Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 1013

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Neurosteroids As Stress Modulators And Neurotherapeutics: Lessons From The Retina, Yukitoshi Izumi, Makoto Ishikawa, Toru Nakazawa, Hiroshi Kunikata, Kota Sato, Douglas F. Covey, Charles F. Zorumski May 2023

Neurosteroids As Stress Modulators And Neurotherapeutics: Lessons From The Retina, Yukitoshi Izumi, Makoto Ishikawa, Toru Nakazawa, Hiroshi Kunikata, Kota Sato, Douglas F. Covey, Charles F. Zorumski

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Neurosteroids are rapidly emerging as important new therapies in neuropsychiatry, with one such agent, brexanolone, already approved for treatment of postpartum depression, and others on the horizon. These steroids have unique properties, including neuroprotective effects that could benefit a wide range of brain illnesses including depression, anxiety, epilepsy, and neurodegeneration. Over the past 25 years, our group has developed ex vivo rodent models to examine factors contributing to several forms of neurodegeneration in the retina. In the course of this work, we have developed a model of acute closed angle glaucoma that involves incubation of ex vivo retinas under hyperbaric …


Charge-Voltage Curves Of Shaker Potassium Channel Are Not Hysteretic At Steady State, John Cowgill, Baron Chanda Mar 2023

Charge-Voltage Curves Of Shaker Potassium Channel Are Not Hysteretic At Steady State, John Cowgill, Baron Chanda

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Charge-voltage curves of many voltage-gated ion channels exhibit hysteresis but such curves are also a direct measure of free energy of channel gating and, hence, should be path-independent. Here, we identify conditions to measure steady-state charge-voltage curves and show that these are curves are not hysteretic. Charged residues in transmembrane segments of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) sense and respond to changes in the electric field. The movement of these gating charges underpins voltage-dependent activation and is also a direct metric of the net free-energy of channel activation. However, for most voltage-gated ion channels, the charge-voltage (Q-V) curves appear to be …


Ion Channel Regulation Of Gut Immunity, Jing Feng, Zili Xie, Hongzhen Hu Feb 2023

Ion Channel Regulation Of Gut Immunity, Jing Feng, Zili Xie, Hongzhen Hu

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Mounting evidence indicates that gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis hinges on communications among many cellular networks including the intestinal epithelium, the immune system, and both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the gut. The GI tract, especially the colon, is the home base for gut microbiome which dynamically regulates immune function. The gut's immune system also provides an effective defense against harmful pathogens entering the GI tract while maintaining immune homeostasis to avoid exaggerated immune reaction to innocuous food and commensal antigens which are important causes of inflammatory disorders such as coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Various ion channels have been …


Olutasidenib (Ft-2102) In Patients With Relapsed Or Refractory Idh1-Mutant Glioma: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase Ib/Ii Trial, Macarena I De La Fuente, Brian A Van Tine, Et Al. Jan 2023

Olutasidenib (Ft-2102) In Patients With Relapsed Or Refractory Idh1-Mutant Glioma: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase Ib/Ii Trial, Macarena I De La Fuente, Brian A Van Tine, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Olutasidenib (FT-2102) is a highly potent, orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant and selective inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). The aim of the study was to determine the safety and clinical activity of olutasidenib in patients with relapsed/refractory gliomas harboring an IDH1R132X mutation.

METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, nonrandomized, phase Ib/II clinical trial. Eligible patients (≥18 years) had histologically confirmed IDH1R132X-mutated glioma that relapsed or progressed on or following standard therapy and had measurable disease. Patients received olutasidenib, 150 mg orally twice daily (BID) in continuous 28-day cycles. The primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) (cycle 1) and safety …


Chronic Trem2 Activation Exacerbates Aβ-Associated Tau Seeding And Spreading, Nimansha Jain, Caroline A Lewis, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman Jan 2023

Chronic Trem2 Activation Exacerbates Aβ-Associated Tau Seeding And Spreading, Nimansha Jain, Caroline A Lewis, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene are associated with increased risk for late-onset AD. Genetic loss of or decreased TREM2 function impairs the microglial response to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, resulting in more diffuse Aβ plaques and increased peri-plaque neuritic dystrophy and AD-tau seeding. Thus, microglia and TREM2 are at a critical intersection of Aβ and tau pathologies in AD. Since genetically decreasing TREM2 function increases Aβ-induced tau seeding, we hypothesized that chronically increasing TREM2 signaling would decrease amyloid-induced tau-seeding and spreading. Using a mouse model of amyloidosis in which AD-tau is injected into the …


Expanded Analysis Of High-Grade Astrocytoma With Piloid Features Identifies An Epigenetically And Clinically Distinct Subtype Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Patrick J Cimino, Sonika Dahiya, Et Al. Jan 2023

Expanded Analysis Of High-Grade Astrocytoma With Piloid Features Identifies An Epigenetically And Clinically Distinct Subtype Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Patrick J Cimino, Sonika Dahiya, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP) is a recently recognized glioma type whose classification is dependent on its global epigenetic signature. HGAP is characterized by alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, often co-occurring with CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion and/or ATRX mutation. Experience with HGAP is limited and to better understand this tumor type, we evaluated an expanded cohort of patients (n = 144) with these tumors, as defined by DNA methylation array testing, with a subset additionally evaluated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among evaluable cases, we confirmed the high prevalence CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, and/or ATRX mutations/loss in this tumor …


A Randomized Phase 2 Study Of Neoadjuvant Carboplatin And Paclitaxel With Or Without Atezolizumab In Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) - Nci 10013, Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Feng Gao, Cherease R Street, Ina Chen, John M Herndon, Madelyn Carmody, Sherri R Davies, Sarah Larson, Zheng Liu, Ian S Hagemann, William E Gillanders, Et Al. Dec 2022

A Randomized Phase 2 Study Of Neoadjuvant Carboplatin And Paclitaxel With Or Without Atezolizumab In Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) - Nci 10013, Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Feng Gao, Cherease R Street, Ina Chen, John M Herndon, Madelyn Carmody, Sherri R Davies, Sarah Larson, Zheng Liu, Ian S Hagemann, William E Gillanders, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Atezolizumab with chemotherapy has shown improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic PD-L1 positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Atezolizumab with anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has also shown increased pathological complete response (pCR) rates in early TNBC. This trial evaluated neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without atezolizumab in patients with clinical stages II-III TNBC. The co-primary objectives were to evaluate if chemotherapy and atezolizumab increase pCR rate and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) percentage compared to chemotherapy alone in the mITT population. Sixty-seven patients (ages 25-78 years; median, 52 years) were randomly assigned - 22 patients to …


In Silico Activity And Admet Profiling Of Phytochemicals From Ethiopian Indigenous Aloes Using Pharmacophore Models, Lemessa Etana Bultum, Gemechu Bekele Tolossa, Gwangmin Kim, Ohhyeon Kwon, Doheon Lee Dec 2022

In Silico Activity And Admet Profiling Of Phytochemicals From Ethiopian Indigenous Aloes Using Pharmacophore Models, Lemessa Etana Bultum, Gemechu Bekele Tolossa, Gwangmin Kim, Ohhyeon Kwon, Doheon Lee

2020-Current year OA Pubs

In silico profiling is used in identification of active compounds and guide rational use of traditional medicines. Previous studies on Ethiopian indigenous aloes focused on documentation of phytochemical compositions and traditional uses. In this study, ADMET and drug-likeness properties of phytochemicals from Ethiopian indigenous aloes were evaluated, and pharmacophore-based profiling was done using Discovery Studio to predict therapeutic targets. The targets were examined using KEGG pathway, gene ontology and network analysis. Using random-walk with restart algorithm, network propagation was performed in CODA network to find diseases associated with the targets. As a result, 82 human targets were predicted and found …


Effectiveness Of Soluble Ctla-4-Fc In The Inhibition Of Bone Marrow T-Cell Activation In Context Of Indoleamine 2.3-Dioxygenase (Ido) And Cd4+Foxp3+ Treg Induction, Magdalena Massalska, Marzena Ciechomska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Tomasz Burakowski, Anna Kornatka, Anna Radzikowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Barbara Muz, Adrianna Loniewska-Lwowska, Andrzej Palucha, Pawel Maldyk, Wlodzimierz Maslinski Dec 2022

Effectiveness Of Soluble Ctla-4-Fc In The Inhibition Of Bone Marrow T-Cell Activation In Context Of Indoleamine 2.3-Dioxygenase (Ido) And Cd4+Foxp3+ Treg Induction, Magdalena Massalska, Marzena Ciechomska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Tomasz Burakowski, Anna Kornatka, Anna Radzikowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Barbara Muz, Adrianna Loniewska-Lwowska, Andrzej Palucha, Pawel Maldyk, Wlodzimierz Maslinski

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with systemic inflammation finally resulting in damaged joints. One of the RA development models suggests bone marrow (BM) as a place of inflammation development further leading to disease progression. We aimed to investigate the potential of CTLA-4-Fc molecule in inducing tolerogenic milieu in BM measured as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression, CD4

METHODS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) were stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and CTLA-4-Fc. Next IDO expression, CD4

RESULTS: We found that CTLA-4-Fc and IFN-γ stimulation results in IDO production by BMMC. CTLA-4-Fc induced tryptophan catabolism can inhibit mitogen-induced CD4

CONCLUSION: …


Expanded Proteomic Survey Of The Human Parasite Leishmania Major Focusing On Changes In Null Mutants Of The Golgi Gdp-Mannose/Fucose/Arabinopyranose Transporter, Gloria Polanco, Nichollas E Scott, Lon F Lye, Stephen M Beverley Dec 2022

Expanded Proteomic Survey Of The Human Parasite Leishmania Major Focusing On Changes In Null Mutants Of The Golgi Gdp-Mannose/Fucose/Arabinopyranose Transporter, Gloria Polanco, Nichollas E Scott, Lon F Lye, Stephen M Beverley

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The trypanosomatid protozoan parasite


Antibodies Targeting The Neuraminidase Active Site Inhibit Influenza H3n2 Viruses With An S245n Glycosylation Site, Daniel Stadlbauer, Ali H Ellebedy, Et Al. Dec 2022

Antibodies Targeting The Neuraminidase Active Site Inhibit Influenza H3n2 Viruses With An S245n Glycosylation Site, Daniel Stadlbauer, Ali H Ellebedy, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Contemporary influenza A H3N2 viruses circulating since 2016 have acquired a glycosylation site in the neuraminidase in close proximity to the enzymatic active site. Here, we investigate if this S245N glycosylation site, as a result of antigenic evolution, can impact binding and function of human monoclonal antibodies that target the conserved active site. While we find that a reduction in the inhibitory ability of neuraminidase active site binders is measurable, this class of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies maintains protective efficacy in vivo.


Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al. Dec 2022

Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Alterations in phospholipids have long been associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, their specific roles and signaling cascades in mediating cell death and tissue repair remain unclear. Here we investigated whether alterations of cardiolipin (CL), a family of mitochondrion-specific phospholipids, play a crucial role in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death following SCI. Lipidomic analysis was used to determine the profile of CL alteration in the adult rat spinal cord following a moderate contusive SCI at the 10th thoracic (T10) level. Cellular, molecular, and genetic assessments were performed to determine whether CL alterations mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death after …


Caregiver Perceptions Of Change In Pediatric Asthma Control During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabrielle Pogge, Erika A Waters, Gregory D Webster, Sreekala Prabhakaran, Jean M Hunleth, David A Fedele, James A Shepperd Dec 2022

Caregiver Perceptions Of Change In Pediatric Asthma Control During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabrielle Pogge, Erika A Waters, Gregory D Webster, Sreekala Prabhakaran, Jean M Hunleth, David A Fedele, James A Shepperd

2020-Current year OA Pubs

PURPOSE: Although several indicators suggest that pediatric asthma control in the United States improved early in the pandemic, other indicators suggest not. Missing are reports from caregivers of the experiences of their children with asthma early in the pandemic.

METHODS: Using the PP-ACT and other measures that we specifically constructed for our research, we conducted a cross-sectional national survey of US caregivers of children with asthma (N=595) to examine perceived change in their child's asthma control and changes in reports of ED visits and use of emergency relief medicine and controller medicine pre-pandemic (January to March 2020) versus early-pandemic (June …


Covid-19 Induces Cns Cytokine Expression And Loss Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Allison L Soung, Abigail Vanderheiden, Xiaoping Jiang, Traci Bricker, Adrianus C M Boon, Robyn S Klein, Et Al. Dec 2022

Covid-19 Induces Cns Cytokine Expression And Loss Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Allison L Soung, Abigail Vanderheiden, Xiaoping Jiang, Traci Bricker, Adrianus C M Boon, Robyn S Klein, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with acute and postacute cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms including impaired memory, concentration, attention, sleep and affect. Mechanisms underlying these brain symptoms remain understudied. Here we report that SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters exhibit a lack of viral neuroinvasion despite aberrant blood-brain barrier permeability. Hamsters and patients deceased from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also exhibit microglial activation and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, especially within the hippocampus and the medulla oblongata, when compared with non-COVID control hamsters and humans who died from other infections, cardiovascular disease, uraemia or trauma. In the …


Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan Dec 2022

Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The role of NK cells against HIV-1 infections remains to be elucidated in vivo. While humanized mouse models potentially could be used to directly evaluate human NK cell responses during HIV-1 infection, improved functional development of human NK cells in these hosts is needed. Here, we report the humanized MISTRG-6-15 mouse model, in which NK cells were quick to expand and exhibit degranulation, cytotoxicity, and proinflammatory cytokine production in nonlymphoid organs upon HIV-1 infection but had reduced functionality in lymphoid organs. Although HIV-1 infection induced functional impairment of NK cells, antiretroviral therapy reinvigorated NK cells in response to HIV-1 rebound …


Advice From One Patient To Another: Qualitative Analysis Of Patients' Perspectives About Chemotherapy Initiation, Catalina Malinowski, Edna Paredes, Ashley J Housten, Mariana Chavez-Macgregor Dec 2022

Advice From One Patient To Another: Qualitative Analysis Of Patients' Perspectives About Chemotherapy Initiation, Catalina Malinowski, Edna Paredes, Ashley J Housten, Mariana Chavez-Macgregor

2020-Current year OA Pubs

PURPOSE: Although the association between delays in (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy initiation and adverse outcomes is well-documented, patient perspective regarding the lived experience among those with breast cancer delay is sparse. Project Start was a qualitative study designed to assess and identify the multilevel factors contributing to the barriers and facilitators of initiating chemotherapy. This report explores specific responses where patients with breast cancer provide insight and advice for newly diagnosed women on preparing for chemotherapy initiation and informs potential interventions to facilitate timely chemotherapy initiation.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who experienced a ≥60-day delay in …


Tissue Registration And Exploration User Interfaces In Support Of A Human Reference Atlas, Katy Börner, Andreas Bueckle, Bruce W Herr 2nd, Leonard E Cross, Ellen M Quardokus, Elizabeth G Record, Yingnan Ju, Jonathan C Silverstein, Kristen M Browne, Sanjay Jain, Clive H Wasserfall, Marda L Jorgensen, Jeffrey M Spraggins, N Heath Patterson, Griffin M Weber Dec 2022

Tissue Registration And Exploration User Interfaces In Support Of A Human Reference Atlas, Katy Börner, Andreas Bueckle, Bruce W Herr 2nd, Leonard E Cross, Ellen M Quardokus, Elizabeth G Record, Yingnan Ju, Jonathan C Silverstein, Kristen M Browne, Sanjay Jain, Clive H Wasserfall, Marda L Jorgensen, Jeffrey M Spraggins, N Heath Patterson, Griffin M Weber

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Seventeen international consortia are collaborating on a human reference atlas (HRA), a comprehensive, high-resolution, three-dimensional atlas of all the cells in the healthy human body. Laboratories around the world are collecting tissue specimens from donors varying in sex, age, ethnicity, and body mass index. However, harmonizing tissue data across 25 organs and more than 15 bulk and spatial single-cell assay types poses challenges. Here, we present software tools and user interfaces developed to spatially and semantically annotate ("register") and explore the tissue data and the evolving HRA. A key part of these tools is a common coordinate framework, providing standard …


Defective Proteostasis In Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models Of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration, Sidhartha Mahali, Rita Martinez, Melvin King, Anthony Verbeck, Oscar Harari, Bruno A Benitez, Kanta Horie, Chihiro Sato, Sally Temple, Celeste M Karch Dec 2022

Defective Proteostasis In Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models Of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration, Sidhartha Mahali, Rita Martinez, Melvin King, Anthony Verbeck, Oscar Harari, Bruno A Benitez, Kanta Horie, Chihiro Sato, Sally Temple, Celeste M Karch

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Impaired proteostasis is associated with normal aging and is accelerated in neurodegeneration. This impairment may lead to the accumulation of protein, which can be toxic to cells and tissue. In a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau pathology (FTLD-tau) cases, pathogenic mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene are sufficient to cause tau accumulation and neurodegeneration. However, the pathogenic events triggered by the expression of the mutant tau protein remain poorly understood. Here, we show that molecular networks associated with lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic function are disrupted in brains from FTLD-tau patients carrying a MAPT p.R406W mutation. We …


Neddylated Cullin 3 Mediates The Adaptive Response To Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitors, Alice Meroni, Jan Grosser, Sumedha Agashe, Natasha Ramakrishnan, Jessica Jackson, Priyanka Verma, Laura Baranello, Alessandro Vindigni Dec 2022

Neddylated Cullin 3 Mediates The Adaptive Response To Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitors, Alice Meroni, Jan Grosser, Sumedha Agashe, Natasha Ramakrishnan, Jessica Jackson, Priyanka Verma, Laura Baranello, Alessandro Vindigni

2020-Current year OA Pubs

DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP11) inhibitors are mainstays of anticancer therapy. These drugs trap TOP1 on DNA, stabilizing the TOP1-cleavage complex (TOP1-cc). The accumulation of TOP1-ccs perturbs DNA replication fork progression, leading to DNA breaks and cell death. By analyzing the genomic occupancy and activity of TOP1, we show that cells adapt to treatment with multiple doses of TOP1 inhibitor by promoting the degradation of TOP1-ccs, allowing cells to better tolerate subsequent doses of TOP1 inhibitor. The E3-RING Cullin 3 ligase in complex with the BTBD1 and BTBD2 adaptor proteins promotes TOP1-cc ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. NEDDylation of Cullin 3 …


Acaricidal Activity Of Tea Tree And Lemon Oil Nanoemulsions Against Rhipicephalus Annulatus, Samar M Ibrahium, Ahmed A Wahba, Ahmed A Farghali, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Shaimaa A A Mohamed, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Ahmed O Hassan, Shawky M. Aboelhadid Dec 2022

Acaricidal Activity Of Tea Tree And Lemon Oil Nanoemulsions Against Rhipicephalus Annulatus, Samar M Ibrahium, Ahmed A Wahba, Ahmed A Farghali, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Shaimaa A A Mohamed, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Ahmed O Hassan, Shawky M. Aboelhadid

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Tick infestation is a serious problem in many countries since it has an impact on the health of animals used for food production and pets, and frequently affects humans. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the acaricidal effects of nanoemulsions of essential oils of


The Protein Phosphatase 2a Holoenzyme Is A Key Regulator Of Starch Metabolism And Bradyzoite Differentiation In Toxoplasma Gondii, Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Qin-Li Liang, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Meng Wang, L David Sibley, Xing-Quan Zhu Dec 2022

The Protein Phosphatase 2a Holoenzyme Is A Key Regulator Of Starch Metabolism And Bradyzoite Differentiation In Toxoplasma Gondii, Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Qin-Li Liang, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Meng Wang, L David Sibley, Xing-Quan Zhu

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Phenotypic switching between tachyzoite and bradyzoite is the fundamental mechanism underpinning the pathogenicity and adaptability of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although accumulation of cytoplasmic starch granules is a hallmark of the quiescent bradyzoite stage, the regulatory factors and mechanisms contributing to amylopectin storage in bradyzoites are incompletely known. Here, we show that T. gondii protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme is composed of a catalytic subunit PP2A-C, a scaffold subunit PP2A-A and a regulatory subunit PP2A-B. Disruption of any of these subunits increased starch accumulation and blocked the tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite differentiation. PP2A contributes to the regulation of amylopectin metabolism via dephosphorylation …


The Subcortical And Neurochemical Organization Of The Ventral And Dorsal Attention Networks, Pedro Nascimento Alves, Stephanie J Forkel, Maurizio Corbetta, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten Dec 2022

The Subcortical And Neurochemical Organization Of The Ventral And Dorsal Attention Networks, Pedro Nascimento Alves, Stephanie J Forkel, Maurizio Corbetta, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Attention is a core cognitive function that filters and selects behaviourally relevant information in the environment. The cortical mapping of attentional systems identified two segregated networks that mediate stimulus-driven and goal-driven processes, the Ventral and the Dorsal Attention Networks (VAN, DAN). Deep brain electrophysiological recordings, behavioral data from phylogenetic distant species, and observations from human brain pathologies challenge purely corticocentric models. Here, we used advanced methods of functional alignment applied to resting-state functional connectivity analyses to map the subcortical architecture of the Ventral and Dorsal Attention Networks. Our investigations revealed the involvement of the pulvinar, the superior colliculi, the head …


Genetic Diversity Fuels Gene Discovery For Tobacco And Alcohol Use, Gretchen R B Saunders, Charles C Gu, John P Rice, Nancy L Saccone, Laura J Bierut, Et Al. Dec 2022

Genetic Diversity Fuels Gene Discovery For Tobacco And Alcohol Use, Gretchen R B Saunders, Charles C Gu, John P Rice, Nancy L Saccone, Laura J Bierut, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Tobacco and alcohol use are heritable behaviours associated with 15% and 5.3% of worldwide deaths, respectively, due largely to broad increased risk for disease and injury


Acetyl-Coa-Mediated Autoacetylation Of Fatty Acid Synthase As A Metabolic Switch Of De Novo Lipogenesis In Drosophila, Ting Miao, Jinoh Kim, Ping Kang, Hideji Fujiwara, Fong-Fu Hsu, Hua Bai Dec 2022

Acetyl-Coa-Mediated Autoacetylation Of Fatty Acid Synthase As A Metabolic Switch Of De Novo Lipogenesis In Drosophila, Ting Miao, Jinoh Kim, Ping Kang, Hideji Fujiwara, Fong-Fu Hsu, Hua Bai

2020-Current year OA Pubs

De novo lipogenesis is a highly regulated metabolic process, which is known to be activated through transcriptional regulation of lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN). Unexpectedly, we find that the expression of FASN protein remains unchanged during


Federated Learning Enables Big Data For Rare Cancer Boundary Detection, Sarthak Pati, Pamela Lamontagne, Daniel Marcus, Et Al. Dec 2022

Federated Learning Enables Big Data For Rare Cancer Boundary Detection, Sarthak Pati, Pamela Lamontagne, Daniel Marcus, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

No abstract provided.


Impact Of International Travel And Diarrhea On Gut Microbiome And Resistome Dynamics, Manish Boolchandani, Kevin S Blake, Drake H Tilley, Miguel M Cabada, Drew J Schwartz, Sanket Patel, Maria Luisa Morales, Rina Meza, Giselle Soto, Sandra D Isidean, Chad K Porter, Mark P Simons, Gautam Dantas Dec 2022

Impact Of International Travel And Diarrhea On Gut Microbiome And Resistome Dynamics, Manish Boolchandani, Kevin S Blake, Drake H Tilley, Miguel M Cabada, Drew J Schwartz, Sanket Patel, Maria Luisa Morales, Rina Meza, Giselle Soto, Sandra D Isidean, Chad K Porter, Mark P Simons, Gautam Dantas

2020-Current year OA Pubs

International travel contributes to the global spread of antimicrobial resistance. Travelers' diarrhea exacerbates the risk of acquiring multidrug-resistant organisms and can lead to persistent gastrointestinal disturbance post-travel. However, little is known about the impact of diarrhea on travelers' gut microbiomes, and the dynamics of these changes throughout travel. Here, we assembled a cohort of 159 international students visiting the Andean city of Cusco, Peru and applied next-generation sequencing techniques to 718 longitudinally-collected stool samples. We find that gut microbiome composition changed significantly throughout travel, but taxonomic diversity remained stable. However, diarrhea disrupted this stability and resulted in an increased abundance …


Discrimination Of Normal And Cancerous Human Skin Tissues Based On Laser-Induced Spectral Shift Fluorescence Microscopy, A Niazi, A Ehtesham, Et Al. Dec 2022

Discrimination Of Normal And Cancerous Human Skin Tissues Based On Laser-Induced Spectral Shift Fluorescence Microscopy, A Niazi, A Ehtesham, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

A homemade spectral shift fluorescence microscope (SSFM) is coupled with a spectrometer to record the spectral images of specimens based on the emission wavelength. Here a reliable diagnosis of neoplasia is achieved according to the spectral fluorescence properties of ex-vivo skin tissues after rhodamine6G (Rd6G) staining. It is shown that certain spectral shifts occur for nonmelanoma/melanoma lesions against normal/benign nevus, leading to spectral micrographs. In fact, there is a strong correlation between the emission wavelength and the sort of skin lesions, mainly due to the Rd6G interaction with the mitochondria of cancerous cells. The normal tissues generally enjoy a significant …


Distinct Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptors Dictate Stem Cell Fitness Versus Lineage Output In Dnmt3a-Mutant Clonal Hematopoiesis, Jennifer M Sanmiguel, Elizabeth Eudy, Matthew A Loberg, Kira A Young, Jayna J Mistry, Kristina D Mujica, Logan S Schwartz, Timothy M Stearns, Grant A Challen, Jennifer J Trowbridge Dec 2022

Distinct Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptors Dictate Stem Cell Fitness Versus Lineage Output In Dnmt3a-Mutant Clonal Hematopoiesis, Jennifer M Sanmiguel, Elizabeth Eudy, Matthew A Loberg, Kira A Young, Jayna J Mistry, Kristina D Mujica, Logan S Schwartz, Timothy M Stearns, Grant A Challen, Jennifer J Trowbridge

2020-Current year OA Pubs

UNLABELLED: Clonal hematopoiesis resulting from the enhanced fitness of mutant hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) associates with both favorable and unfavorable health outcomes related to the types of mature mutant blood cells produced, but how this lineage output is regulated is unclear. Using a mouse model of a clonal hematopoiesis-associated mutation, DNMT3AR882/+ (Dnmt3aR878H/+), we found that aging-induced TNFα signaling promoted the selective advantage of mutant HSCs and stimulated the production of mutant B lymphoid cells. The genetic loss of the TNFα receptor TNFR1 ablated the selective advantage of mutant HSCs without altering their lineage output, whereas the loss of TNFR2 resulted …


Identification Of Novel Antifungal Skeleton Of Hydroxyethyl Naphthalimides With Synergistic Potential For Chemical And Dynamic Treatments, Pengli Zhang, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Chenghe Zhou Dec 2022

Identification Of Novel Antifungal Skeleton Of Hydroxyethyl Naphthalimides With Synergistic Potential For Chemical And Dynamic Treatments, Pengli Zhang, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Chenghe Zhou

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The invasion of pathogenic fungi poses nonnegligible threats to the human health and agricultural industry. This work exploited a family of hydroxyethyl naphthalimides as novel antifungal species with synergistic potential of chemical and dynamic treatment to combat the fungal resistance. These prepared naphthalimides showed better antifungal potency than fluconazole towards some tested fungi including


Hyperkalemia And Electrocardiogram Manifestations In End-Stage Renal Disease, Zubaid Rafique, Bryan Hoang, Heba Mesbah, Ryan Pappal, Frank W Peacock, Raul Juarez-Vela, Lukasz Szarpak, Dick C Kuo Dec 2022

Hyperkalemia And Electrocardiogram Manifestations In End-Stage Renal Disease, Zubaid Rafique, Bryan Hoang, Heba Mesbah, Ryan Pappal, Frank W Peacock, Raul Juarez-Vela, Lukasz Szarpak, Dick C Kuo

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Hyperkalemia is one of the more common acute life-threatening metabolic emergencies. The aim of our study is to determine the correlation and accuracy of abnormal ECG parameters as a function of serum potassium concentration in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We performed a retrospective chart review of emergency department patients presenting with ESRD and receiving emergent hemodialysis treatment. A total of 96 patients, each with five independent ED visits, provided 480 sets of ECGs and electrolytes. Of these, four ECGs were excluded for inability to interpret, leaving a total of 476 patient encounters that met all inclusion criteria. Linear …