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Articles 1 - 30 of 7287

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Facilitators And Barriers Of Reflective Learning In Postgraduate Medical Education: A Narrative Review, Catherine Gathu May 2022

Facilitators And Barriers Of Reflective Learning In Postgraduate Medical Education: A Narrative Review, Catherine Gathu

Family Medicine, East Africa

Background: Reflection in postgraduate medical education has been found to aid in the development of professional skills, improve clinical expertise, and problem solving with the aim of advancing lifelong learning skills and self-awareness, leading to good medical practice among postgraduate residents. Despite the evidenced benefits, reflection remains underused as a tool for teaching and learning, and few trainee physicians regularly engage in the process. Factors that affect the uptake of reflective learning in residency training have not yet been adequately explored.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the factors that influence the adoption of reflective learning for ...


Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee Apr 2022

Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee

Section of Haematology/Oncology

Lenalidomide mechanism of action has been shown to modulate the different components of the immune system. A 68-year-old lady presented to us with severe backache and was then diagnosed with MM. Lenalidomide started as per protocol along with dexamethasone. Later, she presented with complaints of generalized weakness and her workup showed significant blast cells with Pan-B-cell markers consistent with secondary B-ALL. The reported incidence of secondary Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is 2.3%. The development of more aggressive neoplasm in a patient with prior malignancy dictates a poor outcome and hence such patients should be enrolled in a clinical trial whenever ...


Scaling Up Context-Tailored Clinical Guidelines And Training To Improve Childbirth Care In Urban, Low-Resource Maternity Units In Tanzania: A Protocol For A Stepped-Wedged Cluster Randomized Trial With Embedded Qualitative And Economic Analyses (The Partoma Scale-Up Study), Nanna Maaløe, Natasha Housseine, Jane Brandt Sørensen, Josephine Obel, Brenda Sequeira Dmello, Monica Lauridsen Kujabi, Haika Osaki, Thomas Wiswa John, Rashid Saleh Khamis, Zainab Suleiman Said Muniro, Daniel Joseph Nkungu, Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl, Flemming Konradsen, Sangeeta Mookherji, Columba Mbekenga, Tarek Meguid, Jos Van Roosmalen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Thomas Van Den Akker, Andreas Kryger Jensen, Morten Skovdal, Hussein Kidanto, Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch Apr 2022

Scaling Up Context-Tailored Clinical Guidelines And Training To Improve Childbirth Care In Urban, Low-Resource Maternity Units In Tanzania: A Protocol For A Stepped-Wedged Cluster Randomized Trial With Embedded Qualitative And Economic Analyses (The Partoma Scale-Up Study), Nanna Maaløe, Natasha Housseine, Jane Brandt Sørensen, Josephine Obel, Brenda Sequeira Dmello, Monica Lauridsen Kujabi, Haika Osaki, Thomas Wiswa John, Rashid Saleh Khamis, Zainab Suleiman Said Muniro, Daniel Joseph Nkungu, Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl, Flemming Konradsen, Sangeeta Mookherji, Columba Mbekenga, Tarek Meguid, Jos Van Roosmalen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Thomas Van Den Akker, Andreas Kryger Jensen, Morten Skovdal, Hussein Kidanto, Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch

Faculty of Health Sciences, East Africa

While facility births are increasing in many low-resource settings, quality of care often does not follow suit; maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high. Therefore, realistic, context-tailored clinical support is crucially needed to assist birth attendants in resource-constrained realities to provide best possible evidence-based and respectful care. Our pilot study in Zanzibar suggested that co-created clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and low-dose, high-frequency training (PartoMa intervention) were associated with improved childbirth care and survival. We now aim to modify, implement, and evaluate this multi-faceted intervention in five high-volume, urban maternity units in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (approximately 60,000 ...


Mental Health Disorders Among Post Graduate Residents In Kenya During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Sayed Karar, Jasmit Shah, Katie Du, Nidhi Leekha, Zohray Talib Apr 2022

Mental Health Disorders Among Post Graduate Residents In Kenya During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Sayed Karar, Jasmit Shah, Katie Du, Nidhi Leekha, Zohray Talib

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Background: Healthcare workers, including residents, are prone to various mental health disorders especially given the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Residents, particularly, are already under undue stress due to their respective training program demands.

Methods: This cross-sectional, online survey-based study from August to November 2020 collected demographic and mental health measurements from all residents at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. The questionnaire investigated demographic variables, information regarding direct care of COVID-19 patients, prior history of mental health and mental health outcomes using the Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Impact of Event Scale–Revised Questionnaire ...


Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir Uddin Apr 2022

Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a ubiquitous benign mesenchymal tumour of fibroblastic origin, which occurs most often in middle-aged adults. It usually presents as lung mass originating from pleura, but extrapleural occurrence is also common. Tumour is characterised by hypo- and hyper-cellular areas of spindle-shaped cells, arranged in haphazard manner with dispersed staghorn-shaped vessels. Surgical excision is the curative treatment. SFTs of the primary testicular or paratesticular region are extremely rare, but they exhibit histologic findings similar to SFTs originating at other body sites. Here, we report the case of a paratesticular SFT in a 37-year male, who presented with ...


Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider Apr 2022

Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the complaint of involuntary loss of urine. UI affects both men and women but is more common in women. It has been identified as a World Health Organization priority. The burden related to UI at local, national, and global levels is huge and its impact in terms of physical, social, mental, and financial aspects makes it a concerning issue. However, there exist several barriers in terms of knowledge and attitude in seeking healthcare among women experiencing UI. This calls upon a multi-disciplinary approach involving professionals from different disciplines and tackling it with collaborative and ...


18 Fdg Pet/Ct Imaging In Carcinoma Cesophagus, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima Apr 2022

18 Fdg Pet/Ct Imaging In Carcinoma Cesophagus, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima

Department of Radiology

No abstract provided.


Virtual Meetings During Covid-19 Pandemic: Is It Time To Say Goodbye To Physical Meetings?, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima Apr 2022

Virtual Meetings During Covid-19 Pandemic: Is It Time To Say Goodbye To Physical Meetings?, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima

Department of Radiology

Abstract are not provided by the author/publisher


Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo Mar 2022

Chloroquine-Susceptible And -Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strains Survive High Chloroquine Concentrations By Becoming Dormant But Are Eliminated By Prolonged Exposure, Johan Ursing, Rasmus Johns, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Carla Calçada, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Maria Isabel Veiga, Lars Rombo

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Plasmodium falciparum strains that are resistant to standard-dose chloroquine can be treated by higher chloroquine concentrations maintained for a longer time in vivo.
Objectives: To determine the relative importance of chloroquine concentrations versus exposure time for elimination of chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant P. falciparum in vitro.
Methods: Chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and -resistant (FCR3) strains were exposed in vitro to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 times their respective 90% inhibitory chloroquine concentrations for 3, 5, 7 or 14 days and then followed until recrudescence, or not, by 42 days after the end of exposure.
Results: Exposure to chloroquine appeared to ...


Development And Validation Of Standard And Real Patient Gallstone Library Using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Lena Jafri, Muhammad Abbas Abid, Humera Asif, Syed Bilal Hashmi, Hafsa Majid, Farooq Ghani, Sibtain Ahmed, Imran Siddiqui, Aysha Habib Mar 2022

Development And Validation Of Standard And Real Patient Gallstone Library Using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Lena Jafri, Muhammad Abbas Abid, Humera Asif, Syed Bilal Hashmi, Hafsa Majid, Farooq Ghani, Sibtain Ahmed, Imran Siddiqui, Aysha Habib

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Analysis of the constituents of gallstones using various spectroscopic techniques assists in identification of the pathogenesis of gallstones. In the current study, using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, a Gallstone Standard Library (GSL) and a Gallstone Real Patients' Library (GRPL) were developed and validated for gallstone composition analysis.
Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Pure standards (cholesterol, calcium carbonate, bilirubin and bile salts) and gallstone specimens were analyzed using FTIR Nicolet iS-5 Spectrometer from Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA. Thermo Scientific™ QCheck™ algorithm, embedded within the OMNIC™ software, was used ...


Etiology, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcome Of Infective Endocarditis: 10-Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Center In Pakistan, Sara Salim Ali, Imran Ahmed Qureshi, Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Awais Farhad, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail Mar 2022

Etiology, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcome Of Infective Endocarditis: 10-Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Center In Pakistan, Sara Salim Ali, Imran Ahmed Qureshi, Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Awais Farhad, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail

Medical College Documents

This study was conducted to assess the clinical characteristics, causative agents, complications, and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients presenting to our tertiary care center over the last decade. This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients admitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital with the diagnosis of IE over a ten-year period from 2010 to 2020. Outcomes variables included complications during hospitalization, surgical intervention, mortality, and length of stay. We identified a total of 305 cases out of which 176 (58%) were males and 129 (42%) were females. The mean age of the patients was 46.9±18 ...


Efficacy And Safety Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants With And Without Aspirin: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Talal Almas, Adeena Musheer, Arooba Ejaz, Fahd Niaz Shaikh, Anousheh Awais Paracha, Fizza Raza, Maryam Sarwar Khan, Fahad Masood, Faiza Siddiqui, Muhammad Hasnain Mankani Mar 2022

Efficacy And Safety Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants With And Without Aspirin: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Talal Almas, Adeena Musheer, Arooba Ejaz, Fahd Niaz Shaikh, Anousheh Awais Paracha, Fizza Raza, Maryam Sarwar Khan, Fahad Masood, Faiza Siddiqui, Muhammad Hasnain Mankani

Medical College Documents

Background: Various anticoagulant therapies are prescribed to patients under physicians' discretion and recently Direct Oral Anticoagulants(DOAC) have been under trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In addition to this, the regimen of DOACs and Aspirin is of keen interest as researchers continue to find an optimal regimen to treat blood clots in patients. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies that asses the safety and efficacy of DOAC with and without Aspirin.
Methods: We queried MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL from their inception to April 2021, for published and randomized ...


Practical Needs And Considerations For Refugees And Other Forcibly Displaced Persons With Neurological Disorders: Recommendations Using A Modified Delphi Approach, Shawheen Rezaei, Foksouna Sakadi, Fu-Liong Hiew, Ildefonso Rodriguez-Leyva, Jera Kruja, Mohammad Wasay, Osheik Abuasha Seidi, Saad Abdel-Aziz, Shahriar Nafissi, Farrah Mateen Mar 2022

Practical Needs And Considerations For Refugees And Other Forcibly Displaced Persons With Neurological Disorders: Recommendations Using A Modified Delphi Approach, Shawheen Rezaei, Foksouna Sakadi, Fu-Liong Hiew, Ildefonso Rodriguez-Leyva, Jera Kruja, Mohammad Wasay, Osheik Abuasha Seidi, Saad Abdel-Aziz, Shahriar Nafissi, Farrah Mateen

Section of Neurology

Background: There are >70 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, including refugees, internally displaced persons, and asylum seekers. While the health needs of forcibly displaced people have been characterized in the literature, more still needs to be done globally to translate this knowledge into effective policies and actions, particularly in neurology.
Methods: In 2020, a global network of published experts on neurological disease and refugees was convened. Nine physician experts from nine countries (2 low, 1 lower-middle income, 5 upper-middle, 1 high income) with experience treating displaced people originating from 18 countries participated in three survey and two discussion rounds in ...


Prevention Of Violence Against Women And Girls: A Cost-Effectiveness Study Across 6 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Giulia Ferrari, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Esnat Chirwa, Andrew Gibbs, Stacey Orangi, Edwine Barasa, Theresa Tawiah, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Rozina Karmaliani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja Mar 2022

Prevention Of Violence Against Women And Girls: A Cost-Effectiveness Study Across 6 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Giulia Ferrari, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Esnat Chirwa, Andrew Gibbs, Stacey Orangi, Edwine Barasa, Theresa Tawiah, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Rozina Karmaliani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Background: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human rights violation with social, economic, and health consequences for survivors, perpetrators, and society. Robust evidence on economic, social, and health impact, plus the cost of delivery of VAWG prevention, is critical to making the case for investment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where health sector resources are highly constrained. We report on the costs and health impact of VAWG prevention in 6 countries.
Methods and findings: We conducted a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis of VAWG prevention interventions using primary data from 5 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in sub-Saharan Africa ...


Epidemiology, Clinical Ramifications, And Cellular Pathogenesis Of Covid-19 Mrna-Vaccination-Induced Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes: A State-Of-The-Heart Review, Talal Almas, Sarah Rehman, Eyad Mansour, Tarek Khedro, Ali Alansari, Jahanzeb Malik, Norah Alshareef, Vikneswaran Raj Nagarajan, Abdulla Hussain Al-Awaid, Reema Alsufyani Mar 2022

Epidemiology, Clinical Ramifications, And Cellular Pathogenesis Of Covid-19 Mrna-Vaccination-Induced Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes: A State-Of-The-Heart Review, Talal Almas, Sarah Rehman, Eyad Mansour, Tarek Khedro, Ali Alansari, Jahanzeb Malik, Norah Alshareef, Vikneswaran Raj Nagarajan, Abdulla Hussain Al-Awaid, Reema Alsufyani

Medical College Documents

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overwhelming healthcare systems globally. To date, a myriad of therapeutic regimens has been employed in an attempt to curb the ramifications of a severe COVID-19 infection. Amidst the ongoing pandemic, the advent and efficacious uptake of COVID-19 vaccination has significantly reduced disease-related hospitalizations and mortality. Nevertheless, many side-effects are being reported after COVID-19 vaccinations and myocarditis is the most commonly reported sequelae post vaccination. Majority of these diseases are associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Various studies have established a temporal relationship between these complications, yet the causality and the underlying pathogenesis remain hypothetical. In ...


The Who Global Tuberculosis 2021 Report - Not So Good News And Turning The Tide Back To End Tb, Chakaya Jeremiah, Eskild Petersen, Rebecca Nantanda, Brenda N. Mungai, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Farhana Amanullah, Patrick Lungu, Francine Ntoumi, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy Mar 2022

The Who Global Tuberculosis 2021 Report - Not So Good News And Turning The Tide Back To End Tb, Chakaya Jeremiah, Eskild Petersen, Rebecca Nantanda, Brenda N. Mungai, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Farhana Amanullah, Patrick Lungu, Francine Ntoumi, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Objective: To review the data presented in the 2021 WHO global TB report and discuss the current constraints in the global response.
Introduction and methods: The WHO global TB reports, consolidate TB data from countries and provide up to date assessment of the global TB epidemic. We reviewed the data presented in the 2021 report.
Results: We noted that the 2021 WHO global TB report presents a rather grim picture on the trajectory of the global epidemic of TB including a stagnation in the annual decline in TB incidence, a decline in TB notifications and an increase in estimated TB ...


The Response To Covid-19 Among Drug Retail Outlets In Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Of Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices, Yusuf Ari Mashuri, Luh Putu Lila Wulandari, Mishal Khan, Astri Ferdiana, Ari Probandari, Tri Wibawa, Neha Batura, Marco Liverani, Richard Day, Stephen Jan Mar 2022

The Response To Covid-19 Among Drug Retail Outlets In Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Of Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices, Yusuf Ari Mashuri, Luh Putu Lila Wulandari, Mishal Khan, Astri Ferdiana, Ari Probandari, Tri Wibawa, Neha Batura, Marco Liverani, Richard Day, Stephen Jan

Community Health Sciences

Background: Pharmacists have been at the frontline of the COVID-19 response in Indonesia, providing medicines, advice, and referral services often in areas with limited healthcare access. This study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and practices during the pandemic, so that we can be better prepared for future emergencies.
Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Indonesia was conducted between July and August 2020. The dataset was analysed descriptively, and logistic regression was used to explore willingness to participate in COVID-19 interventions.
Findings: 4716 respondents participated in the survey. Two-thirds (66·7%) reported knowing only ...


Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta Mar 2022

Tackling Protein-Calorie Malnutrition During World Crises, Zahra Ali Padhani, Jai K. Das, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Undernutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries and leads to a multitude of problems as it weakens the immune system, which leads to increased risk of infections and diet-related diseases. COVID-19 has worsened the existing situation and has resulted in unprecedented health, social, and economic disruptions across the world. Before COVID-19, about 54% children under 5 years were moderately or seriously malnourished, and after the COVID-19 pandemic, early estimates suggest that an additional 2.6 million children were stunted; 9.3 million were wasted, with an addition of 2.1 million maternal anemia cases; 168,000 child deaths; and ...


Viral Hepatitis - The Road Traveled And The Journey Remaining, Ghulam Fareed Malik, Noval Zakaria, Muhammad Ibrahim Majeed, Faisal Wasim Ismail Mar 2022

Viral Hepatitis - The Road Traveled And The Journey Remaining, Ghulam Fareed Malik, Noval Zakaria, Muhammad Ibrahim Majeed, Faisal Wasim Ismail

Section of Gastroenterology

Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver and is commonly due to infection with The hepatotropic viruses - hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis carries one of the highest disease burdens globally and has caused significant morbidity and mortality among different patient populations. Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic or acute flu-like illness to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease, characterized by jaundice, hepatomegaly and ascites among many other signs. Eventually, this can lead to fibrosis (cirrhosis) of the liver parenchyma and carries a risk of development into hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and C are most notorious for ...


Self-Medication Practices In Medical Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Farah Yasmin, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Unaiza Naeem, Hala Najeeb, Hamza Nauman, Muhammad Nadeem Ahsan, Abdullah Khan Khattak Mar 2022

Self-Medication Practices In Medical Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Farah Yasmin, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Unaiza Naeem, Hala Najeeb, Hamza Nauman, Muhammad Nadeem Ahsan, Abdullah Khan Khattak

Medical College Documents

Background and objectives: During the pandemic, the growing influence of social media, accessibility of over-the-counter medications, and fear of contracting the virus may have led to self-medication practices among the general public. Medical students are prone to such practices due to relevant background knowledge, and access to drugs. This study was carried out to determine and analyze the prevalence of self-medication practices among medical students in Pakistan.
Materials and methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted online in which the participants were asked about the general demographics, their self-medication practices and the reasons to use. All participants were currently enrolled ...


Optimal Iron Content In Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Foods For The Treatment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In The Community Settings: A Protocol For The Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Aamer Imdad, Melissa François, Fanny F. Chen, Abigail Smith, Olivia Tsistinas, Emily Tanner Smith, Jai K. Das, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta Mar 2022

Optimal Iron Content In Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Foods For The Treatment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In The Community Settings: A Protocol For The Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Aamer Imdad, Melissa François, Fanny F. Chen, Abigail Smith, Olivia Tsistinas, Emily Tanner Smith, Jai K. Das, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The current standard of care for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) involves using ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) to promote growth; however, the precise formulation to achieve optimal recovery remains unclear. Emerging research suggests that alternative RUTF formulations may be more effective in correcting SAM-related complications such as anaemia and iron deficiency. This systematic review commissioned by the WHO aims to synthesise the most recent research on the iron content in RUTF and related products in the community-based treatment of uncomplicated severe malnutrition in children aged 6 months and older.
Methods and analysis: We will search multiple electronic databases ...


Effects Of Integrating Family Planning With Maternal, Newborn, And Child Health Services On Uptake Of Voluntary Modern Contraceptive Methods In Rural Pakistan: Protocol For A Quasi-Experimental Study, Zahid Memon, Sophie Reale, Wardah Ahmed, Rachael Spencer, Talib Hussain Lashari, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Hora Soltani Mar 2022

Effects Of Integrating Family Planning With Maternal, Newborn, And Child Health Services On Uptake Of Voluntary Modern Contraceptive Methods In Rural Pakistan: Protocol For A Quasi-Experimental Study, Zahid Memon, Sophie Reale, Wardah Ahmed, Rachael Spencer, Talib Hussain Lashari, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Hora Soltani

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Background: The uptake of modern contraceptive methods (MCMs) remains low, with 25% of women reporting their use in Pakistan. The overarching interventions covering service delivery platforms at facility and community levels necessitate the integration of family planning (FP) with maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services.
Objective: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an integrated FP-MNCH service delivery model to increase coverage of MCMs in rural Pakistan. Moreover, we aim to measure the level of effectiveness of interventions regarding the uptake of MCMs.
Methods: A quasi-experimental, sequential, mixed methods study design with pre- and ...


Factors Associated With Home Delivery In Rural Sindh, Pakistan: Results From The Global Network Birth Registry, Afreen Sadia, Shafaq Mahmood, Farnaz Naqvi, Seemab Naqvi, Zahid Soomro, Sarah Saleem Mar 2022

Factors Associated With Home Delivery In Rural Sindh, Pakistan: Results From The Global Network Birth Registry, Afreen Sadia, Shafaq Mahmood, Farnaz Naqvi, Seemab Naqvi, Zahid Soomro, Sarah Saleem

Community Health Sciences

Background: According to global estimates for 2017, nearly 295,000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide. Thus, approximately 810 women die every day due to pregnancy-related complications. This burden of maternal deaths in LMICs is primarily due to poor healthcare service utilization, as indicated by relatively low rates of institutional deliveries and skilled-birth attendance (SBA). We conducted this study with an aim to assess the factors associated with home delivery and its subsequent effect on the pregnancy outcome in rural Sindh, Pakistan.
Methods: Data for this study were taken from The Global Network's Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), which is a ...


High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan Mar 2022

High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan

Department of Surgery

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a top-ranked cancer in the Pakistani population, and patient survival has remained unchanged at ∼50% for several decades. Recent advances have claimed that a subset of tumour cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumour progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis, which leads to a poor prognosis. This study investigated the impact of CSC markers expression on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of OSCC patients. Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate CD44, CD133, L1CAM, and SOX2 expression in a well-characterized cohort of 100 Pakistani patients with primary treatment naïve ...


Hyperammonemia Of Unknown Cause In A Young Postpartum Woman: A Case Report, Sadaf Hanif, Sher Muhammad Sethi Mar 2022

Hyperammonemia Of Unknown Cause In A Young Postpartum Woman: A Case Report, Sadaf Hanif, Sher Muhammad Sethi

Section of Internal Medicine

Background: Hyperammonemia is a medical condition described as increased or elevated serum ammonia levels. High serum levels of ammonia can cause neurotoxicity. Sudden onset severe hyperammonemia may cause severe encephalopathy with brain damage. It can result in cerebral edema, emesis, seizures, hypotonia, and death. We report a young postpartum woman who had a sudden rise in serum ammonia levels after vaginal delivery.
Case presentation: A 24-year-old, married, postpartum Pakistani woman was admitted to the intensive care unit through the emergency department, with complaints of fever, severe abdominal pain with distension, and altered levels of consciousness. The patient had a medical ...


An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda Mar 2022

An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: South Asia has had a dynamic response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The overall burden and response have remained comparable across highly-burdened countries within the South Asian Region.
Methodology: Using a population-based observational design, all eight South Asian countries were analyzed using a step-wise approach. Data were obtained from government websites and publicly-available repositories for population dynamics and key variables.
Results: South Asian countries have a younger average age of their population. Inequitable distribution of resources centered in urban metropolitan cities within South Asia is present. Certain densely populated regions in these countries have better testing and healthcare facilities ...


Knowledge And Practices On The Prevention And Management Of Diarrhea In Children Under-2 Years Among Women Dwelling In Urban Slums Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asif Khaliq, Amreen 1, Nazia Jameel, Stefanie J. Krauth Mar 2022

Knowledge And Practices On The Prevention And Management Of Diarrhea In Children Under-2 Years Among Women Dwelling In Urban Slums Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asif Khaliq, Amreen 1, Nazia Jameel, Stefanie J. Krauth

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death especially among children. The age-proportionate mortality of diarrheal disease in infants under 2 years is 72%, among children under 5 years of age. Children living in urban slums are more prone to develop diarrhea. Although the disease can be prevented by many simple cost-effective interventions, i.e. proper sanitation and hygiene, appropriate feeding, and timely vaccination, poverty and lack of basic life amenities often potentiate diarrhea mortality. Gadap town is the largest town of Karachi with a deprived health system. This study aims to assess pediatric diarrhea prevalence and related knowledge-practice ...


Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo Mar 2022

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


The Status And Future Of Emergency Care In The Republic Of Kenya, J. Austin Lee, Grace Wanjiku, Naomi Nduku, Adam R. Aluisio, Ramu Kharel, John Tabu Simiyu, Benjamin Wachira Mar 2022

The Status And Future Of Emergency Care In The Republic Of Kenya, J. Austin Lee, Grace Wanjiku, Naomi Nduku, Adam R. Aluisio, Ramu Kharel, John Tabu Simiyu, Benjamin Wachira

Emergency Medicine, East Africa

Kenya is a rapidly developing country with a growing economy and evolving health care system. In the decade since the last publication on the state of emergency care in Kenya, significant developments have occurred in the country's approach to emergency care. Importantly, the country decentralized most health care functions to county governments in 2013. Despite the triple burden of traumatic, communicable, and non-communicable diseases, the structure of the health care system in the Republic of Kenya is evolving to adapt to the important role for the care of emergent medical conditions. This report provides a ten-year interval update on ...


Intracardiac Thrombus In Coronavirus Disease-2019, Suganya Karikalan, Munish Sharma, Megha Chandna, Manju Sachdev, Ajay Gaalla, Farah Yasmin, Reena Shah, Iqbal Ratnani Mar 2022

Intracardiac Thrombus In Coronavirus Disease-2019, Suganya Karikalan, Munish Sharma, Megha Chandna, Manju Sachdev, Ajay Gaalla, Farah Yasmin, Reena Shah, Iqbal Ratnani

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Intracardiac thrombus is often seen as a complication of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and non-ischemia cardiomyopathies (NICM). The advancements in imaging modalities and therapeutic options have helped reduce the complications arising from ventricular thrombi, such as systemic embolization. Here we present two cases of intracardiac thrombus associated with coronavirus disease (COVID) 19, one with an apical thrombus in the left ventricle and the other with a thrombus in the right ventricle adjacent to chordae tendinae. The effects of covid-19 on the cardiovascular system are yet to be thoroughly evaluated. Venous and arterial thrombosis is commonly associated with COVID-19 but in ...