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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Neurosteroids As Stress Modulators And Neurotherapeutics: Lessons From The Retina, Yukitoshi Izumi, Makoto Ishikawa, Toru Nakazawa, Hiroshi Kunikata, Kota Sato, Douglas F. Covey, Charles F. Zorumski May 2023

Neurosteroids As Stress Modulators And Neurotherapeutics: Lessons From The Retina, Yukitoshi Izumi, Makoto Ishikawa, Toru Nakazawa, Hiroshi Kunikata, Kota Sato, Douglas F. Covey, Charles F. Zorumski

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Neurosteroids are rapidly emerging as important new therapies in neuropsychiatry, with one such agent, brexanolone, already approved for treatment of postpartum depression, and others on the horizon. These steroids have unique properties, including neuroprotective effects that could benefit a wide range of brain illnesses including depression, anxiety, epilepsy, and neurodegeneration. Over the past 25 years, our group has developed ex vivo rodent models to examine factors contributing to several forms of neurodegeneration in the retina. In the course of this work, we have developed a model of acute closed angle glaucoma that involves incubation of ex vivo retinas under hyperbaric …


Charge-Voltage Curves Of Shaker Potassium Channel Are Not Hysteretic At Steady State, John Cowgill, Baron Chanda Mar 2023

Charge-Voltage Curves Of Shaker Potassium Channel Are Not Hysteretic At Steady State, John Cowgill, Baron Chanda

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Charge-voltage curves of many voltage-gated ion channels exhibit hysteresis but such curves are also a direct measure of free energy of channel gating and, hence, should be path-independent. Here, we identify conditions to measure steady-state charge-voltage curves and show that these are curves are not hysteretic. Charged residues in transmembrane segments of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) sense and respond to changes in the electric field. The movement of these gating charges underpins voltage-dependent activation and is also a direct metric of the net free-energy of channel activation. However, for most voltage-gated ion channels, the charge-voltage (Q-V) curves appear to be …


Ion Channel Regulation Of Gut Immunity, Jing Feng, Zili Xie, Hongzhen Hu Feb 2023

Ion Channel Regulation Of Gut Immunity, Jing Feng, Zili Xie, Hongzhen Hu

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Mounting evidence indicates that gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis hinges on communications among many cellular networks including the intestinal epithelium, the immune system, and both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the gut. The GI tract, especially the colon, is the home base for gut microbiome which dynamically regulates immune function. The gut's immune system also provides an effective defense against harmful pathogens entering the GI tract while maintaining immune homeostasis to avoid exaggerated immune reaction to innocuous food and commensal antigens which are important causes of inflammatory disorders such as coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Various ion channels have been …


Olutasidenib (Ft-2102) In Patients With Relapsed Or Refractory Idh1-Mutant Glioma: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase Ib/Ii Trial, Macarena I De La Fuente, Brian A Van Tine, Et Al. Jan 2023

Olutasidenib (Ft-2102) In Patients With Relapsed Or Refractory Idh1-Mutant Glioma: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Phase Ib/Ii Trial, Macarena I De La Fuente, Brian A Van Tine, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Olutasidenib (FT-2102) is a highly potent, orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant and selective inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). The aim of the study was to determine the safety and clinical activity of olutasidenib in patients with relapsed/refractory gliomas harboring an IDH1R132X mutation.

METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, nonrandomized, phase Ib/II clinical trial. Eligible patients (≥18 years) had histologically confirmed IDH1R132X-mutated glioma that relapsed or progressed on or following standard therapy and had measurable disease. Patients received olutasidenib, 150 mg orally twice daily (BID) in continuous 28-day cycles. The primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) (cycle 1) and safety …


Chronic Trem2 Activation Exacerbates Aβ-Associated Tau Seeding And Spreading, Nimansha Jain, Caroline A Lewis, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman Jan 2023

Chronic Trem2 Activation Exacerbates Aβ-Associated Tau Seeding And Spreading, Nimansha Jain, Caroline A Lewis, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene are associated with increased risk for late-onset AD. Genetic loss of or decreased TREM2 function impairs the microglial response to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, resulting in more diffuse Aβ plaques and increased peri-plaque neuritic dystrophy and AD-tau seeding. Thus, microglia and TREM2 are at a critical intersection of Aβ and tau pathologies in AD. Since genetically decreasing TREM2 function increases Aβ-induced tau seeding, we hypothesized that chronically increasing TREM2 signaling would decrease amyloid-induced tau-seeding and spreading. Using a mouse model of amyloidosis in which AD-tau is injected into the …


Expanded Analysis Of High-Grade Astrocytoma With Piloid Features Identifies An Epigenetically And Clinically Distinct Subtype Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Patrick J Cimino, Sonika Dahiya, Et Al. Jan 2023

Expanded Analysis Of High-Grade Astrocytoma With Piloid Features Identifies An Epigenetically And Clinically Distinct Subtype Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Patrick J Cimino, Sonika Dahiya, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP) is a recently recognized glioma type whose classification is dependent on its global epigenetic signature. HGAP is characterized by alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, often co-occurring with CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion and/or ATRX mutation. Experience with HGAP is limited and to better understand this tumor type, we evaluated an expanded cohort of patients (n = 144) with these tumors, as defined by DNA methylation array testing, with a subset additionally evaluated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among evaluable cases, we confirmed the high prevalence CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, and/or ATRX mutations/loss in this tumor …


A Randomized Implementation Trial To Increase Adoption Of Evidence-Informed Consent Practices, Erin D Solomon, Jessica Mozersky, Melody Goodman, Meredith V Parsons, Kari A Baldwin, Annie B Friedrich, Jenine K Harris, James M Dubois Jan 2023

A Randomized Implementation Trial To Increase Adoption Of Evidence-Informed Consent Practices, Erin D Solomon, Jessica Mozersky, Melody Goodman, Meredith V Parsons, Kari A Baldwin, Annie B Friedrich, Jenine K Harris, James M Dubois

2020-Current year OA Pubs

INTRODUCTION: Several evidence-informed consent practices (ECPs) have been shown to improve informed consent in clinical trials but are not routinely used. These include optimizing consent formatting, using plain language, using validated instruments to assess understanding, and involving legally authorized representatives when appropriate. We hypothesized that participants receiving an implementation science toolkit and a social media push would have increased adoption of ECPs and other outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted a 1-year trial with clinical research professionals in the USA (

RESULTS: Participants who engaged more with the toolkit were more likely to have tried to implement an ECP during the trial …


A Randomized Phase 2 Study Of Neoadjuvant Carboplatin And Paclitaxel With Or Without Atezolizumab In Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) - Nci 10013, Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Feng Gao, Cherease R Street, Ina Chen, John M Herndon, Madelyn Carmody, Sherri R Davies, Sarah Larson, Zheng Liu, Ian S Hagemann, William E Gillanders, Et Al. Dec 2022

A Randomized Phase 2 Study Of Neoadjuvant Carboplatin And Paclitaxel With Or Without Atezolizumab In Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) - Nci 10013, Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Feng Gao, Cherease R Street, Ina Chen, John M Herndon, Madelyn Carmody, Sherri R Davies, Sarah Larson, Zheng Liu, Ian S Hagemann, William E Gillanders, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Atezolizumab with chemotherapy has shown improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic PD-L1 positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Atezolizumab with anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has also shown increased pathological complete response (pCR) rates in early TNBC. This trial evaluated neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without atezolizumab in patients with clinical stages II-III TNBC. The co-primary objectives were to evaluate if chemotherapy and atezolizumab increase pCR rate and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) percentage compared to chemotherapy alone in the mITT population. Sixty-seven patients (ages 25-78 years; median, 52 years) were randomly assigned - 22 patients to …


Clonally Related, Notch-Differentiated Spinal Neurons Integrate Into Distinct Circuits, Saul Bello-Rojas, Martha W Bagnall Dec 2022

Clonally Related, Notch-Differentiated Spinal Neurons Integrate Into Distinct Circuits, Saul Bello-Rojas, Martha W Bagnall

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Shared lineage has diverse effects on patterns of neuronal connectivity. In mammalian cortex, excitatory sister neurons assemble into shared microcircuits. In


Diverse Monogenic Subforms Of Human Spermatogenic Failure, Liina Nagirnaja, Wu-Lin Charng, Christina A Gurnett, Kenan R Omurtag, Et Al. Dec 2022

Diverse Monogenic Subforms Of Human Spermatogenic Failure, Liina Nagirnaja, Wu-Lin Charng, Christina A Gurnett, Kenan R Omurtag, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most severe form of male infertility and typically incurable. Defining the genetic basis of NOA has proven challenging, and the most advanced classification of NOA subforms is not based on genetics, but simple description of testis histology. In this study, we exome-sequenced over 1000 clinically diagnosed NOA cases and identified a plausible recessive Mendelian cause in 20%. We find further support for 21 genes in a 2-stage burden test with 2072 cases and 11,587 fertile controls. The disrupted genes are primarily on the autosomes, enriched for undescribed human "knockouts", and, for the most part, have …


Associations Between Mental Health And Hiv Status Among Sexual Minority And Heterosexual Adolescents In Nigeria, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Olakunle Oginni, Olanrewaju Ibikunle Ibigbami, Uma Philip, Nserd Ntonoba Mfam, Chinedu Mbam, Amos Ganyam, Agada A Salem, Christopher Osuji, Cory Bradley, Joanne Lusher, Nadia Adjoa Sam-Agudu Dec 2022

Associations Between Mental Health And Hiv Status Among Sexual Minority And Heterosexual Adolescents In Nigeria, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Olakunle Oginni, Olanrewaju Ibikunle Ibigbami, Uma Philip, Nserd Ntonoba Mfam, Chinedu Mbam, Amos Ganyam, Agada A Salem, Christopher Osuji, Cory Bradley, Joanne Lusher, Nadia Adjoa Sam-Agudu

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine associations between the mental health status of adolescents by self-reported sexual identity; and to determine associations between the mental health status of sexual minority adolescents living with and without HIV.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from Nigerians aged 13-19 years old using an online survey. We collected information on dependent (sexual identity) and independent (presence of depressive symptoms, generalised anxiety disorder, suicidal attempt/ideation, HIV status) study variables. A multivariate regression model determined associations between the dependent and independent variables. A second multivariate regression model was developed to establish associations between HIV status among sexual …


In Silico Activity And Admet Profiling Of Phytochemicals From Ethiopian Indigenous Aloes Using Pharmacophore Models, Lemessa Etana Bultum, Gemechu Bekele Tolossa, Gwangmin Kim, Ohhyeon Kwon, Doheon Lee Dec 2022

In Silico Activity And Admet Profiling Of Phytochemicals From Ethiopian Indigenous Aloes Using Pharmacophore Models, Lemessa Etana Bultum, Gemechu Bekele Tolossa, Gwangmin Kim, Ohhyeon Kwon, Doheon Lee

2020-Current year OA Pubs

In silico profiling is used in identification of active compounds and guide rational use of traditional medicines. Previous studies on Ethiopian indigenous aloes focused on documentation of phytochemical compositions and traditional uses. In this study, ADMET and drug-likeness properties of phytochemicals from Ethiopian indigenous aloes were evaluated, and pharmacophore-based profiling was done using Discovery Studio to predict therapeutic targets. The targets were examined using KEGG pathway, gene ontology and network analysis. Using random-walk with restart algorithm, network propagation was performed in CODA network to find diseases associated with the targets. As a result, 82 human targets were predicted and found …


Effectiveness Of Soluble Ctla-4-Fc In The Inhibition Of Bone Marrow T-Cell Activation In Context Of Indoleamine 2.3-Dioxygenase (Ido) And Cd4+Foxp3+ Treg Induction, Magdalena Massalska, Marzena Ciechomska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Tomasz Burakowski, Anna Kornatka, Anna Radzikowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Barbara Muz, Adrianna Loniewska-Lwowska, Andrzej Palucha, Pawel Maldyk, Wlodzimierz Maslinski Dec 2022

Effectiveness Of Soluble Ctla-4-Fc In The Inhibition Of Bone Marrow T-Cell Activation In Context Of Indoleamine 2.3-Dioxygenase (Ido) And Cd4+Foxp3+ Treg Induction, Magdalena Massalska, Marzena Ciechomska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Tomasz Burakowski, Anna Kornatka, Anna Radzikowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Barbara Muz, Adrianna Loniewska-Lwowska, Andrzej Palucha, Pawel Maldyk, Wlodzimierz Maslinski

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with systemic inflammation finally resulting in damaged joints. One of the RA development models suggests bone marrow (BM) as a place of inflammation development further leading to disease progression. We aimed to investigate the potential of CTLA-4-Fc molecule in inducing tolerogenic milieu in BM measured as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression, CD4

METHODS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) were stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and CTLA-4-Fc. Next IDO expression, CD4

RESULTS: We found that CTLA-4-Fc and IFN-γ stimulation results in IDO production by BMMC. CTLA-4-Fc induced tryptophan catabolism can inhibit mitogen-induced CD4

CONCLUSION: …


Antibodies Targeting The Neuraminidase Active Site Inhibit Influenza H3n2 Viruses With An S245n Glycosylation Site, Daniel Stadlbauer, Ali H Ellebedy, Et Al. Dec 2022

Antibodies Targeting The Neuraminidase Active Site Inhibit Influenza H3n2 Viruses With An S245n Glycosylation Site, Daniel Stadlbauer, Ali H Ellebedy, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Contemporary influenza A H3N2 viruses circulating since 2016 have acquired a glycosylation site in the neuraminidase in close proximity to the enzymatic active site. Here, we investigate if this S245N glycosylation site, as a result of antigenic evolution, can impact binding and function of human monoclonal antibodies that target the conserved active site. While we find that a reduction in the inhibitory ability of neuraminidase active site binders is measurable, this class of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies maintains protective efficacy in vivo.


Expanded Proteomic Survey Of The Human Parasite Leishmania Major Focusing On Changes In Null Mutants Of The Golgi Gdp-Mannose/Fucose/Arabinopyranose Transporter, Gloria Polanco, Nichollas E Scott, Lon F Lye, Stephen M Beverley Dec 2022

Expanded Proteomic Survey Of The Human Parasite Leishmania Major Focusing On Changes In Null Mutants Of The Golgi Gdp-Mannose/Fucose/Arabinopyranose Transporter, Gloria Polanco, Nichollas E Scott, Lon F Lye, Stephen M Beverley

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The trypanosomatid protozoan parasite


A Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention To Manage Fatigue For People With Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury, And Stroke: Development And Usability Testing, Kerri A Morgan, Alex W K Wong, Kim Walker, Rachel Heeb Desai, Tina M Knepper, Pamela K Newland Dec 2022

A Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention To Manage Fatigue For People With Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury, And Stroke: Development And Usability Testing, Kerri A Morgan, Alex W K Wong, Kim Walker, Rachel Heeb Desai, Tina M Knepper, Pamela K Newland

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Fatigue significantly affects daily functioning in persons with disabilities. Fatigue management can be challenging, and the information provided during routine physician visits to manage fatigue can be overwhelming. One way to address fatigue is to increase knowledge, skills, and confidence for self-management (ie, patient activation). Self-management programs have shown promising effects in targeting fatigue in persons with disabilities. However, satisfaction with self-management programs is low for persons with disabilities, and tailoring interventions to personalized needs has been recommended. SMS text messaging is increasingly being used to implement health behavior change interventions in a person's natural environment. Little has been …


Impact Of Cd4 T Cells On Intratumoral Cd8 T-Cell Exhaustion And Responsiveness To Pd-1 Blockade Therapy In Mouse Brain Tumors, Saad M. Khan, Rupen Desai, Andrew Coxon, Alexandra Livingstone, Gavin P Dunn, Allegra Petti, Tanner M Johanns Dec 2022

Impact Of Cd4 T Cells On Intratumoral Cd8 T-Cell Exhaustion And Responsiveness To Pd-1 Blockade Therapy In Mouse Brain Tumors, Saad M. Khan, Rupen Desai, Andrew Coxon, Alexandra Livingstone, Gavin P Dunn, Allegra Petti, Tanner M Johanns

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is a fatal disease despite aggressive multimodal therapy. PD-1 blockade, a therapy that reinvigorates hypofunctional exhausted CD8 T cells (T

METHODS: Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on flow sorted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from female C57/BL6 mice implanted with each model, with and without PD-1 blockade therapy. CD8

RESULTS: The CD8 T-cell compartment of the models is composed of heterogenous CD8 T

CONCLUSIONS: Here, we describe that dysfunctional CD4 T cells are associated with terminal CD8 T-cell exhaustion, suggesting CD4 T cells impact PD-1 blockade efficacy by controlling the severity of exhaustion. Given that CD4 lymphopenia is frequently observed in …


Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al. Dec 2022

Restoring Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Homeostasis Reduces Cell Death And Promotes Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury, Nai-Kui Liu, Chunyan Wang, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Alterations in phospholipids have long been associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, their specific roles and signaling cascades in mediating cell death and tissue repair remain unclear. Here we investigated whether alterations of cardiolipin (CL), a family of mitochondrion-specific phospholipids, play a crucial role in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death following SCI. Lipidomic analysis was used to determine the profile of CL alteration in the adult rat spinal cord following a moderate contusive SCI at the 10th thoracic (T10) level. Cellular, molecular, and genetic assessments were performed to determine whether CL alterations mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death after …


Caregiver Perceptions Of Change In Pediatric Asthma Control During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabrielle Pogge, Erika A Waters, Gregory D Webster, Sreekala Prabhakaran, Jean M Hunleth, David A Fedele, James A Shepperd Dec 2022

Caregiver Perceptions Of Change In Pediatric Asthma Control During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabrielle Pogge, Erika A Waters, Gregory D Webster, Sreekala Prabhakaran, Jean M Hunleth, David A Fedele, James A Shepperd

2020-Current year OA Pubs

PURPOSE: Although several indicators suggest that pediatric asthma control in the United States improved early in the pandemic, other indicators suggest not. Missing are reports from caregivers of the experiences of their children with asthma early in the pandemic.

METHODS: Using the PP-ACT and other measures that we specifically constructed for our research, we conducted a cross-sectional national survey of US caregivers of children with asthma (N=595) to examine perceived change in their child's asthma control and changes in reports of ED visits and use of emergency relief medicine and controller medicine pre-pandemic (January to March 2020) versus early-pandemic (June …


Covid-19 Induces Cns Cytokine Expression And Loss Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Allison L Soung, Abigail Vanderheiden, Xiaoping Jiang, Traci Bricker, Adrianus C M Boon, Robyn S Klein, Et Al. Dec 2022

Covid-19 Induces Cns Cytokine Expression And Loss Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Allison L Soung, Abigail Vanderheiden, Xiaoping Jiang, Traci Bricker, Adrianus C M Boon, Robyn S Klein, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with acute and postacute cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms including impaired memory, concentration, attention, sleep and affect. Mechanisms underlying these brain symptoms remain understudied. Here we report that SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters exhibit a lack of viral neuroinvasion despite aberrant blood-brain barrier permeability. Hamsters and patients deceased from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also exhibit microglial activation and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, especially within the hippocampus and the medulla oblongata, when compared with non-COVID control hamsters and humans who died from other infections, cardiovascular disease, uraemia or trauma. In the …


An Isochroman Analog Of Cd3254 And Allyl-, Isochroman-Analogs Of Net-Tmn Prove To Be More Potent Retinoid-X-Receptor (Rxr) Selective Agonists Than Bexarotene, Peter W Jurutka, Orsola Di Martino, Et Al. Dec 2022

An Isochroman Analog Of Cd3254 And Allyl-, Isochroman-Analogs Of Net-Tmn Prove To Be More Potent Retinoid-X-Receptor (Rxr) Selective Agonists Than Bexarotene, Peter W Jurutka, Orsola Di Martino, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Bexarotene is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, its use provokes or disrupts other retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-dependent nuclear receptor pathways and thereby incites side effects including hypothyroidism and raised triglycerides. Two novel bexarotene analogs, as well as three unique CD3254 analogs and thirteen novel NEt-TMN analogs, were synthesized and characterized for their ability to induce RXR agonism in comparison to bexarotene (


A Whole-Genome Sequencing Study Implicates Gramd1b In Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility, Federica Esposito, Bryan Bollman, Laura Piccio, Et Al. Dec 2022

A Whole-Genome Sequencing Study Implicates Gramd1b In Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility, Federica Esposito, Bryan Bollman, Laura Piccio, Et Al.

2020-Current year OA Pubs

While the role of common genetic variants in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been elucidated in large genome-wide association studies, the contribution of rare variants to the disease remains unclear. Herein, a whole-genome sequencing study in four affected and four healthy relatives of a consanguineous Italian family identified a novel missense c.1801T > C (p.S601P) variant in the


Mitochondrial Autophagy In Ischemic Aged Livers, Jae-Sung Kim, William C Chapman, Yiing Lin Dec 2022

Mitochondrial Autophagy In Ischemic Aged Livers, Jae-Sung Kim, William C Chapman, Yiing Lin

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is a central catabolic event for mitochondrial quality control. Defective or insufficient mitophagy, thus, can result in mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately cell death. There is a strong causal relationship between ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and mitochondrial dysfunction following liver resection and transplantation. Compared to young patients, elderly patients poorly tolerate I/R injury. Accumulation of abnormal mitochondria after I/R is more prominent in aged livers than in young counterparts. This review highlights how altered autophagy is mechanistically involved in age-dependent hypersensitivity to reperfusion injury.


Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan Dec 2022

Human Nk Cells Confer Protection Against Hiv-1 Infection In Humanized Mice, Can M. Sungur, Qiankun Wang, Ayşe N. Ozantürk, Hongbo Gao, Aaron J. Schmitz, Marina Cella, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Liang Shan

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The role of NK cells against HIV-1 infections remains to be elucidated in vivo. While humanized mouse models potentially could be used to directly evaluate human NK cell responses during HIV-1 infection, improved functional development of human NK cells in these hosts is needed. Here, we report the humanized MISTRG-6-15 mouse model, in which NK cells were quick to expand and exhibit degranulation, cytotoxicity, and proinflammatory cytokine production in nonlymphoid organs upon HIV-1 infection but had reduced functionality in lymphoid organs. Although HIV-1 infection induced functional impairment of NK cells, antiretroviral therapy reinvigorated NK cells in response to HIV-1 rebound …


Mitochondria Clumping Vs. Mitochondria Fusion In Cmt2a Diseases, Antonietta Franco, Caroline E Walton, Xiawei Dang Dec 2022

Mitochondria Clumping Vs. Mitochondria Fusion In Cmt2a Diseases, Antonietta Franco, Caroline E Walton, Xiawei Dang

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Phenotypic variations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A) result from the many mutations in the mitochondrial fusion protein, mitofusin 2 (MFN2). While the GTPase domain mutations of MFN2 lack the ability to hydrolyze GTP and complete mitochondrial fusion, the mechanism of dysfunction in HR1 domain mutations has yet to be explored. Using


Advice From One Patient To Another: Qualitative Analysis Of Patients' Perspectives About Chemotherapy Initiation, Catalina Malinowski, Edna Paredes, Ashley J Housten, Mariana Chavez-Macgregor Dec 2022

Advice From One Patient To Another: Qualitative Analysis Of Patients' Perspectives About Chemotherapy Initiation, Catalina Malinowski, Edna Paredes, Ashley J Housten, Mariana Chavez-Macgregor

2020-Current year OA Pubs

PURPOSE: Although the association between delays in (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy initiation and adverse outcomes is well-documented, patient perspective regarding the lived experience among those with breast cancer delay is sparse. Project Start was a qualitative study designed to assess and identify the multilevel factors contributing to the barriers and facilitators of initiating chemotherapy. This report explores specific responses where patients with breast cancer provide insight and advice for newly diagnosed women on preparing for chemotherapy initiation and informs potential interventions to facilitate timely chemotherapy initiation.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who experienced a ≥60-day delay in …


Use Of An Interactive Obesity Treatment Approach In Individuals With Severe Mental Illness: Feasibility, Acceptability, And Proposed Engagement Criteria, Ginger Nicol, Madeline Jansen, Rita Haddad, Amanda Ricchio, Michael D Yingling, Julia A Schweiger, Katie Keenoy, Bradley A Evanoff, John W Newcomer Dec 2022

Use Of An Interactive Obesity Treatment Approach In Individuals With Severe Mental Illness: Feasibility, Acceptability, And Proposed Engagement Criteria, Ginger Nicol, Madeline Jansen, Rita Haddad, Amanda Ricchio, Michael D Yingling, Julia A Schweiger, Katie Keenoy, Bradley A Evanoff, John W Newcomer

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Digital and mobile health interventions are increasingly being used to support healthy lifestyle change, including in certain high-risk populations such as those with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). Life expectancy in this population lags 15 years behind counterparts in the general population, primarily due to obesity-related health conditions.

OBJECTIVE: We tested the feasibility and usability of a 12-week interactive obesity treatment approach (iOTA) to adults with chronic SMIs (depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorder) receiving treatment in community settings. The iOTA incorporates short message service (SMS) text messages to supplement monthly in-person health coaching.

METHODS: Factors hypothesized to be …


Topics And Sentiment Surrounding Vaping On Twitter And Reddit During The 2019 E-Cigarette And Vaping Use-Associated Lung Injury Outbreak: Comparative Study, Dezhi Wu, Erin Kasson, Avineet Kumar Singh, Yang Ren, Nina Kaiser, Ming Huang, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg Dec 2022

Topics And Sentiment Surrounding Vaping On Twitter And Reddit During The 2019 E-Cigarette And Vaping Use-Associated Lung Injury Outbreak: Comparative Study, Dezhi Wu, Erin Kasson, Avineet Kumar Singh, Yang Ren, Nina Kaiser, Ming Huang, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg

2020-Current year OA Pubs

BACKGROUND: Vaping or e-cigarette use has become dramatically more popular in the United States in recent years. e-Cigarette and vaping use-associated lung injury (EVALI) cases caused an increase in hospitalizations and deaths in 2019, and many instances were later linked to unregulated products. Previous literature has leveraged social media data for surveillance of health topics. Individuals are willing to share mental health experiences and other personal stories on social media platforms where they feel a sense of community, reduced stigma, and empowerment.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare vaping-related content on 2 popular social media platforms (ie, Twitter and Reddit) …


Tissue Registration And Exploration User Interfaces In Support Of A Human Reference Atlas, Katy Börner, Andreas Bueckle, Bruce W Herr 2nd, Leonard E Cross, Ellen M Quardokus, Elizabeth G Record, Yingnan Ju, Jonathan C Silverstein, Kristen M Browne, Sanjay Jain, Clive H Wasserfall, Marda L Jorgensen, Jeffrey M Spraggins, N Heath Patterson, Griffin M Weber Dec 2022

Tissue Registration And Exploration User Interfaces In Support Of A Human Reference Atlas, Katy Börner, Andreas Bueckle, Bruce W Herr 2nd, Leonard E Cross, Ellen M Quardokus, Elizabeth G Record, Yingnan Ju, Jonathan C Silverstein, Kristen M Browne, Sanjay Jain, Clive H Wasserfall, Marda L Jorgensen, Jeffrey M Spraggins, N Heath Patterson, Griffin M Weber

2020-Current year OA Pubs

Seventeen international consortia are collaborating on a human reference atlas (HRA), a comprehensive, high-resolution, three-dimensional atlas of all the cells in the healthy human body. Laboratories around the world are collecting tissue specimens from donors varying in sex, age, ethnicity, and body mass index. However, harmonizing tissue data across 25 organs and more than 15 bulk and spatial single-cell assay types poses challenges. Here, we present software tools and user interfaces developed to spatially and semantically annotate ("register") and explore the tissue data and the evolving HRA. A key part of these tools is a common coordinate framework, providing standard …


Tenotomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy Is Sex-Specific And Independent Of Nfκb, Gretchen A Meyer, Stavros Thomopoulos, Yousef Abu-Amer, Karen C Shen Dec 2022

Tenotomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy Is Sex-Specific And Independent Of Nfκb, Gretchen A Meyer, Stavros Thomopoulos, Yousef Abu-Amer, Karen C Shen

2020-Current year OA Pubs

The nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway is a major thoroughfare for skeletal muscle atrophy and is driven by diverse stimuli. Targeted inhibition of NFκB through its canonical mediator IKKβ effectively mitigates loss of muscle mass across many conditions, from denervation to unloading to cancer. In this study, we used gain- and loss-of-function mouse models to examine the role of NFκB in muscle atrophy following rotator cuff tenotomy - a model of chronic rotator cuff tear. IKKβ was knocked down or constitutively activated in muscle-specific inducible transgenic mice to elicit a twofold gain or loss of NFκB signaling. Surprisingly, neither knockdown of …