, mental health concerns have continued to rise in college students and is compounded by the natural stressors associated with navigating unfamiliar territory, increased social and academic pressures, as well as added responsibilities and obligations (Pedrelli et al., 2015). Mental illnesses have been linked to misconduct, disruptive behavior, or violent behavior among students (Center for Parent Information and Resources, 2017; Johnson et al., 2018; Semenza & Grosholz, 2019; Taylor & Smith, 2019). There is limited research focused on the intersection of mental health and misconduct. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured questions to explore how conduct professionals manage mental …


Covid Fears And Social Anxiety In College Students, Clayton Crozier Jan 2022

Covid Fears And Social Anxiety In College Students, Clayton Crozier

Masters Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with numerous negative mental health outcomes such as social anxiety, and lead to a great deal of uncertainty. Intolerance of Uncertainty is a relatively new concept in the psychology literature and has begun to be studied in the context of anxiety. Literature has found a positive correlation between Intolerance of Uncertainty and several types of social anxiety. With these findings, researchers have begun to examine the COVID-19 pandemic to see how Intolerance of Uncertainty affects people’s mental health during the pandemic. Intolerance of Uncertainty may be a mediator between social anxiety and the fears …


Identification And Cloning Of Transcripts From Triterpenoid-Induced Neuronal Outgrowth In Neuro-2a Cells From Mus Musculus, Meshael Alrashidi Jan 2022

Identification And Cloning Of Transcripts From Triterpenoid-Induced Neuronal Outgrowth In Neuro-2a Cells From Mus Musculus, Meshael Alrashidi

Masters Theses

Neurodegenerative diseases severely reduce quality of life and are often responsible for the death of those suffering from them. In addition to the societal toll these diseases inflict on populations, the health care costs are estimated to be hundreds of billions of dollars annually for the U.S. alone. Unfortunately, direct pharmacological treatment for some of the most common of these diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, remains elusive. Traditional medicine in China and India have recommended a variety of plants for preventing and treating these diseases. For example, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also knows as Gotu Kola, is believed to treat and …


Therapeutic Intervention Or Rider Influence On The Electromyographic Activity And Kinematics Of Horses, Karen L. Shaw Dec 2021

Therapeutic Intervention Or Rider Influence On The Electromyographic Activity And Kinematics Of Horses, Karen L. Shaw

Masters Theses

Core strengthening and postural stability are desired outcomes of certain therapeutic exercises performed in horses. This study aimed to quantify changes in muscle activation at a walk and trot in horses traveling over eight consecutive ground poles evenly spaced (at 30 inches for walk and 48 inches for trot) in parallel fashion in a straight line, and with hindquarter and abdominal elastic resistance bands applied at 25% stretch. Surface electromyography (sEMG) data were collected for the longissimus dorsi and rectus abdominus muscles in six horses. A 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA was performed for each muscle to test for significant differences …


Investigation Of Semiquantitative Marrow Iron Scoring And Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content (Chr) In Healthy And Ill Canines With And Without Clinical Evidence Of Blood Loss., Grace A. Pawsat Dec 2021

Investigation Of Semiquantitative Marrow Iron Scoring And Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content (Chr) In Healthy And Ill Canines With And Without Clinical Evidence Of Blood Loss., Grace A. Pawsat

Masters Theses

Background: Insufficient iron for erythropoiesis can occur in multiple conditions, including absolute iron deficiency, which is often caused by chronic external hemorrhage in dogs. Distinguishing this from other causes of iron-restricted erythropoiesis allows appropriate intervention. Decreased marrow iron assessed by Prussian blue staining is considered the gold standard to diagnose absolute iron deficiency but scoring systems are not validated in dogs. The performance of standardized semiquantitative marrow scoring of iron deposits in dogs has not been previously reported or correlated to iron biomarkers in blood.[1-4]

Objectives: Objectives included evaluation of the effects of different staining sequences, evaluation the technical performance …