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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapies In The Management Of Unknown Onset And Wakeup Strokes: A Scoping Review, Saima Nazish Jun 2023

Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapies In The Management Of Unknown Onset And Wakeup Strokes: A Scoping Review, Saima Nazish

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

ABSTRACT Background: The efficacy and safety of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) for the management of unknown time onset stroke (UTOS) and wake-up stroke (WUS) are in a debate. Objective:The objective of this review is to discuss the UTOS and its management with intravenous thrombolytic therapies. Data Sources: Databases searched included PubMed and Cochrane electronic databases and manual search. Study Selection and Data Extraction: 45 articles of potential relevance were selected. Results: 14 relevant papers were included. Most of studies including recent trials using Magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (MRIDWI FLAIR) mismatch or Computed tomography …


Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir Jan 2023

Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir

Department of Anaesthesia

Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is commonly used for various surgical procedures. Prediction of spinal anesthesia block height is always a challenging task for anesthetists. Higher than desired levels of spinal anesthesia blocks are associated with serious side effects, while inadequate block height does not provide satisfactory surgical anesthesia. In this study, we observed the relationship between the ratio of trunk length (TL) and square of the abdominal circumference (AC2) and spinal anesthesia sensory block height in geriatric patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Material & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University …


Metabolomics Of A Neonatal Cohort From The Alliance For Maternal And Newborn Health Improvement Biorepository: Effect Of Preanalytical Variables On Reference Intervals, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib Khan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Javairia Khalid, Hafsa Majid, Aneeta Hotwani, Fyezah Jehan Jan 2023

Metabolomics Of A Neonatal Cohort From The Alliance For Maternal And Newborn Health Improvement Biorepository: Effect Of Preanalytical Variables On Reference Intervals, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib Khan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Javairia Khalid, Hafsa Majid, Aneeta Hotwani, Fyezah Jehan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: The study was conducted to determine reference interval (RI) and evaluate the effect of preanalytical variables on Dried blood spot (DBS)-amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone of neonates.
Methodology: DBS samples were collected within 48-72 hours of life. Samples were analyzed for biochemical markers on tandem mass spectrometer at the University of Iowa. Comparison of RI across various categorical variables were performed.
Results: A total of 610 reference samples were selected based on exclusion criteria; 53.2% being females. Mean gestational age (GA) of mothers at the time of delivery was 38.7±1.6 weeks; 24.5% neonates were of low birth weight and …


Assessing The Validity Of Admission Test Into The Internship Programme At A Private University In Pakistan, Qamar Riaz, Naveed Yousuf, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim Jan 2023

Assessing The Validity Of Admission Test Into The Internship Programme At A Private University In Pakistan, Qamar Riaz, Naveed Yousuf, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim

Department for Educational Development

Objective: To report the development and validity assessment of a comprehensive model of assessment method comprising written test and multiple mini interviews for selection in a medical internship programme.
Method: The psychometric validation study was conducted at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, and comprised anonymised scores of written admission test, multiple mini interviews and exit written exams for all the interns who completed their internships in 2018 and 2019. Correlation between admission and exit tests, and predictions were assessed. Data was analysed using SPSS 20.
Results: There were 160 interns; 80(50%) each in 2018 and 2019. Mean scores were …


Needs Assessment For Faculty Development In Health Professions Education At A Medical University In Karachi, Pakistan, Tabassum Zehra, Sana Saeed, Rahila Ali, Amber Sultan, Areeba Hussain Jan 2023

Needs Assessment For Faculty Development In Health Professions Education At A Medical University In Karachi, Pakistan, Tabassum Zehra, Sana Saeed, Rahila Ali, Amber Sultan, Areeba Hussain

Department for Educational Development

Faculty Development (FD) embraces all educational activities used by teachers to improve their knowledge and skills for enhancing their academic competencies. This study aimed to identify the areas in Health Professions Education (HPE) in which formal faculty development is required. A needs assessment survey was conducted from among the faculty members at the Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan, and the French Medical Institute for Mother and Children, Afghanistan. Data was analysed using SPSS 20.0 and reported frequencies and percentages according to various academic tracks. Competency-based curricula (51%), providing effective feedback (51%), developing Objective Structured Clinical Exam (51%), and clinical …


Implementation Of Distance Learning Imci Training In Rural Districts Of Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Esther Ngadaya, Alexander Manu, Mary Mmweteni, Doreen Philbert, Dorica Burengelo, Gibson Kagaruki, Mbazi Senkoro, Godfather Kimaro, Amos Kahwa Jan 2023

Implementation Of Distance Learning Imci Training In Rural Districts Of Tanzania, Kahabi Isangula, Esther Ngadaya, Alexander Manu, Mary Mmweteni, Doreen Philbert, Dorica Burengelo, Gibson Kagaruki, Mbazi Senkoro, Godfather Kimaro, Amos Kahwa

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: The standard face-to-face training for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) continues to be plagued by concerns of low coverage of trainees, the prolonged absence of trainees from the health facility to attend training and the high cost of training. Consequently, the distance learning IMCI training model is increasingly being promoted to address some of these challenges in resource-limited settings. This paper examines participants’ accounts of the paper-based IMCI distance learning training programme in three district councils in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was employed as part of an endline evaluation study of …


Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal Jan 2023

Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objectives: The ABO gene locus has been identified to be associated with myocardial infarction in patients with coronary heart disease. The primary focus of this hospital-based study was to explore the relationship of ABO blood groups and ABO genotypes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, an equal number of adult AMI patients and healthy controls (n=275 in each group; age range 30-70 years, both males and females) were recruited from the Aga Khan University and NICVD, Karachi, with informed consent. The blood samples were analyzed for ABO blood groups and other biomarkers. …


Adverse Maternal, Fetal, And Newborn Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Sars-Cov-2 Infection: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Emily R. Smith, Erin Oakley, Gargi Wable Grandner, Kacey Ferguson, Fouzia Farooq, Yalda Afshar, Mia Ahlberg, Homa Ahmadzia, Victor Akelo, Marleen Temmerman Jan 2023

Adverse Maternal, Fetal, And Newborn Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Sars-Cov-2 Infection: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Emily R. Smith, Erin Oakley, Gargi Wable Grandner, Kacey Ferguson, Fouzia Farooq, Yalda Afshar, Mia Ahlberg, Homa Ahmadzia, Victor Akelo, Marleen Temmerman

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Introduction: Despite a growing body of research on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, there is continued controversy given heterogeneity in the quality and design of published studies.

Methods: We screened ongoing studies in our sequential, prospective meta-analysis. We pooled individual participant data to estimate the absolute and relative risk (RR) of adverse outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with confirmed negative pregnancies. We evaluated the risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Results: We screened 137 studies and included 12 studies in 12 countries involving 13 136 pregnant women.

Pregnant women with …


Understanding Maternity Care Providers’ Use Of Data In Southern Tanzania, Regine Unkels, Fadhlun Alwy Al-Beity, Zamoyoni Julius, Elibariki Mkumbo, Andrea B. Pembe, Claudia Hanson, Helle Molsted-Alvesson Jan 2023

Understanding Maternity Care Providers’ Use Of Data In Southern Tanzania, Regine Unkels, Fadhlun Alwy Al-Beity, Zamoyoni Julius, Elibariki Mkumbo, Andrea B. Pembe, Claudia Hanson, Helle Molsted-Alvesson

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Introduction: Health information management system data is collected for national planning and evaluation but is rarely used for healthcare improvements at subnational or facility-level in low-and-middle-income countries. Research suggests that perceived data quality and lack of feedback are contributing factors. We aimed to understand maternity care providers’ perceptions of data and how they use it, with a view to co-design interventions to improve data quality and use.

Methods: We based our research on constructivist grounded theory. We conducted 14 in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions with maternity care providers and 48 hours of observations in maternity wards to understand …


A Qualitative Enquiry Of Health Care Workers’ Narratives On Knowledge And Sources Of Information On Principles Of Respectful Maternity Care (Rmc), Adelaide Lusambili, Stefania Wisofschi, Terrance J. Wade, Marleen Temmerman, Jerim Obure Jan 2023

A Qualitative Enquiry Of Health Care Workers’ Narratives On Knowledge And Sources Of Information On Principles Of Respectful Maternity Care (Rmc), Adelaide Lusambili, Stefania Wisofschi, Terrance J. Wade, Marleen Temmerman, Jerim Obure

Institute for Human Development

Research from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that many women experience varied forms of disrespectful maternity care, which amount to a violation of their rights and dignity. Notably, there is little research that sheds light on health care workers (HCWs) training and knowledge of principles of respectful maternity care (RMC). Formulating appropriate interventional strategies to promote the respectful provision of services for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period requires an understanding of the current state of knowledge and sources of information on respectful maternity care among HCWs. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that examined the knowledge and sources …


An Iceberg I Can’T Handle: A Qualitative Inquiry On Perceptions Towards Paediatric Rheumatology Among Healthcare Workers In Kenya, Angela Migowa, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Ngugi, Helen E. Foster, Peter Muriuki, Adelaide Lusambili, Stanley Luchters Jan 2023

An Iceberg I Can’T Handle: A Qualitative Inquiry On Perceptions Towards Paediatric Rheumatology Among Healthcare Workers In Kenya, Angela Migowa, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Ngugi, Helen E. Foster, Peter Muriuki, Adelaide Lusambili, Stanley Luchters

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

Background: Delay in diagnosis and access to specialist care is a major problem for many children and young people with rheumatic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Most children with symptoms of rheumatic disease present to nonspecialists for care. There is an urgent need to understand and scale-up paediatric rheumatology knowledge and skills amongst non-specialist healthcare workers to promote early diagnosis, prompt referral, and management.

Purpose: We evaluated the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards diagnosis and care of paediatric rheumatology patients among health care workers in Kenya.

Methods: We conducted 12 focus group discussions with clinical officers (third-tier community health …


A Rare Case Report Of Tuberculosis Endometritis In A Private Hospital Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Willbroad Kyejo, Brenda Moshi, Daudi Gidion, Muzdalfat Abeid, Samina Somji, Munawar Kaguta, Miriam Mgonja Jan 2023

A Rare Case Report Of Tuberculosis Endometritis In A Private Hospital Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Willbroad Kyejo, Brenda Moshi, Daudi Gidion, Muzdalfat Abeid, Samina Somji, Munawar Kaguta, Miriam Mgonja

Faculty of Health Sciences, East Africa

Tuberculosis endometritis is a pathological diagnosis and has been always over shadowed by pelvic tuberculosis. It is usually asymptomatic, but patients could complain of menstrual irregularity and per vaginal discharge. We report a case of a 37-year-old female who presented with per vaginal discharge for 2 years. Histopathology showed numerous caseating and non-caseating granulomas with plasma cells, Ziehl–Neelsen stain for acid fast bacillus is positive, and she was initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. On subsequent follow-up visits, patient was doing well with complete resolution of symptoms. Genital tuberculosis is usually caused by reactivation of organism from systemic distribution during primary infection. …


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Different Cut-Off Values Of Adenosine Deaminase Levels In Tuberculous Pleural Effusion, Kiran Iqbal Masood, Shayan Shahid, Kauser Jabeen, Joveria Farooqi, Sabeika Raza Kerawala, Muhammad Irfan Jan 2023

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Different Cut-Off Values Of Adenosine Deaminase Levels In Tuberculous Pleural Effusion, Kiran Iqbal Masood, Shayan Shahid, Kauser Jabeen, Joveria Farooqi, Sabeika Raza Kerawala, Muhammad Irfan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of different cut-off values of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic method for tuberculous pleural effusion.
Method: The prospective study was conducted from 2014 to 2016 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised pleural fluid samples of adult patients with and without tuberculosis which were tested for adenosine deaminase levels, and divided into tuberculosis group A and non-tuberculosis group B. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value were calculated using different cut-offs. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, …


Does The Anastatica Hierochuntica Plant Shorten The Duration Of Labour? A Prospective Observational Study, Filiz Okumuş, Halime Öncü-Çelik, Nevin Şahin Dec 2022

Does The Anastatica Hierochuntica Plant Shorten The Duration Of Labour? A Prospective Observational Study, Filiz Okumuş, Halime Öncü-Çelik, Nevin Şahin

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of Anastatica Hierochuntica L. on the duration of labour in primiparous women.
Methods: A prospective, case-controlled study with an intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) group. Participants were not randomized; their preferences related to the use of the A. Hierochuntica L. determined the group in which they would be included. In the intervention group, Anastatica Hierochuntica L. was used by all women. Standard care continued for both the intervention and control group. The duration of the first and second stage of labour were evaluated and compared between groups.
Results: Participants’ mean of age …


Why Skin-To-Skin Contact Is Not Made A Traditional Practice Right After Childbirth? Hindrances Behind Its Non-Implementation, Ateefa Al-Noor Dec 2022

Why Skin-To-Skin Contact Is Not Made A Traditional Practice Right After Childbirth? Hindrances Behind Its Non-Implementation, Ateefa Al-Noor

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is the practice in which a newborn is dried and placed immediately on mother’s chest. Both the mother and the baby gains benefits from this as it aids in breastfeeding and helps baby adjust to temperature outside the mother’s womb. However, not many midwives in hospitals carry out this crucial practice. Staff shortage, lack of awareness and time constraints were identified as the main determinants because SSC was not implemented. Realistic measures should be taken to enhance SSC as discussed in the paper. Thus, promotion of SSC soon after childbirth will be advantageous for neonatal quality of …


Jam – Winter 2022, Rafat Jan, Edwin Van Teijlingen, Kiran Mubeen, Abeer Musaddique Dec 2022

Jam – Winter 2022, Rafat Jan, Edwin Van Teijlingen, Kiran Mubeen, Abeer Musaddique

Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM)

No abstract provided.


Feasibility Of Project Echo Telementoring To Build Capacity Among Non-Specialist Emergency Care Providers, Grace Wanjiku, Lindsay Dreizler, Gregory Bell, Benjamin Wachira Dec 2022

Feasibility Of Project Echo Telementoring To Build Capacity Among Non-Specialist Emergency Care Providers, Grace Wanjiku, Lindsay Dreizler, Gregory Bell, Benjamin Wachira

Emergency Medicine, East Africa

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to global disruptions in emergency medicine (EM) teaching and training and highlighted the need to strengthen virtual learning platforms. This disruption coincides with essential efforts to scale up training of the emergency healthcare workforce, particularly in low-resource settings where the specialty is not well developed. Thus, there is growing interest in strengthening virtual platforms that can be used to support emergency medicine educational initiatives globally. These platforms must be robust, context specific and sustainable in low-resource environments. This report describes the implementation of Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), a telementoring platform originally designed …


Does Social Pension Buy Improved Mental Health And Mortality Outcomes For Senior Citizens? Evidence From South Africa's 2008 Pension Reform, Cyprian Mostert, Diana Mackay, Alex Awiti, Manasi Kumar, Zul Merali Dec 2022

Does Social Pension Buy Improved Mental Health And Mortality Outcomes For Senior Citizens? Evidence From South Africa's 2008 Pension Reform, Cyprian Mostert, Diana Mackay, Alex Awiti, Manasi Kumar, Zul Merali

Brain and Mind Institute

In South Africa, men were traditionally eligible to receive government pensions at 65 years. However, that eligibility criterion was changed in 2008 to allow men to receive a pension payout at 60 years. This study is designed to quantify the impact of the 2008 pension reform on mental health outcomes (depression and traumatic stress) and deaths among 60-year-old men from disadvantaged households without advanced education. This analysis used secondary data issued by Statistic South Africa- General Household Survey. Men who reported earning a pension at 60 years from 2008 to 2014 were exposed to the 2008 pension reform and thus …


Experiences Of Mothers And Significant Others In Accessing Comprehensive Healthcare In The First 1000 Days Of Life Post-Conception During Covid-19 In Rural Uganda, Grace Nakate, Sean Mackay, Eunice Ndirangu, Valerie Fleming Dec 2022

Experiences Of Mothers And Significant Others In Accessing Comprehensive Healthcare In The First 1000 Days Of Life Post-Conception During Covid-19 In Rural Uganda, Grace Nakate, Sean Mackay, Eunice Ndirangu, Valerie Fleming

School of Nursing & Midwifery, East Africa

Background: COVID-19 presented an unprecedented global public health challenge because of its rapid and relentless spread, and many countries instituted lockdowns to prevent the spread of infection. Although this strategy mayhave been appropriate to reduce infection, it presented unintended difficulties in rural Uganda, especially in maternal and born newborn care. For example, some services were suspended, meaning the nearest health facility was at a considerable distance. This study explored the experiences of mothers and their significant others of comprehensive care in the first 1000 days of life post-conception during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bunghokho-Mutoto sub-county, Mbale District, Uganda.

Methods …


Cost Utility Of Supporting Family-Based Care To Prevent Hiv And Deaths Among Orphaned And Separated Children In East Africa: A Markov Model–Based Simulation, Marta Wilson-Barthes, Paula Braitstein, Allison Delong, David Ayuku, Lukoye Atwoli, Edwin Sang, Omar Galárraga Dec 2022

Cost Utility Of Supporting Family-Based Care To Prevent Hiv And Deaths Among Orphaned And Separated Children In East Africa: A Markov Model–Based Simulation, Marta Wilson-Barthes, Paula Braitstein, Allison Delong, David Ayuku, Lukoye Atwoli, Edwin Sang, Omar Galárraga

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Purpose: Strengthening family-based care is a key policy response to the more than 15 million orphaned and separated children who have lost 1 or both parents in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of family-based care environments for preventing HIV and death in this population.

Design: We developed a time-homogeneous Markov model to simulate the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted by supporting family-based environments caring for orphaned and separated children in western Kenya. Model parameters were based on data from the longitudinal OSCAR’s Health and Well-Being Project and published literature. We used a societal perspective, …


Does Mainstream Brca Testing Affect Surgical Decision-Making In Newly-Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients?, Quratul Ain, Caroline Richardson, Miriam Mutebi, Angela George, Zoe Kemp, Jennifer E. Rusby Dec 2022

Does Mainstream Brca Testing Affect Surgical Decision-Making In Newly-Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients?, Quratul Ain, Caroline Richardson, Miriam Mutebi, Angela George, Zoe Kemp, Jennifer E. Rusby

General Surgery, East Africa

Background: Germline pathogenic variants mutations) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes cause an increased risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Mainstream cancer genetic testing (MCG) was introduced for breast cancer patients in our unit in 2013. Non-geneticist clinicians have been trained to offer genetic testing during initial treatment planning. We assessed the impact of timely test results on surgical decision-making.

Methods: Women who had undergone mainstream genetic testing for breast cancer between September 2013 and September 2018 were identified from a prospective database. Surgical data were collected retrospectively.

Results: 580 eligible women had mainstream genetic testing. …


The Ward Round: Friend Or Foe In Postgraduate Training? A Grounded Theory Study Of Residents’ Perspectives, Mariam Noorani Dec 2022

The Ward Round: Friend Or Foe In Postgraduate Training? A Grounded Theory Study Of Residents’ Perspectives, Mariam Noorani

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

The ward round has traditionally been a learning activity in medical education. Apart from education, ward rounds have multiple roles including patient care and communication. Some studies have described the ward round as an ideal place to learn patient management while others reported that little learning happens on rounds due to lack of time and patient volume. This study aimed to develop a deeper understanding of ward round learning from the perspec-tive of postgraduate trainees. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used and data was collected during focus group discussions. Data were analyzed by initial coding, then grouped into focused …


Exploring The Experiences Of Clients Receiving Opioid Use Disorder Treatment At A Methadone Clinic In Kenya: A Qualitative Study, Sarah Kiburi, Jackline Mwangi, Geoffrey Maina Dec 2022

Exploring The Experiences Of Clients Receiving Opioid Use Disorder Treatment At A Methadone Clinic In Kenya: A Qualitative Study, Sarah Kiburi, Jackline Mwangi, Geoffrey Maina

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Background: Assessing the experiences of individuals on methadone treatment is essential to help evaluate the treatment program’s efectiveness. This study aimed to explore the experiences of patients receiving methadone treatment at a clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

Method: This study employed an exploratory qualitative study design. Through purposive sampling, participants were enrolled from individuals attending a methadone clinic for at least 2 years. Semi-structured individual interviews were used to collect data on substance use and experience before methadone treatment and experiences after starting methadone treatment, including benefts and challenges. Interviews were transcribed, and NVIVO 12 software was used to …


Cultural And Contextual Adaptation Of Mental Health Measures In Kenya: An Adolescent-Centered Transcultural Adaptation Of Measures Study, Vincent Nyongesa, Shillah Mwaniga, Joseph Kathono, Obadia Yator, Beatrice Madeghe, Sarah Kanana, Beatrice Amugune, Naomi Anyango, Darius Nyamai, Manasi Kumar Dec 2022

Cultural And Contextual Adaptation Of Mental Health Measures In Kenya: An Adolescent-Centered Transcultural Adaptation Of Measures Study, Vincent Nyongesa, Shillah Mwaniga, Joseph Kathono, Obadia Yator, Beatrice Madeghe, Sarah Kanana, Beatrice Amugune, Naomi Anyango, Darius Nyamai, Manasi Kumar

Brain and Mind Institute

Introduction: There is paucity of culturally adapted tools for assessing depression and anxiety in children and adolescents in low-and middle-income countries. This hinders early detection, provision of appropriate and culturally acceptable interventions. In a partnership with the University of Nairobi, Nairobi County, Kenyatta National Hospital, and UNICEF, a rapid cultural adaptation of three adolescent mental health scales was done, i.e., Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and additional scales in the UNICEF mental health module for adolescents.

Materials and methods: Using a qualitative approach, we explored adolescent participants’ views on cultural acceptability, comprehensibility, relevance, and completeness of …


Interpersonal Psychotherapy’S Problem Areas As An Organizing Framework To Understand Depression And Sexual And Reproductive Health Needs Of Kenyan Pregnant And Parenting Adolescents: A Qualitative Study, Manasi Kumar, Obadia Yator, Vincent Nyongesa, Martha Kagoya, Shillah Mwaniga, Joseph Kathono, Isaiah Gitonga, Nancy Grote, Helena Verdeli, Keng Yen Huang Dec 2022

Interpersonal Psychotherapy’S Problem Areas As An Organizing Framework To Understand Depression And Sexual And Reproductive Health Needs Of Kenyan Pregnant And Parenting Adolescents: A Qualitative Study, Manasi Kumar, Obadia Yator, Vincent Nyongesa, Martha Kagoya, Shillah Mwaniga, Joseph Kathono, Isaiah Gitonga, Nancy Grote, Helena Verdeli, Keng Yen Huang

Brain and Mind Institute

Background: Peripartum adolescents experience signifcant interpersonal transitions in their lives. Depression and emotional distress are often exacerbated by adolescents’ responses to these interpersonal changes. Improved understanding of pregnancy-related social changes and maladaptive responses to these shifts may inform novel approaches to addressing the mental health needs of adolescents during the perinatal period. The paper aims to understand the sources of psychological distress in peripartum adolescents and map these to Interpersonal Psychotherapy’s (IPT) problem areas as a framework to understand depression.

Method: We conducted interviews in two Nairobi primary care clinics with peripartum adolescents ages 16–18 years (n=23) with …


Medical Education And Population Health—A Framework In The Design Of A New Undergraduate Program, Robert Armstrong, Michaela Mantel, Gijs Walraven, Lukoye Atwoli, Anthony Ngugi Dec 2022

Medical Education And Population Health—A Framework In The Design Of A New Undergraduate Program, Robert Armstrong, Michaela Mantel, Gijs Walraven, Lukoye Atwoli, Anthony Ngugi

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Health sciences curricular planners are challenged to add new content to established education programs. There is increasing pressure for content in public health, health systems, global health, and planetary health. These important areas often compete for curricular time. What is needed is a convergence model that builds a common framework within which students can integrate areas and better align this knowledge to the individual client or patient who they have responsibility to support. A population health framework is proposed for health sciences education programs that supports a common conceptual understanding of population health. The framework links five thematic areas that …


Epidemiology And Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococci Other Than Staphylococcus Aureus From Domestic Animals And Livestock In Africa: A Systematic Review, Remous Ocloo, Justin Nyasinga, Mohammed Munshi, Aisha Hamdy, Tessa Marciniak, Manonmani Soundararajan, Mae Newton-Foot, Wilma Ziebuhr, Manonmani Soundararajan, Gunturu Revathi Dec 2022

Epidemiology And Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococci Other Than Staphylococcus Aureus From Domestic Animals And Livestock In Africa: A Systematic Review, Remous Ocloo, Justin Nyasinga, Mohammed Munshi, Aisha Hamdy, Tessa Marciniak, Manonmani Soundararajan, Mae Newton-Foot, Wilma Ziebuhr, Manonmani Soundararajan, Gunturu Revathi

Pathology, East Africa

Introduction: Staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus (SOSA) in animals are becoming more pathogenic and antibiotic resistant and can potentially disseminate to humans. However, there is little synthesized information regarding SOSA from animals in Africa. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of SOSA in companion animals (pets) and livestock in Africa.

Method: This systematic review (PROSPERO-CRD42021252303) was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, and 75 eligible studies from 13 countries were identified until August 2022. Three electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science) were employed.

Results: The frequently isolated SOSA …


Acceptability And Feasibility Of A Low-Cost Device For Gestational Age Assessment In A Low-Resource Setting: Qualitative Study, Angela Koech, Peris Muoga Musitia, Grace Mwashigadi, Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Marianne Vidler, Marleen Temmerman, Rachel Craik, J. Alison Noble, Peter Dadelszen Von Dadelszen, Aris T . Papageorghiou Dec 2022

Acceptability And Feasibility Of A Low-Cost Device For Gestational Age Assessment In A Low-Resource Setting: Qualitative Study, Angela Koech, Peris Muoga Musitia, Grace Mwashigadi, Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Marianne Vidler, Marleen Temmerman, Rachel Craik, J. Alison Noble, Peter Dadelszen Von Dadelszen, Aris T . Papageorghiou

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Background: Ultrasound for gestational age (GA) assessment is not routinely available in resource-constrained settings, particularly in rural and remote locations. The TraCer device combines a handheld wireless ultrasound probe and a tablet with artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled software that obtains GA from videos of the fetal head by automated measurements of the fetal transcerebellar diameter and head circumference.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of pregnant women, their families, and health care workers regarding the feasibility and acceptability of the TraCer device in an appropriate setting.

Methods: A descriptive study using qualitative methods was conducted in …


Rare Causes Of Genital Fistula In Nine African Countries: A Retrospective Review, Carrie J. Ngongo, Thomas J.I.P. Raassen, Marietta Mahendeka, Ladeisha Lombard, Jos Van Roosmalen, Marleen Temmerman Dec 2022

Rare Causes Of Genital Fistula In Nine African Countries: A Retrospective Review, Carrie J. Ngongo, Thomas J.I.P. Raassen, Marietta Mahendeka, Ladeisha Lombard, Jos Van Roosmalen, Marleen Temmerman

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Africa

Background: Most genital fistulas result from prolonged, obstructed labor or surgical complications. Other causes include trauma (from accidents, traditional healers, or sexual violence), radiation, carcinoma, infection, unsafe abortion, and congenital malformation.

Methods: This retrospective records review focuses on rare fistula causes among 6,787 women who developed fistula after 1980 and sought treatment between 1994 and 2017 in Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Somalia, and South Sudan. We compare fistula etiologies across countries and assess associations between rare causes and type of incontinence (urine, feces, or both).

Results: Rare fistula accounted for 1.12% (76/6,787) of all fistulas, including traumatic …


Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2022: Assessment And Management Of Hypoglycemia In Children And Adolescents With Diabetes, Mary B. Abraham, Beate Karges, Klemen Dovc, Diana Naranjo, Ana Maria Arbelaez, Joyce Mbogo, Ganesh Javelikar, Timothy W. Jones, Farid H. Mahmud Dec 2022

Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2022: Assessment And Management Of Hypoglycemia In Children And Adolescents With Diabetes, Mary B. Abraham, Beate Karges, Klemen Dovc, Diana Naranjo, Ana Maria Arbelaez, Joyce Mbogo, Ganesh Javelikar, Timothy W. Jones, Farid H. Mahmud

Paediatrics and Child Health, East Africa

No abstract provided.