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Substance Use And Psychological Distress Correlates Of Sleep Quality Among College Students, Juanybeth Morales Ortega Dec 2021

Substance Use And Psychological Distress Correlates Of Sleep Quality Among College Students, Juanybeth Morales Ortega

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Poor sleep quality in college students is a major problem associated with adverse health outcomes, cognitive performance, substance use, and psychological distress. Our study explored how substance use and psychological distress are associated with the sleep quality of college students. We analyzed secondary data collected in 2019 using a cross-sectional survey design. Measures included participants’ demographic characteristics, sleep quality using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), drug use, depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and suicidality. After excluding participants with missing information for sleep quality, a total of 555 students remained for the analysis. Our bivariate analysis found that ...


The Impact Of Corporal Punishment For Timorese High School Graduates, Veronica Godinho Pereira Dec 2021

The Impact Of Corporal Punishment For Timorese High School Graduates, Veronica Godinho Pereira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examines the impacts of corporal punishment for Timorese high school graduates. Physical punishment is a pervasive method of disciplining students and children used in Timor-Leste because it has been such a tradition (UNICEF 2017). Few researchers have attempted to analyze the negative impacts of corporal punishment and possible gender differences; there is no known research on the impacts of corporal punishment in Timor-Leste. This study uses an in-depth interview method, where data were collected from 26 Timorese high school graduates composed of both men and women from both private and public schools in Timor-Leste. The ages of the ...


Does Whispering Improve Children’S Memory? Comparing Auditory Vigilance And Salience Hypotheses, Christina M. Barnes Dec 2021

Does Whispering Improve Children’S Memory? Comparing Auditory Vigilance And Salience Hypotheses, Christina M. Barnes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oral communication is one of the primary tools children use to learn new information and speech registers can deliver additional meaning to the words someone uses. Cirillo’s (2004) vigilance hypothesis states “Whispering can affect the psychobiological state of recipients, and in particular raise their auditory vigilance” (Cirillo, 2004, p. 76). Building on this theory, the current study investigates the role of whispering and children’s memory by examining a whispering vigilance, whispering salience which focused on the changes between normal and whisper registers, and combined vigilance and salience hypotheses to determine if whispering contributes to the recall of information ...


News Media Trust And Mistrust During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kaitlyn Seiter Dec 2021

News Media Trust And Mistrust During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kaitlyn Seiter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the uncertainty and growing information surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, news media consumption has increased drastically compared to pre-pandemic consumption. At the start of the pandemic, 94% of Americans reported closely following COVID-19 news, with more than half of Americans spending more than two hours consuming COVID-19 news everyday (SSRS, 2020). With the news media serving as a critical source of information through this public health crisis, the public’s reactions, behaviors, and attitudes to the pandemic stem from the level of trust they have in the news media to share COVID-19 information. Because of this, this study examines trust ...


Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby Dec 2021

Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde fumigation in poultry hatch cabinets has been utilized for sanitation of hatching eggs for over a century. Formaldehyde is utilized to minimize pathogenic microbes on the surface of the egg as well as the microbial bloom during the hatching process. While formaldehyde is effective, its use is regulated in the United States and Europe due to its carcinogenic nature. Formaldehyde has been shown to damage the cuticle of the egg, cause embryonic death, and damage the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract of freshly hatched chicks, predisposing them for respiratory infection. Alternatives for formaldehyde fumigation must be identified and ...


Using Artificial Intelligence To Decipher Epigenetic Code Of Drug Resistance In The Deadliest Human Malaria Parasite, Samira Jahangiri Nov 2021

Using Artificial Intelligence To Decipher Epigenetic Code Of Drug Resistance In The Deadliest Human Malaria Parasite, Samira Jahangiri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Malaria remains one of the immense global public health challenges, with an estimated ~200 million cases worldwide in 2019 despite the remarkable gains in reducing this deadly disease over the past decade. The recent emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance (ART-R) in Plasmodium falciparum will increasingly impede global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. Previous studies have observed broad transcriptional changes and identified several noncoding genetic variants strongly associated with ART-R. The broad transcriptional variations suggest that the malaria parasite uses sophisticated epigenetic regulation to survive under drug pressure. Therefore, evaluating the regulatory effects of noncoding-variants in malaria parasites is ...


A Biocultural Analysis Of The Impacts Of Interactions Between West Africans And Europeans During The Trans-Atlantic Trade At Elmina, Ghana, Heidi Ellen Miller Nov 2021

A Biocultural Analysis Of The Impacts Of Interactions Between West Africans And Europeans During The Trans-Atlantic Trade At Elmina, Ghana, Heidi Ellen Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project utilizes a biocultural approach to assess the demographics and health of the West African population from Elmina, Ghana. Elmina, selected by the Portuguese in 1482 as the site of the first European trade fort in sub-Saharan Africa, grew from a small coastal fishing village to a large settlement over the course of more than 400 years of trade and cultural entanglement. Taken over by the Dutch and then ceded to the British, the people of Elmina navigated significant cultural changes, changes and experiences that can be detected in their skeletal remains. Bioarchaeological research concerned with the effects of ...


Contribution Of Retinal Ganglion Cells To Brown-Norway Rat Spatiotemporal Visual Perception And The Electroretinogram, Nicholas P. Johnson Nov 2021

Contribution Of Retinal Ganglion Cells To Brown-Norway Rat Spatiotemporal Visual Perception And The Electroretinogram, Nicholas P. Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) are the sole cells through which visual information is transmitted from the eye to the brain. As such, RGC dysfunction has a dramatic effect on vision and perception. Retinal neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, are one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The study of these diseases requires well-characterized models in order to swiftly and effectively develop diagnostic tools and therapeutics. This dissertation aims to characterize specific properties of the visual system of the Brown-Norway rat. First, visual processing was evaluated in awake, freely moving rats. Contrast sensitivities of Brown-Norway rats were characterized by discrimination-driven ...


Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan Nov 2021

Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Effective decision-making is critical and necessary for organizational success across a wide range of occupations, situations, and industries. However, decision making, by its nature, is not always a direct process of a single decision leading to a direct outcome. Rather, it can often become a multilevel process whereby one decision’s outcome leads to information that is used in subsequent larger or other types of decisions. The decision-making process then becomes progressively more complex and more difficult to navigate as these decisions compound within one another. Thus, decision-makers must find an appropriate way to approach such decisions. Understanding the multilevel ...


Managing Incomplete Data In The Patient Discharge Summary To Support Correct Hospital Reimbursements, Fadi Naser Eddin Nov 2021

Managing Incomplete Data In The Patient Discharge Summary To Support Correct Hospital Reimbursements, Fadi Naser Eddin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The patient discharge summary is a document that conveys the patient's story to other healthcare practitioners, external users, and, most importantly from a financial perspective, health insurers. A defect or incompleteness in the patient's discharge summary will result in delays in the collection process through denial of the entire or partial reimbursement claim or, in the best-case scenario, delay until the discharge summary issue is resolved. The purpose of this project is to address the issue of the incompleteness of discharge summary from the perspective of healthcare providers, with the goal of understanding, diagnosing, and intervening in the ...


Exercise Prescription Practices In University Counseling Centers: Testing The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model, A'Naja M. Newsome Nov 2021

Exercise Prescription Practices In University Counseling Centers: Testing The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model, A'Naja M. Newsome

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The co-occurence of physical inactivity and poor mental health in the college student population can lead to chronic health issues that have negative short-term (e.g., academic success and weight gain) and long-term (e.g., obesity, serious mental illness, and premature mortality) impacts. Integrating exercise prescription into the mental health treatment plan of college students could enhance the holistic care model described by The American College Health Association (ACHA) and Healthy Campus task force. Understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and skills that mental health professionals (MHPs) hold regarding exercise prescription is important for policy formation and program development for college student ...


Resilience And Health Outcomes Of Sexual Minority Middle-Aged And Older Adults, Christi L. Nelson Nov 2021

Resilience And Health Outcomes Of Sexual Minority Middle-Aged And Older Adults, Christi L. Nelson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While research on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (hereafter referred to as sexual minority) middle-aged and older adults has increased over the past decade, there is still a critical need for more research on the health and resilience in this growing subpopulation. Research has provided evidence that sexual minority adults have an increased risk of negative health outcomes when compared to heterosexual adults. Research has also demonstrated possible resilience in sexual minority middle-aged and older adults; however, few studies have measured resilience in middle-aged and older adults. Gaining a better understanding of resilience in sexual minority adults may help identify modifiable ...


Mobile Response Teams And The Youth Emergency Behavioral Health System, Paige J. Alitz Oct 2021

Mobile Response Teams And The Youth Emergency Behavioral Health System, Paige J. Alitz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: This dissertation includes three separate manuscripts that coalesce under the shared topic of mobile crisis response and the emergency behavioral health system. Method: The first manuscript includes a synthesis of the research on mobile crisis response from the 1960s to present day to assess whether mobile crisis services can improve mental health care access in the U.S. for youth and adults. The second manuscript includes bivariate and multivariate analyses of MRT participant data to characterize participants who receive an involuntary psychiatric evaluation versus those who do not, and to assess factors associated with involuntary psychiatric evaluation or referral ...


Community Assessment Of Water Perceptions And Household Point-Of-Use Treatment Methods In Madagascar, Isabella Rose Silverman Oct 2021

Community Assessment Of Water Perceptions And Household Point-Of-Use Treatment Methods In Madagascar, Isabella Rose Silverman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One in four people around the world do not have access to safe drinking water, which means that two billion people globally lack access. In high-income countries, 0.02% of yearly deaths are attributed to unsafe water sources; however, an alarming 10.6% of deaths occur in Madagascar, for the same reason.

To achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all, a collaboration between public health and engineering is critical. Within the public health sector, social marketing is commonly utilized to address a problem by using commercial marketing principles to change behavior for the good ...


Seasonality In Competence To Transmit West Nile Virus For A Widespread Reservoir, Kyle L. Koller Oct 2021

Seasonality In Competence To Transmit West Nile Virus For A Widespread Reservoir, Kyle L. Koller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

All organisms face a central conflict; a limited supply of resources must beoptimally allocated to competing biological functions. Utilizing robust immune defenses can be energetically costly;, thus, immune function is often diminished when other processes, such as reproduction, molt, or migration demand energy. As wild animals residing in temporally dynamic environments face seasonal patterns in resource availability, infectious disease risk, and environmental suitability, many species have evolved endogenous biological rhythms so that the performance of reproduction, molt, or migration and the associated trade-off with immune function be completed when doing so best promotes fitness. In turn, this demand to optimize ...


Managing Health Locus Of Control In Patient-Provider Relationships, James Wallace Sep 2021

Managing Health Locus Of Control In Patient-Provider Relationships, James Wallace

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Patient locus of control is a strong determinant of health outcomes, yet health care professionals do not typically address it in care plans. In fact, management of most medical conditions is hindered because the treating physician has little information about the patient’s locus of control. This research addresses the question “How can locus of control be used to enable health care practitioners to improve medical outcomes?”

Research Methodology. Using an engaged scholarship approach incorporating the Elaborated Action Design Research methodology, the research drives the guided, emergent design of a novel protocol and two separate artifacts for management of health ...


Asking The Experts: Perception Of The Relative Importance Of Antecedents Of Optimal Financial Behavior, Chad M. Jones Aug 2021

Asking The Experts: Perception Of The Relative Importance Of Antecedents Of Optimal Financial Behavior, Chad M. Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although there is ample research on financial behavior, the inclusion of financial planners in the sample frames of such research is rare. This study used certified financial planners (CFPs) as the sole sample population to identify antecedents of optimal financial behavior and their relative importance. Data from a nationally representative sample of 167 CFPs indicated that (a) financial literacy lost relative importance as CFP tenure increased, (b) romantic partnership closely rivaled financial literacy in importance, (c) financial literacy was more weakly correlated with romantic partnership than with the other antecedents investigated, and (d) romantic partnership was universally accepted as a ...


"25 Years Later And I'M Still Here...Still Positive": Older Black Males' Lived Experiences Of Aging With Hiv In Hillsborough County, Fl, Bernice Kathleen Lopez-Mccoy Jul 2021

"25 Years Later And I'M Still Here...Still Positive": Older Black Males' Lived Experiences Of Aging With Hiv In Hillsborough County, Fl, Bernice Kathleen Lopez-Mccoy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Today, adults aged fifty and older are the fastest growing segment of those living with HIV/AIDS. Yet, little remains known about the socio-cultural consequences of aging with HIV, and whether social and health care infrastructure is currently adequate to meet the unique needs of this population. Particularly understudied are older minority men aging with HIV. Drawing from an anthropological life course perspective and tenets of Becker’s (1997) framework on life disruption and reorganization, this dissertation research investigated older, Black males’ experiences of disruption and reorganization from aging with HIV in the present landscape of HIV care.This research ...


Predictors Of Goal Attainment Among High School Students In Accelerated Academic Curricula Receiving School-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention, Camille E. Hanks Jul 2021

Predictors Of Goal Attainment Among High School Students In Accelerated Academic Curricula Receiving School-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention, Camille E. Hanks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Students enrolled in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs represent a unique group of adolescents given the high demands of their rigorous coursework and the elevated stress they experience compared to peers in the general education (Suldo & Shaunessy-Dedrick, 2013). These students are often missed in traditional screening procedures that tend to identify students struggling academically or exhibiting disruptive behaviors. Fortunately, Shaunessy-Dedrick and colleagues (2021) developed a comprehensive school-based intervention program, including universal (Tier 1) and selective (Tier 2) components, which aims to support the well-being of AP/IB students. The Tier 2 component of this program (i.e., the Motivation, Assessment, and Planning [MAP] intervention; O’Brennan et al., 2020; Suldo et al., 2021) is grounded in motivational interviewing (MI) techniques and involves 1-2 individualized meetings between AP/IB students and MAP coaches to help students create a goal and action plan aligned with targets promoted in the universal program. This study examined the level of goal attainment reported by 9th grade AP/IB students ...


Optimization Of Vaccine Supply Chains In Low- And Middle-Income Countries Utilizing Drones, Maximilian Kolter Jul 2021

Optimization Of Vaccine Supply Chains In Low- And Middle-Income Countries Utilizing Drones, Maximilian Kolter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite tremendous efforts from governments and humanitarian organizations, millions of children in low- and low-middle-income countries (LICs and LMICs) are still excluded from the benefits of immunization. The vaccine distribution in LICs and LMICs is challenging for several reasons, such as limited cold chain capacities, vaccine wastage, uncertain demand, and lack of access to immunization services. A promising avenue to address these issues is the utilization of drones for vaccine delivery. Drones can fly at high speed on direct paths and could enable on-demand deliveries to mitigate limited storage capacities. Further, their independence of road networks could allow them reaching ...


The Balance Of Excitation And Inhibition And Its Influence On Cortical States And Rett Syndrome, Jingwen Li Jul 2021

The Balance Of Excitation And Inhibition And Its Influence On Cortical States And Rett Syndrome, Jingwen Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our brain consists of billions of neurons, properly coordinating to process information and realize brain functions. Among them, there are two types of neurons: excitatory neurons and inhibitory neurons. The firing of excitatory neurons increases the membrane potential of downstream neurons, and thus excites other neurons to fire. The firing of inhibitory neurons, in contrast, decreases the membrane potential of downstream neurons, and thus inhibits other neurons to fire. The interplay of excitatory and inhibitory neurons shape the spiking activity in the population. Thus, the `balance of excitation and inhibition' plays an important role in cortical processing and brain functions ...


Negative Urgency's Influence On State-Level, Emotion-Based Changes In Alcohol-Related Cognitions, Noah Wolkowicz Jul 2021

Negative Urgency's Influence On State-Level, Emotion-Based Changes In Alcohol-Related Cognitions, Noah Wolkowicz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project expanded on the Acquired Preparedness Model of Risk (APMR) by examining how Negative Urgency (NU), the tendency to act rashly in negative emotional states, affects emotion-based changes in alcohol cognitions to produce risk for alcohol use. The APMR prioritizes the role of outcome expectancies as the means through which traits such as NU, convey alcohol use risk. However, this model treats these cognitions as static and often fails to assess their valence; further, alcohol-cognitions fluctuate in response to negative emotions and may become more salient during these states. Therefore, this study examined: 1) how NU impacts negative emotion-based ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge Jul 2021

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


Vulnerability To And Protection Against Covid-19 Fear, Threat, And Worry, Marsha Kim Huh Jul 2021

Vulnerability To And Protection Against Covid-19 Fear, Threat, And Worry, Marsha Kim Huh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drawing from a sample of 10,368 adults living in the U.S., the current study examines the role of social and psychological resources in lowering COVID-related fear, threat, and worry, controlling for a number of social vulnerabilities (e.g. gender, race/ethnicity, and presence of children). The impact of social location, particularly in regards to race, and how one accesses and/or utilizes social and psychological resources is also examined through disaggregated regression models. Results demonstrate that some social and psychological resources impact COVID-specific distress (fear/threat/worry), but depending on the resource, relationships vary in direction and significance ...


Impact Of Covid-19 On The Severe Acute Malnutrition Admissions Among Children Under 5 Years Of Age Seeking Nutrition Services In Afghanistan, Sahar Sayedy Jul 2021

Impact Of Covid-19 On The Severe Acute Malnutrition Admissions Among Children Under 5 Years Of Age Seeking Nutrition Services In Afghanistan, Sahar Sayedy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the number of admissions of severe acute malnutrition among children under 5 years of age seeking nutrition services in Afghanistan especially in the provinces where the prevalence of COVID-19 was high, for the period of February – September 2020. The study used comparison and analysis of secondary datasets of the Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition – a national program for detection and management of moderate and severe acute malnutrition in the country.

This study analyzed the association between COVID-19 cases and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) admissions of children under ...


Early Indicators Of Cognitive Dysfunction: The Role Of Mild Behavioral Impairment, Hillary J. Rouse Jul 2021

Early Indicators Of Cognitive Dysfunction: The Role Of Mild Behavioral Impairment, Hillary J. Rouse

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Older age is associated with an increased risk for cognitively impairing diseases such as dementia. Despite significant research to find ways to cure this disease, there has been little success. However, a critical need when an intervention is discovered is a need to find ways to identify people who are at the greatest risk of developing dementia earlier in the disease process so that interventions can be implemented at that time. This could potentially lessen their risk or delay when they are diagnosed. Using longitudinal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC), the aims of this current dissertation ...


Exploring Adult Attachment In Intimate Relationships Among Women Who Were Exposed To Intimate Partner Violence In Childhood: A Convergent Mixed Methods Approach, Ngozichukwuka C. Agu Jul 2021

Exploring Adult Attachment In Intimate Relationships Among Women Who Were Exposed To Intimate Partner Violence In Childhood: A Convergent Mixed Methods Approach, Ngozichukwuka C. Agu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Trauma in childhood including exposure to intimate partner violence is associated with a myriad of negative outcomes in physical health, mental health, academic performance, and relationship domains. Adult attachment in intimate relationships is a key factor that determines several health outcomes as well as healthy relationships. This study explored: 1) the perceptions of childhood exposures to intimate partner violence and how these exposures could have impacted adult attachment; 2) the perceptions of relationship factors that play a role in the development of adult attachment in intimate relationships; and 3) the behavioral and socioenvironmental influences that frame perceptions of adult ...


Experimental And Analysis Of Electromagnetic Characterization Of Biological And Non-Biological Materials In Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, And Terahertz Frequency Bands, Nagma Vohra Jul 2021

Experimental And Analysis Of Electromagnetic Characterization Of Biological And Non-Biological Materials In Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, And Terahertz Frequency Bands, Nagma Vohra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to characterize the electromagnetic properties of biological and non-biological materials at terahertz (THz), millimeter-wave, and microwave frequency bands. The biological specimens are measured using the THz imaging and spectroscopy system, whereas the non-biological materials are measured using the microwave and millimeter-wave free-space system. These facilities are located in the Engineering Research Center at the University of Arkansas. The THz imaging system (TPS 3000) uses a Ti-Sapphire laser directed on the photoconductive antennas to generate a THz time domain pulse. Upon using the Fourier Transform, the spectrum of the pulsed THz signal includes frequencies from ...


The Co-Regulatory Effects Of Emotionally Focused Therapy, Julia Conroy Jul 2021

The Co-Regulatory Effects Of Emotionally Focused Therapy, Julia Conroy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mental health literature emphasizes the necessity of expanding emotional regulation to improve symptomology of a variety of mental health disorders. Coregulatory experiences have been shown to expand individual emotional regulation and are more likely in relationships with secure attachment. Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is focused on developing secure attachment between partners. This study examined the coregulatory effects of EFT with a single couple over the course of couples’ counseling. The participating couple received eight couples’ counseling sessions from a clinician who is a certified EFT trainer, supervisor, and therapist while having their heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature taken ...


Child-Centered Play Therapy’S Impact On Externalized Behaviors Of Children Who Have Experienced Trauma: A Single-Case Research Design, Timothy "T.J." Schoonover Jul 2021

Child-Centered Play Therapy’S Impact On Externalized Behaviors Of Children Who Have Experienced Trauma: A Single-Case Research Design, Timothy "T.J." Schoonover

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are defined as exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, loss of a parent, domestic violence, family member with addiction, family member with depression or mental illness, and family member incarcerated (Felitti et al., 1998). ACEs have been studied for many years and have shown to have long term negative health and social-emotional outcomes and costs the world over $1 trillion a year (Bellis et al., 2019; Felitti et al., 1998; Hughes et al., 2017). Due to the emotional, physical, and dollar amount cost to not addressing the impact of ACEs ...