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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Factors Associated With Anaemia Among Pregnant Women In Rwanda: An Analysis Of The Rwanda Demographic And Health Survey Of 2020, Lilian Nuwabaine, Joseph Kawuki, Livingstone Kamoga, Quraish Sserwanja, Ghislaine Gatasi, Linet M Mutisya, John Baptist Asiimwe Apr 2024

Factors Associated With Anaemia Among Pregnant Women In Rwanda: An Analysis Of The Rwanda Demographic And Health Survey Of 2020, Lilian Nuwabaine, Joseph Kawuki, Livingstone Kamoga, Quraish Sserwanja, Ghislaine Gatasi, Linet M Mutisya, John Baptist Asiimwe

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with several adverse outcomes for mothers and newborns, as well as their families. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of anaemia and the associated factors among pregnant women in Rwanda.

Methods: Secondary data from the 2020 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) was used. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 435 pregnant women included in the study. Anaemia among pregnant women was defined as a haemoglobin value/dL. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associated factors with anaemia in pregnancy, using SPSS (version 26).

Results: Of the 435 pregnant …


Prediction Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors From Retinal Fundus Photographs: Validation Of A Deep Learning Algorithm In A Prospective Non-Interventional Study In Kenya, Tom White, Viknesh Selvarajah, Fredrik Wolfhagen, Nils Svangård, Gayathri Mohankumar, Peter Fenici, Kathryn Rough, Nelson Onyango, Mansoor Saleh, Innocent Abayo Apr 2024

Prediction Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors From Retinal Fundus Photographs: Validation Of A Deep Learning Algorithm In A Prospective Non-Interventional Study In Kenya, Tom White, Viknesh Selvarajah, Fredrik Wolfhagen, Nils Svangård, Gayathri Mohankumar, Peter Fenici, Kathryn Rough, Nelson Onyango, Mansoor Saleh, Innocent Abayo

Haematology and Oncology, East Africa

Aim: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are major causes of morbidity andmortality, with growing burdens in low-income countries where they are underdiag-nosed and undertreated. Advances in machine learning may provide opportunities toenhance diagnostics in settings with limited medical infrastructure.

Materials and Methods: A non-interventional study was conducted to develop andvalidate a machine learning algorithm to estimate cardiovascular clinical and labora-tory parameters. At two sites in Kenya, digital retinal fundus photographs were col-lected alongside blood pressure (BP), laboratory measures and medical history. Theperformance of machine learning models, originally trained using data from the UKBiobank, were evaluated for their ability to estimate …


Leveraging Ai And Machine Learning To Develop And Evaluate A Contextualized User-Friendly Cough Audio Classifier For Detecting Respiratory Diseases: Protocol For A Diagnostic Study In Rural Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Rogers John Haule Apr 2024

Leveraging Ai And Machine Learning To Develop And Evaluate A Contextualized User-Friendly Cough Audio Classifier For Detecting Respiratory Diseases: Protocol For A Diagnostic Study In Rural Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Rogers John Haule

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background:

Respiratory diseases, including active tuberculosis (TB), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), constitute substantial global health challenges, necessitating timely and accurate diagnosis for effective treatment and management.

Objective:

This research seeks to develop and evaluate a noninvasive user-friendly artificial intelligence (AI)–powered cough audio classifier for detecting these respiratory conditions in rural Tanzania.

Methods:

This is a nonexperimental cross-sectional research with the primary objective of collection and analysis of cough sounds from patients with active TB, asthma, and COPD in outpatient clinics to generate and evaluate a noninvasive cough audio classifier. Specialized cough sound recording devices, designed to be …


Primary Health Care And The Tanzania Comprehensive Cancer Project, Gijs Walraven, Harrison Chuwa, Alain Fourquet, Paschal Ruggajo Apr 2024

Primary Health Care And The Tanzania Comprehensive Cancer Project, Gijs Walraven, Harrison Chuwa, Alain Fourquet, Paschal Ruggajo

Internal Medicine, East Africa

No abstract provided.


Kawasaki Disease In Kenya And Review Of The African Literature, Angela Migowa, Catherine Njeri, Edwin Were, Thomas Ngwiri, L Colmegna Apr 2024

Kawasaki Disease In Kenya And Review Of The African Literature, Angela Migowa, Catherine Njeri, Edwin Were, Thomas Ngwiri, L Colmegna

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Background: Kawasaki disease has been described across the globe, although publications from Africa are limited. To our knowledge, there are no publications on Kawasaki disease from Kenya, which triggered this report.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify in-patients with a discharge diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, over 2 different 5-year periods, at two pediatric hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and report their clinical findings, diagnostic workup and treatment. In addition, we undertook a detailed review of the literature.

Results: Twenty-three patients with Kawasaki disease were identified, of those 12 (52.2%) had …


Future Directions For Emergency Medical Services Development In Low- And Middle-Income Countries., Peter G. Delaney, Jon Moussally, Benjamin Wachira Apr 2024

Future Directions For Emergency Medical Services Development In Low- And Middle-Income Countries., Peter G. Delaney, Jon Moussally, Benjamin Wachira

Emergency Medicine, East Africa

The lack of prehospital care access in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest unmet needs and, therefore, one of the most urgent priorities in global health. Establishing emergency medical services in low- and middle-income countries poses significant challenges and complexities, requiring solutions tailored to prevailing conditions, informed by needs assessments, and adapted to meet local demands in a culturally appropriate and sustainable manner. In areas without existing emergency medical services, patients must rely on informal networks of untrained bystanders and community members to provide first aid and transport to definitive care. Since 2005, training lay first responders …


A Scoping Review Of The Literature On The Application And Usefulness Of The Problem Management Plus (Pm+) Intervention Around The World, Patrick Nzivo Mwangala, Anita Kerubo, Moses Nyongesa, Amina Abubakar Apr 2024

A Scoping Review Of The Literature On The Application And Usefulness Of The Problem Management Plus (Pm+) Intervention Around The World, Patrick Nzivo Mwangala, Anita Kerubo, Moses Nyongesa, Amina Abubakar

Institute for Human Development

Background: Given the high rates of common mental disorders and limited resources, task-shifting psychosocial interventions are needed to provide adequate care. One such intervention developed by the World Health Organization is Problem Management Plus (PM+).

Aims: This review maps the evidence regarding the extent of application and usefulness of the PM+ intervention, i.e. adaptability, feasibility, effectiveness and scalability, since it was introduced in 2016.

Method: We conducted a scoping review of seven literature databases and grey literature from January 2015 to February 2024, to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature on PM+ around the world.

Results: Out of 6739 potential records, …


Correlation Of Sonographic With Intraoperative Findings In Laparoscopic Managed Ectopic Pregnancies, A 10-Year Synopsis: A Retrospective Observational Study, Steve Mutiso Apr 2024

Correlation Of Sonographic With Intraoperative Findings In Laparoscopic Managed Ectopic Pregnancies, A 10-Year Synopsis: A Retrospective Observational Study, Steve Mutiso

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Background: Ectopic pregnancies (EP) are a common pregnancy complication that's associated with significant morbidity and rarely mortality if not managed properly. Ultrasound examination forms the cornerstone of diagnosis of EP with some sonographic features occasionally not correlating with intraoperative findings. We set out to conduct an audit of EP managed surgically at our hospital for a 10-year period and discern the correlation and prediction of sonographic findings to intraoperative findings.

Methods: This study was designed as a Retrospective Observational Study based at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). Study population was all women admitted to AKUH with a diagnosis of …


An Exploration Of The Genetics Of The Mutant Huntingtin (Mhtt) Gene In A Cohort Of Patients With Chorea From Different Ethnic Groups In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mendi J. Muthinja, Carlos Othon Guelngar, Maouly Fall, Fatumah Jama, Huda Aldeen Shuja, Jamila Nambafu, Daniel Gams Massi, Oluwadamilola Ojo, Juzar Hooker, Dilraj Sokhi Apr 2024

An Exploration Of The Genetics Of The Mutant Huntingtin (Mhtt) Gene In A Cohort Of Patients With Chorea From Different Ethnic Groups In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mendi J. Muthinja, Carlos Othon Guelngar, Maouly Fall, Fatumah Jama, Huda Aldeen Shuja, Jamila Nambafu, Daniel Gams Massi, Oluwadamilola Ojo, Juzar Hooker, Dilraj Sokhi

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Background: Africans are underrepresented in Huntington's disease (HD) research. A European ancestor was postulated to have introduced the mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) gene to the continent; however, recent work has shown the existence of a unique Htt haplotype in South-Africa specific to indigenous Africans.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the CAG trinucleotide repeats expansion in the Htt gene in a geographically diverse cohort of patients with chorea and unaffected controls from sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We evaluated 99 participants: 43 patients with chorea, 21 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of subjects with chorea, and 35 healthy controls for the presence of the mHtt. Participants …


Incidental Actinomycosis In A 44-Year-Old Female During Total Abdominal Hysterectomy For Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Ally Zain Ismail, Abduel Kitua, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Munawar Kaguta, Ally Mwawnga Apr 2024

Incidental Actinomycosis In A 44-Year-Old Female During Total Abdominal Hysterectomy For Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Ally Zain Ismail, Abduel Kitua, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Munawar Kaguta, Ally Mwawnga

Family Medicine, East Africa

Actinomycosis, a rare chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species, presents diagnostic challenges due to diverse clinical presentations. This report presents a case of peritoneal actinomycosis incidentally discovered during a total abdominal hysterectomy in a 44-year-old female with refractory abnormal uterine bleeding and a history of long-term intrauterine contraceptive device use. The patient presented with persistent abnormal uterine bleeding despite conservative management. Intraoperative findings during total abdominal hysterectomy revealed peritoneal involvement, prompting histopathological evaluation confirming actinomycosis. This case highlights diagnostic complexities associated with actinomycosis, emphasizing the significance of histopathological confirmation. Postoperative management with antibiotics demonstrated favorable outcomes, supporting their efficacy …


Cross-Cultural Equivalence Of The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) Across Four African Countries In A Multi-National Study Of Adults, Amantia Ametaj, Christy Denckla, Anne Stevenson, Rocky Stroud, Jasmine Hall, Linnet Ongeri, Barkot Milkias, Jacob Hoffman, Lukoye Atwoli, Stella Gichuru Apr 2024

Cross-Cultural Equivalence Of The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) Across Four African Countries In A Multi-National Study Of Adults, Amantia Ametaj, Christy Denckla, Anne Stevenson, Rocky Stroud, Jasmine Hall, Linnet Ongeri, Barkot Milkias, Jacob Hoffman, Lukoye Atwoli, Stella Gichuru

Internal Medicine, East Africa

The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) has been widely used to screen psychological distress across many countries. However, its performance has not been extensively studied in Africa. The present study sought to evaluate and compare measurement properties of the K10 across four African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa. Our hypothesis is that the measure will show equivalence across all. Data are drawn from a neuropsychiatric genetic study among adult participants (N = 9179) from general medical settings in Ethiopia (n = 1928), Kenya (n = 2556), Uganda (n = 2104), and South Africa (n = 2591). A unidimensional …


Time To Full Enteral Feeds In Hospitalised Preterm And Very Low Birth Weight Infants In Nigeria And Kenya, Zainab Imam, Helen Nabwera, Olukemi Tongo, Pauline Andang’O, Isa Abdulkadir, Chinyere Ezeaka, Beatrice Ezenwa, Iretiola Fajolu, Martha Mwangome, Dominic Umoru Apr 2024

Time To Full Enteral Feeds In Hospitalised Preterm And Very Low Birth Weight Infants In Nigeria And Kenya, Zainab Imam, Helen Nabwera, Olukemi Tongo, Pauline Andang’O, Isa Abdulkadir, Chinyere Ezeaka, Beatrice Ezenwa, Iretiola Fajolu, Martha Mwangome, Dominic Umoru

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Background: Preterm (born < 37 weeks’ gestation) and very low birthweight (VLBW; <1.5kg) infants are at the greatest risk of morbidity and mortality within the first 28 days of life. Establishing full enteral feeds is a vital aspect of their clinical care. Evidence predominantly from high income countries shows that early and rapid advancement of feeds is safe and reduces length of hospital stay and adverse health outcomes. However, there are limited data on feeding practices and factors that influence the attainment of full enteral feeds among these vulnera- ble infants in sub-Saharan Africa.

Aim: To identify factors that influence the time to full enteral feeds, defined as tolerance of 120ml/ kg/day, in hospitalised preterm and VLBW infants in neonatal units in two sub-Saharan Afri- can countries.

Methods: Demographic and clinical variables were collected for newborns admitted to 7 neonatal units in Nigeria and Kenya over 6-months. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with time to full enteral feeds.

Results: Of the 2280 newborn infants admitted, 484 were preterm and VLBW. Overall, 222/484 (45.8%) infants died with over half of the deaths (136/222; 61.7%) occurring before …


Clinical Experiences Of Rn To Bscn Nursing Students In Kenyan Universities, Gladys Mbuthia, Gisela Rensburg Rensburg, Sheila Shaibu Apr 2024

Clinical Experiences Of Rn To Bscn Nursing Students In Kenyan Universities, Gladys Mbuthia, Gisela Rensburg Rensburg, Sheila Shaibu

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Introduction and objective: Clinical learning environments play a great role in nursing training as they allow nursing students to develop their clinical skills by combining cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. Consequently, clinical learning environments enable nursing students to bridge the theory-practice gap. Fewer studies have examined the clinical experiences of RN to BScN students in Kenya. This paper is part of analytical memo of a larger PhD study that sought to explore and describe the support needs of RN to BScN students in Kenyan universities. The paper focuses on clinical experiences of RN to BScN students.

Methods: Using a qualitative …


Wcn24-931 Aki Phenotypes In Ugandan Children Hospitalized With Hypoxemia And Malaria, Andrea Conroy, Anthony Batte, Rodney Ogwang, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Michael Hawkes Apr 2024

Wcn24-931 Aki Phenotypes In Ugandan Children Hospitalized With Hypoxemia And Malaria, Andrea Conroy, Anthony Batte, Rodney Ogwang, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Michael Hawkes

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent life-threatening complication in hospitalized children. Emerging data suggest AKI is a heterogeneous condition that varies based on the underlying cause and is composed of distinct phenotypes. The objective of this study was to define AKI phenotypes using proposed classification systems in Ugandan children hospitalized with hypoxemia and to evaluate differences in phenotypes by malaria infection.

Methods: Between 2019 and 2021, 2402 Ugandan children <5 years of age hospitalized with hypoxemia were enrolled in a cluster randomized trial of solar powered oxygen delivery across 20 districts in Uganda. At enrollment, urine NGAL was measured using a point-of-care lateral flow test with a positive test defined as a level ≥150ng/mL. Malaria was assessed using a threeband rapid diagnostic test. In an extended sub-study, 491 children had creatinine measured to define AKI. AKI was defined using a single creatinine measure at enrolment and phenotypically characterized using two acute dialysis quality initiative (ADQI) proposed AKI phenotypes. The AKI biomarker definition incorporated urine NGAL into the KDIGO definition[group 1, no AKI; group 2, subclinical AKI (biomarker positive); group 3, AKI; group 4, biomarker positive AKI]. The ADQI sepsis AKI phenotype groups stage 1 AKI as sepsis phenotype (SP)-1 irrespective of biomarker status and differentiates severe AKI (stage 2/3) based on biomarker positivity where severe AKI that is biomarker negative is (SP2) and severe biomarker positive AKI is SP3.

Results: Overall, 491 children were included in the extended study with AKI defined and uNGAL measured. The median age was 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.7 to 2.3) and 53.8% …


Incidental Actinomycosis In A 44-Year-Old Female During Total Abdominal Hysterectomy For Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Allyzain Ismail, Abduel Kitua, Brenda Moshi, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Munawar Kaguta, Ally Mwanga Apr 2024

Incidental Actinomycosis In A 44-Year-Old Female During Total Abdominal Hysterectomy For Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Allyzain Ismail, Abduel Kitua, Brenda Moshi, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Munawar Kaguta, Ally Mwanga

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Actinomycosis, a rare chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species, presents diagnostic challenges due to diverse clinical presentations. This report presents a case of peritoneal actinomycosis incidentally discovered during a total abdominal hysterectomy in a 44-year-old female with refractory abnormal uterine bleeding and a history of long-term intrauterine contraceptive device use. The patient presented with persistent abnormal uterine bleeding despite conservative management. Intraoperative findings during total abdominal hysterectomy revealed peritoneal involvement, prompting histopathological evaluation confirming actinomycosis. This case highlights diagnostic complexities associated with actinomycosis, emphasizing the significance of histopathological confirmation. Postoperative management with antibiotics demonstrated favorable outcomes, supporting their efficacy …


Acute Coronary Syndrome Patterns In The Young: Risk Factor Profile And In-Hospital Outcomes In A Tertiary Referral Hospital In Kenya, Nadeem Kassam, Mzee Ngunga, Mohamed Varwani, Miriam Msunza, Jeilan Mohamed Apr 2024

Acute Coronary Syndrome Patterns In The Young: Risk Factor Profile And In-Hospital Outcomes In A Tertiary Referral Hospital In Kenya, Nadeem Kassam, Mzee Ngunga, Mohamed Varwani, Miriam Msunza, Jeilan Mohamed

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) accounts for coronary artery disease (CAD) –related morbidity and mortality. There has been growing concern about the rising incidence of ACS among young individuals globally both in developed and developing countries, including Sub-Saharan Africa. This group’s phenotypic characteristics; risk factors and clinical outcomes are not well described. contextual and regional studies are necessary to understand the magnitude of ACS among young Individuals and help highlight challenges and opportunities for improved ACS outcomes in the region. The study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of young individuals hospitalized with ACS and report on in-hospital …


Wcn24-2067 Regional Differences In Acute Kidney Injury In Ugandan Children Hospitalized For Hypoxemia, Anthony Batte, Rodney Ogwang, Robert Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Michael Hawkes, Andrea Conroy Apr 2024

Wcn24-2067 Regional Differences In Acute Kidney Injury In Ugandan Children Hospitalized For Hypoxemia, Anthony Batte, Rodney Ogwang, Robert Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Michael Hawkes, Andrea Conroy

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality in hospitalized patients and incidence is highest in resource limited settings. The objective of this study was to assess sub-National regional differences in the incidence of AKI in children <5 years of age hospitalized with an acute febrile illness and hypoxemia.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial, which enrolled children <5 years of age hospitalized with hypoxemia between 2019 and 2021. At least one measure of kidney function was available in 1452 children. A single creatinine was measured at enrolment in a sub-set of 495 children with serum stored and AKI defined using KDIGO criteria where baseline creatinine was estimated using the age-based Pottel equation assuming a normal glomerular filtration rate of 120mL/min per 1.73m2. Markers were divided into structural (uNGAL positive, proteinuria, hematuria) or functional (AKI, saliva urea nitrogen (SUN)) measures of kidney injury.

Results: 1452 children were included in this AKI sub-study (Figure 1). The mean age of participants was 1.49 years (standard deviation (SD), 1.21) and 55.7% were male (809/1452). Overall 2.6% of children died (38/1452). The majority of participants enrolled were from the West (31.3%) …


Quality Of Life In A Cohort Of Kenyan Children With Cerebral Palsy, Pauline Samia, Melissa Tirkha, Amina Kassam, Richard Muindi, Wahu Gitakah, Susan Wamithi, James Orwa, Eugene Were, Michael Shevell Apr 2024

Quality Of Life In A Cohort Of Kenyan Children With Cerebral Palsy, Pauline Samia, Melissa Tirkha, Amina Kassam, Richard Muindi, Wahu Gitakah, Susan Wamithi, James Orwa, Eugene Were, Michael Shevell

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the quality of life in Kenyan children (age 4–18 years) with cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Children with CP were recruited from the pediatric clinics at the Aga Khan hospital Nairobi (AKUHN). Parent proxy-reports using CPQoL-child and CPQoL-adolescents were obtained. Clinical and demographic data were compiled from medical records and parent interviews. A Likert scale was utilized to determine QoL across several domains.

Results: One hundred and fourteen child–parent dyads with CP were recruited. The median age of study participants was 8 years (IQR 3–13 years), …


Long-Term Health Related Quality Of Life Following Uterine Fibroid Embolization In A Predominantly Black African Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Michael Kioko, Marleen Temmerman, Timona Obura, Adelaide Lusambili Apr 2024

Long-Term Health Related Quality Of Life Following Uterine Fibroid Embolization In A Predominantly Black African Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Michael Kioko, Marleen Temmerman, Timona Obura, Adelaide Lusambili

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE) is one of the effective options available for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with documented improvement in the quality of life and reduction in symptoms. The study assessed long-term quality of life post-uterine fibroid embolization in a mostly black population, noting scanty local or African research on this topic despite evidence suggesting a higher fibroid burden among black women. This retrospective study examined patients who underwent UFE from 2009 to 2014. Participants completed online demographic and UFS-QOL surveys. Statistical tests included Wilcoxon signed rank tests for HRQOL score differences and Pearson correlation for associations between independent …


The Prevalence Of Stress And Stressors Among Pediatric Oncology Nurses Working In Pediatric Oncology Units In Pakistan - An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study, Shenila Anwarali Mar 2024

The Prevalence Of Stress And Stressors Among Pediatric Oncology Nurses Working In Pediatric Oncology Units In Pakistan - An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study, Shenila Anwarali

Theses & Dissertations

Introduction: Pediatric oncology nurses in Pakistan are at the forefront of caring for young cancer patients. In Pakistan, thousands of children are diagnosed with cancer every year, however the country's healthcare system lacks a comprehensive National cancer registry. Pediatric oncology nurses face high stress levels due to the demanding nature of their work, lack of specialized training, and communication challenges with patients and families. This study aims to explore the prevalence of stress and its predictors among these nurses in Pakistan, addressing a significant research gap.
Purpose: The purpose for the study was to measure stress and identify its predictors …


Abdominal Wall Endometriosis In Cesarean Scar: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Brenda Moshi, Euphraim Massanga, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Miriam Mgonja, Munawar Kaguta, Ernest Mdachi Mar 2024

Abdominal Wall Endometriosis In Cesarean Scar: A Case Report, Willbroad Kyejo, Brenda Moshi, Euphraim Massanga, Gregory Ntiyakunze, Miriam Mgonja, Munawar Kaguta, Ernest Mdachi

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Abdominal wall endometriosis refers to the presence of endometrial tissue within surgical scars, most commonly occurring following gynecological procedures such as cesarean sections. This case report presents a rare case of abdominal wall endometriosis in a cesarean scar. The patient, a 32-year-old woman with a history of two previous cesarean sections, presented with cyclic pain and swelling in the lower abdominal region. Physical examination revealed a tender, well-defined mass within the cesarean scar. Surgical excision of the mass was performed, and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of endometrial tissue. This case highlights the importance of considering abdominal wall endometriosis in …


Factors Associated With Late Diagnosis Of Cervical Cancer At Two National Referral Hospitals, Kenya 2017: A Case Control Study., Valerian Mwenda, Martin Mwangi, Gladwell Gathecha, Joseph Kibachio, Robert Too, Zeinab Gura, Marleen Temmerman Mar 2024

Factors Associated With Late Diagnosis Of Cervical Cancer At Two National Referral Hospitals, Kenya 2017: A Case Control Study., Valerian Mwenda, Martin Mwangi, Gladwell Gathecha, Joseph Kibachio, Robert Too, Zeinab Gura, Marleen Temmerman

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Kenya. Two thirds of cervical cancer cases in Kenya are diagnosed in advanced stages. We aimed to identify factors associated with late diagnosis of cervical cancer, to guide policy interventions.

Methods: An unmatched case control study (ratio 1:2) was conducted among women aged ≥ 18 years with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospitals. We defined a case as patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage ≥ 2A and controls as those with stage ≤ 1B. A structured questionnaire was …


Scopes Of Practice For Advanced Practice Nursing And Advanced Practice Midwifery In Kenya: A Gap Analysis, Eunice Ndirangu, Rachel Kimani, Catherine Onyancha, Bernard Mutwiri, Beatrice May, Isabel Kambo, Nicholas Koech, Ann Mukuna, Colette Henderson, Constance Shumba Mar 2024

Scopes Of Practice For Advanced Practice Nursing And Advanced Practice Midwifery In Kenya: A Gap Analysis, Eunice Ndirangu, Rachel Kimani, Catherine Onyancha, Bernard Mutwiri, Beatrice May, Isabel Kambo, Nicholas Koech, Ann Mukuna, Colette Henderson, Constance Shumba

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: There is increasing global evidence on the impact of advanced nursing andmidwifery practitioners, and Kenya’s healthcare system has an excellent opportunity todevelop scopes of practice and other regulatory frameworks for the integration of theseroles.

Objective: The primary purpose of this gap analysis was to explore the existing evidenceon opportunities and threats toward the integration of the advanced practice nursing(APN) and advanced practice midwifery (APM) roles in Kenya’s healthcare system.

Methods: The study team conducted a structured electronic database search of PubMed,CINAHL, Scopus, EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete, and PsycINFO to retrievearticles and credible websites for reports highlighting the opportunities …


Surgical Site Infections Post Cesarean Section And Associated Risk Factors: A Retrospective Case-Control Study At A Tertiary Hospital In Kenya., David Odada, Jasmit Shah, Annastacia Mbithi, Reena Shah Mar 2024

Surgical Site Infections Post Cesarean Section And Associated Risk Factors: A Retrospective Case-Control Study At A Tertiary Hospital In Kenya., David Odada, Jasmit Shah, Annastacia Mbithi, Reena Shah

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: Surgical site infection is a common healthcare-associated infection that affects maternal health, yet it can be prevented or controlled. Caesarian sections are most likely to develop surgical site infections. The rates of delivery by caesarian section in reported to be higher that the acceptable rates in some healthcare facilities. Risk factors for surgical site infections can be identified and modified to reduce the occurrence of surgical site infections. This study aims to determine the risk factors that contribute to surgical site infections post caesarian section in a tertiary teaching hospital in Kenya.

Methods: This was a retrospective case-control (1:2 …


Quality Indicators In Surgical Oncology: Systematic Review Of Measures Used To Compare Quality Across Hospitals, Megan Mcleod, Kari Leung, C S. Pramesh, Peter Kingham, Miriam Mutebi, Julie Torode, Andre Ilbawi, Jade Chakowa, Richard Sullivan, Ajay Aggarwal Mar 2024

Quality Indicators In Surgical Oncology: Systematic Review Of Measures Used To Compare Quality Across Hospitals, Megan Mcleod, Kari Leung, C S. Pramesh, Peter Kingham, Miriam Mutebi, Julie Torode, Andre Ilbawi, Jade Chakowa, Richard Sullivan, Ajay Aggarwal

General Surgery, East Africa

Background: Measurement and reporting of quality indicators at the hospital level has been shown to improve outcomes and support patient choice. Although there are many studies validating individual quality indicators, there has been no systematic approach to understanding what quality indicators exist for surgical oncology and no standardization for their use. The aim of this study was to review quality indicators used to assess variation in quality in surgical oncology care across hospitals or regions. It also sought to describe the aims of these studies and what, if any, feedback was offered to the analysed groups.

Methods: A literature search …


Quantifying Health Facility Service Readiness For Small And Sick Newborn Care: Comparing Standards-Based And Who Level-2 + Scoring For 64 Hospitals Implementing With Nest360 In Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, And Tanzania, Rebecca E. Penzias, Christine Bohne, Edith Gicheha, Elizabeth Molyneux, David Gathara, Samuel K. Ngwala, Evelyn Zimba, Ekran Rashid, Opeyemi Odedere, Olabisi Dosunmu Mar 2024

Quantifying Health Facility Service Readiness For Small And Sick Newborn Care: Comparing Standards-Based And Who Level-2 + Scoring For 64 Hospitals Implementing With Nest360 In Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, And Tanzania, Rebecca E. Penzias, Christine Bohne, Edith Gicheha, Elizabeth Molyneux, David Gathara, Samuel K. Ngwala, Evelyn Zimba, Ekran Rashid, Opeyemi Odedere, Olabisi Dosunmu

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Background: Service readiness tools are important for assessing hospital capacity to provide quality small and sick newborn care (SSNC). Lack of summary scoring approaches for SSNC service readiness means we are unable to track national targets such as the Every Newborn Action Plan targets.

Methods: A health facility assessment (HFA) tool was co-designed by Newborn Essential Solutions and Technologies (NEST360) and UNICEF with four African governments. Data were collected in 68 NEST360-implementing neonatal units in Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania (September 2019-March 2021). Two summary scoring approaches were developed: a) standards-based, including items for SSNC service readiness by health system …


Assessing The Influence Of Covid-19 Lockdown Measures On Cognition And Behavior In School Age Children In Arba Minch Health And Demographic Surveillance Site, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Befikadu Tariku Gutema, Eshetu Zerihun Tariku, Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik, Bruno Levecke, Stefaan De Henauw, Amina Abubakar, Souheila Abbeddou Mar 2024

Assessing The Influence Of Covid-19 Lockdown Measures On Cognition And Behavior In School Age Children In Arba Minch Health And Demographic Surveillance Site, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Befikadu Tariku Gutema, Eshetu Zerihun Tariku, Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik, Bruno Levecke, Stefaan De Henauw, Amina Abubakar, Souheila Abbeddou

Institute for Human Development

Ethiopian schools were closed for nearly 40 weeks as a measure to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of COVID-19 pandemic’s restrictive measures on cognition and behavioral difficulties of schoolchildren in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in November 2019 (pre-COVID-19-lockdown) and November 2020 (post-COVID-19 lockdown). Data were collected both at the school and homes of the children. Cognitive development of the children was assessed using digit span, Raven’s coloured progressive matrices (RCPM) and Visual search using cancellation task. Behavioral difficulties score of the children was …


Use Of Mobile Technology To Identify Behavioral Mechanisms Linked To Mental Health Outcomes In Kenya: Protocol For Development And Validation Of A Predictive Model., Willie Njoroge, Rachel Maina, Lukoye Atwoli, Elena Frank, Zhenke Wu, Anthony Ngugi, Srijan Sen, Linda Khakali, Andrew Aballa, James Orwa, Zul Merali Mar 2024

Use Of Mobile Technology To Identify Behavioral Mechanisms Linked To Mental Health Outcomes In Kenya: Protocol For Development And Validation Of A Predictive Model., Willie Njoroge, Rachel Maina, Lukoye Atwoli, Elena Frank, Zhenke Wu, Anthony Ngugi, Srijan Sen, Linda Khakali, Andrew Aballa, James Orwa, Zul Merali

Brain and Mind Institute

Objective: This study proposes to identify and validate weighted sensor stream signatures that predict near-term risk of a major depressive episode and future mood among healthcare workers in Kenya.

Approach: The study will deploy a mobile application (app) platform and use novel data science analytic approaches (Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning) to identifying predictors of mental health disorders among 500 randomly sampled healthcare workers from five healthcare facilities in Nairobi, Kenya.

Expectation: This study will lay the basis for creating agile and scalable systems for rapid diagnostics that could inform precise interventions for mitigating depression and ensure a healthy, resilient …


A Systematic Review Of Measures Of Healthcare Workers’ Vaccine Confidence, Kofoworola Akinsola, Ayobami Bakare, Elisa Gobbo, Carina King, Claudia Hanson, Adegoke Falade, Sibylle Herzig Van Wees Mar 2024

A Systematic Review Of Measures Of Healthcare Workers’ Vaccine Confidence, Kofoworola Akinsola, Ayobami Bakare, Elisa Gobbo, Carina King, Claudia Hanson, Adegoke Falade, Sibylle Herzig Van Wees

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Healthcare workers (HCW) perceptions toward vaccines influence patient and community vaccine decision making. In an era of rising vaccine hesitancy, understanding HCW vaccine confidence is critical. This systematic review aims to review instruments that have been validated to measure HCW vaccine confidence. We conducted a search in five databases in June 2023. Data was descriptively synthesized. Twelve articles describing 10 different tools were included. Most tools included dimensions or items on vaccine knowledge (n = 9), safety (n = 8), vaccine usefulness (n = 8), recommendation behavior (n = 8), and self-vaccination practice (n = 7). All, except one study, …


Nurses’ And Clients’ Perspectives After Engagement In The Co-Designing Of Solutions To Improve Provider-Client Relationships In Maternal And Child Healthcare: A Human-Centered Design Study In Rural Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Eunice Pallangyo, Eunice Ndirangu Mar 2024

Nurses’ And Clients’ Perspectives After Engagement In The Co-Designing Of Solutions To Improve Provider-Client Relationships In Maternal And Child Healthcare: A Human-Centered Design Study In Rural Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Eunice Pallangyo, Eunice Ndirangu

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background

There has been a persistent increase in clients’ dissatisfaction with providers’ competencies in maternal and child healthcare (MCH). Existing interventions have failed to address the complexity of provider-client relationships. Therefore, targeted, contextualized innovative solutions that place providers and clients at the forefront as agents of change in optimizing intervention design and implementation are needed. The study team adopted a co-design strategy as part of Human- Centered Design (HCD) approach, where MCH nurses, clients, and stakeholders partnered to design an intervention package to improve provider-client relationships in rural Tanzania.

Objective

This paper explored nurses’, clients’, and MCH stakeholders’ perspectives following …