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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto Feb 2024

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse remains a global health concern, with emerging evidence highlighting its genotoxic potential. In the central nervous system METH enters dopaminergic cells primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT), which controls the dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving the reuptake of extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuronal cell. Additional effects of METH on the storage of DA in synaptic vesicles lead to the dysregulated cytosolic accumulation of DA. Previous studies have shown that after METH disrupts intracellular vesicular stores of DA, the excess DA in the cytosol is rapidly oxidized. This generates an abundance of reactive oxygen species …


The Pros Of Changing Trna Identity, Michael Ibba Jun 2023

The Pros Of Changing Trna Identity, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The notion that errors in protein synthesis are universally harmful to the cell has been questioned by findings that suggest such mistakes may sometimes be beneficial. However, how often these beneficial mistakes arise from programmed changes in gene expression as opposed to reduced accuracy of the translation machinery is still unclear. A new study published in JBC shows that some bacteria have beneficially evolved the ability to mistranslate specific parts of the genetic code, a trait that allows improved antibiotic resistance.


Chemoattractant Distribution In Complex Geometry Impacts The Trajectory Of Clustered Cell Migration, Naghmeh Akhavan May 2023

Chemoattractant Distribution In Complex Geometry Impacts The Trajectory Of Clustered Cell Migration, Naghmeh Akhavan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Expression And Role Of Pros-1 In The Male Gonad Of C. Elegans, Jack Bozik Apr 2023

Understanding The Expression And Role Of Pros-1 In The Male Gonad Of C. Elegans, Jack Bozik

Undergraduate Theses

The gene pros-1 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed within neuronal sheath cells, glial cells, and excretory canal cells. pros-1 plays a role in cell determination of those cell types in the nematode C. elegans, which promotes organismal development. But the degree to which pros-1 presence is important is still not fully understood, because there are many genes involved in development that when mutated or damaged can result in unexpected phenotypes or even total loss of function to a certain developmental mechanism. What makes pros-1 valuable to research is that it is a functional homologue to a …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill Dec 2022

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


The Novel Role Of Dnmbp In Kidney Development, Brandy Walker Aug 2022

The Novel Role Of Dnmbp In Kidney Development, Brandy Walker

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) accounts for nearly one-fourth of all birth defects and more than 40% of pediatric end-stage renal disease, yet only 10-20% of CAKUT cases have a known monogenetic cause. Human kidneys are composed of up to a million epithelial tubules called nephrons. Disruption of nephron development is one of the many congenital anomalies that cause CAKUT, often resulting in chronic or end-stage renal disease which requires transplant. During nephron epithelialization, the formation of stable cadherin-mediated adhesion junctions is essential for maintaining cell-cell contacts. To understand the cell behaviors underlying abnormalities in renal …


Hyper Stable Variants Of Fgf-1-Fgf-2 Dimer, Madison Shields Mcclanahan May 2022

Hyper Stable Variants Of Fgf-1-Fgf-2 Dimer, Madison Shields Mcclanahan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), including FGF-1 and FGF-2, are proteins that play a crucial role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, and tissue repair. FGF-1 and FGF-2 are useful in accelerating the healing process in the human body; however, these proteins are naturally thermally unstable, resulting in a relatively low half-life in vivo. 1,8 In efforts to improve the stability of this protein, FGF-1 and FGF-2 proteins are engineered by combining the amino acid sequences of the two proteins to form a heterodimer and obtain novel properties. These two FGF variants are chosen for their specific wound healing capabilities. …


Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang Mar 2022

Amphiphilic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Natural And Unnatural Amino Acids As Drug Delivery Agents, David Salehi, Saghar Mozaffari, Khalid Zoghebi, Sandeep Lohan, Dindyal Mandal, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of cyclic peptides, [(DipR)(WR)4], [(DipR)2(WR)3], [(DipR)3(WR)2], [(DipR)4(WR)], and [DipR]5, and their linear counterparts containing arginine (R) as positively charged residues and tryptophan (W) or diphenylalanine (Dip) as hydrophobic residues, were synthesized and evaluated for their molecular transporter efficiency. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized peptides was determined in human epithelial ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3), human lymphoblast peripheral blood cells (CCRF-CEM), human embryonic epithelial kidney healthy cells (HEK-293), human epithelial mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468), pig epithelial kidney normal cells (LLC-PK1), and human epithelial …


Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba Feb 2022

Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that synthesize aminoacyl-tRNAs to facilitate translation of the genetic code. Quality control by aaRS proofreading and other mechanisms maintains translational accuracy, which promotes cellular viability. Systematic disruption of proofreading, as recently demonstrated for alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), leads to dysregulation of the proteome and reduced viability. Recent studies showed that environmental challenges such as exposure to reactive oxygen species can also alter aaRS synthetic and proofreading functions, prompting us to investigate if oxidation might positively or negatively affect AlaRS activity. We found that while oxidation leads to modification of several residues in Escherichia coli AlaRS, unlike …


Keratin 1 As A Cell-Surface Receptor In Cancer, Oluseye Ogunnigbagbe, Christopher G. Bunick, Kamaljit Kaur Dec 2021

Keratin 1 As A Cell-Surface Receptor In Cancer, Oluseye Ogunnigbagbe, Christopher G. Bunick, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Keratins are fibrous proteins that take part in several important cellular functions, including the formation of intermediate filaments. In addition, keratins serve as epithelial cell markers, which has made their role in cancer progression, diagnosis, and treatment an important focus of research. Keratin 1 (K1) is a type II keratin whose structure is comprised of a coiled-coil central domain flanked by flexible, glycine-rich loops in the N- and C-termini. While the structure of cytoplasmic K1 is established, the structure of cell-surface K1 is not known. Several transformed cells, such as cancerous cells and cells that have undergone oxidative stress, display …


Physiological Roles Of Mammalian Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms, Katrina F. Ostrom, Justin E. Lavigne, Tarsis F. Brust, Roland Seifert, Carmen Dessauer, Val J. Watts, Rennolds S. Ostrom Oct 2021

Physiological Roles Of Mammalian Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms, Katrina F. Ostrom, Justin E. Lavigne, Tarsis F. Brust, Roland Seifert, Carmen Dessauer, Val J. Watts, Rennolds S. Ostrom

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP to the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Mammals possess nine isoforms of transmembrane ACs, dubbed AC1-9, that serve as major effector enzymes of G protein-coupled receptors. The transmembrane ACs display varying expression patterns across tissues, giving potential for them having a wide array of physiologic roles. Cells express multiple AC isoforms, implying that ACs have redundant functions. Furthermore, all transmembrane ACs are activated by Gαs so it was long assumed that all ACs are activated by Gαs-coupled GPCRs. AC isoforms partition to different microdomains of the plasma membrane and form …


Regulation Of Brain Primary Cilia Length By Mch Signaling: Evidence From Pharmacological, Genetic, Optogenetic, And Chemogenic Manipulations, Wedad Alhassen, Yuki Kobayashi, Jessica Su, Brianna Robbins, Henry Nguyen, Thant Myint, Micah Yu, Surya M. Nauli, Yumiko Saito, Amal Alachkar Oct 2021

Regulation Of Brain Primary Cilia Length By Mch Signaling: Evidence From Pharmacological, Genetic, Optogenetic, And Chemogenic Manipulations, Wedad Alhassen, Yuki Kobayashi, Jessica Su, Brianna Robbins, Henry Nguyen, Thant Myint, Micah Yu, Surya M. Nauli, Yumiko Saito, Amal Alachkar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is involved in numerous functions, including energy homeostasis, food intake, sleep, stress, mood, aggression, reward, maternal behavior, social behavior, and cognition. In rodents, MCH acts on MCHR1, a G protein-coupled receptor, which is widely expressed in the brain and abundantly localized to neuronal primary cilia. Cilia act as cells’ antennas and play crucial roles in cell signaling to detect and transduce external stimuli to regulate cell differentiation and migration. Cilia are highly dynamic in terms of their length and morphology; however, it is not known if cilia length is causally regulated by MCH system activation …


A Comparison Of Calcium Aggregation And Ultracentrifugation Methods For The Preparation Of Rat Brain Microsomes For Drug Metabolism Studies, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar Oct 2021

A Comparison Of Calcium Aggregation And Ultracentrifugation Methods For The Preparation Of Rat Brain Microsomes For Drug Metabolism Studies, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Preparation of brain microsomes by the calcium chloride aggregation method has been suggested as an alternative to the ultracentrifugation method. However, the effects of the calcium chloride concentration on the quality of the microsomal fractions are not known. Brain microsomes were prepared from the adult rat brains using the high-speed ultracentrifugation and low-speed calcium chloride (10–100 mM) aggregation methods (n = 5–6 per group). The microsomal protein yield (spectrometry), the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) activity (spectrometry), and the monooxygenase activities (UPLC-MS/MS) of CYP2D and CYP2E1 were determined in the obtained fractions. Increasing the concentrations of calcium chloride progressively increased …


Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid Sep 2021

Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Synovial macrophages perform a multitude of functions that include clearance of cell debris and foreign bodies, tissue immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The functional diversity of macrophages is enabled by distinct subpopulations that express unique surface markers. Proteoglycan-4 (PRG4) is an important regulator of synovial hyperplasia and fibrotic remodeling, and the involvement of macrophages in PRG4’s synovial role is yet to be defined. Our objectives were to study the PRG4’s importance to macrophage homeostatic regulation in the synovium and infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages in acute synovitis and investigate whether macrophages mediated synovial fibrosis in Prg4 gene-trap (Prg4 …


Design And Application Of Hybrid Cyclic-Linear Peptide-Doxorubicin Conjugates As A Strategy To Overcome Doxorubicin Resistance And Toxicity, Saghar Mozaffari, David Salehi, Parvin Mahdipoor, Richard Beuttler, Rakesh Tiwari, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Keykavous Parang Sep 2021

Design And Application Of Hybrid Cyclic-Linear Peptide-Doxorubicin Conjugates As A Strategy To Overcome Doxorubicin Resistance And Toxicity, Saghar Mozaffari, David Salehi, Parvin Mahdipoor, Richard Beuttler, Rakesh Tiwari, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Doxorubicin (Dox) is used for breast cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma treatment as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. However, Dox use is restricted due to inherent and acquired resistance and an 8-fold increase in the risk of potentially fatal cardiotoxicity. Hybrid cyclic-linear peptide [R5K]W7A and linear peptide R5KW7A were conjugated with Dox through a glutarate linker to afford [R5K]W7A-Dox and R5KW7A-Dox conjugates to generate Dox derivatives. Alternatively, [R5K]W7C was conjugated with Dox via a disulfide linker to generate [R5K]W7C–S–S-Dox conjugate, where S–S is a disulfide bond. Comparative antiproliferative assays between conjugates [R5K]W7A-Dox, [R5K]W7C–S–S-Dox, linear R5KW7A-Dox, the corresponding physical mixtures of the peptides, …


Identifying The Molecular Pathways That Drive Retinal Degeneration In The Childhood Neurodegenerative Disease: Mucolipidosis Type Iv, Michael Pamonag Aug 2021

Identifying The Molecular Pathways That Drive Retinal Degeneration In The Childhood Neurodegenerative Disease: Mucolipidosis Type Iv, Michael Pamonag

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Humans, like many other vertebrates, possess five Aristotelian senses (vision, olfaction, hearing, taste, and touch) which we use to experience and navigate our environment. Our visual system is the only source of light detection and light signaling in our bodies. This makes our visual system essential for detecting movement, distance, time of day, and seasonal changes in the length of days within our environment. The visual systems of most animals are designed to capture photons of visible light and convert that energy into a neurological signal (visual signal) to be transmitted to brain regions responsible for visual perception1 . This …


Suppression Of Dc-Sign And Gh Reveals Complex, Subset-Specific Mechanisms For Kshv Entry In Primary B Lymphocytes, Nancy Palmerin, Farizeh Aalam, Romina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer Totonchy Jul 2021

Suppression Of Dc-Sign And Gh Reveals Complex, Subset-Specific Mechanisms For Kshv Entry In Primary B Lymphocytes, Nancy Palmerin, Farizeh Aalam, Romina Nabiee, Murali Muniraju, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer Totonchy

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of multiple cancers in immunocompromised patients including two lymphoproliferative disorders associated with KSHV infection of B lymphocytes. Despite many years of research into the pathogenesis of KSHV associated diseases, basic questions related to KSHV molecular virology remain unresolved. One such unresolved question is the cellular receptors and viral glycoproteins needed for KSHV entry into primary B lymphocytes. In this study, we assess the contributions of KSHV glycoprotein H (gH) and the cellular receptor DC-SIGN to KSHV infection in tonsil-derived B lymphocytes. Our results show that (1) neither KSHV-gH nor DC-SIGN are essential …


Dimeric Allostery Mechanism Of The Plant Circadian Clock Photoreceptor Zeitlupe, Francesco Trozzi, Feng Wang, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao Jul 2021

Dimeric Allostery Mechanism Of The Plant Circadian Clock Photoreceptor Zeitlupe, Francesco Trozzi, Feng Wang, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Light-Oxygen-Voltage (LOV) domain containing protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) integrates light quality, intensity, and duration into regulation of the circadian clock. Recent structural and biochemical studies of ZTL indicate that the protein diverges from other members of the LOV superfamily in its allosteric mechanism, and that the divergent allosteric mechanism hinges upon conservation of two signaling residues G46 and V48 that alter dynamic motions of a Gln residue implicated in signal transduction in all LOV proteins. Here, we delineate the allosteric mechanism of ZTL via an integrated computational approach that employs atomistic simulations of wild type and …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan May 2021

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan May 2021

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

University Scholar Projects

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


U-251mg Spheroid Generation Using Low Attachment Plate Method Protocol, Lara J. Carroll, Brijesh K. Tiwari, James F. Curtin, Janith Wanigasekara May 2021

U-251mg Spheroid Generation Using Low Attachment Plate Method Protocol, Lara J. Carroll, Brijesh K. Tiwari, James F. Curtin, Janith Wanigasekara

Articles

3D cell culture is a process used to grow cells in vitro to mimic an in vivo environment. 3D cell models are very useful for understanding disease mechanisms and exploring drug therapeutics. 3D cultures can be grown from cells taken from cancer organoids in patients. Once grown, they can be used to screen for small molecule drugs or they can be genetically modified in order to analyse disease pathways or predict the toxicity or efficacy of a drug treatment. These cultures decrease the need to use animals in research and provides more reliable results as it uses human physiology. This …


B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez Apr 2021

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Maternal Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol Exposure On Fetal Heart Development In Mice, Gregory Robinson Dec 2020

The Effects Of Maternal Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol Exposure On Fetal Heart Development In Mice, Gregory Robinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Up to 22.6% of pregnant women consume cannabis during pregnancy despite the uncertainty of teratogenicity of the main ingredients in cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). This study tested the hypothesis that gestational THC and CBD exposure leads to heart abnormalities. Daily, oral THC exposure induced heart abnormalities in 68% of offspring with three main phenotypes including thickened semilunar valves, ventricular myocardial hypertrophy and hypoplastic coronary arteries in fetuses, and postnatal cardiac dysfunction. Altered gene expression of key cardiogenic regulators, increased proliferation, and reduced epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition were demonstrated implicating potential mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities. Also, maternal CBD exposure resulted …


The Role Of Daam1 In Kidney Development, Vanja Krneta-Stankic Dec 2020

The Role Of Daam1 In Kidney Development, Vanja Krneta-Stankic

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Kidneys, like most organs in our bodies, consist of a network of epithelial tubules. Kidney tubules are called nephrons, and their morphology is important for kidney function. Nephrons develop from mesodermally derived aggregates of progenitor cells. The nephric progenitors organize into nephric tubules lined with hair-like sensory projections called cilia. Many diseases of the kidney are characterized by abnormal nephron morphology with current treatment aimed at symptom control. To understand the mechanisms underlying kidney diseases and achieve the development of novel therapies, a better understanding of how nephrons develop is needed. Although the actin cytoskeleton is critical for cell behaviors …


The Role Of Daam1 In Kidney Development, Vanja Krneta-Stankic Dec 2020

The Role Of Daam1 In Kidney Development, Vanja Krneta-Stankic

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Kidneys, like most organs in our bodies, consist of a network of epithelial tubules. Kidney tubules are called nephrons, and their morphology is important for kidney function. Nephrons develop from mesodermally derived aggregates of progenitor cells. The nephric progenitors organize into nephric tubules lined with hair-like sensory projections called cilia. Many diseases of the kidney are characterized by abnormal nephron morphology with current treatment aimed at symptom control. To understand the mechanisms underlying kidney diseases and achieve the development of novel therapies, a better understanding of how nephrons develop is needed. Although the actin cytoskeleton is critical for cell behaviors …


Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari Oct 2020

Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described …


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar Jul 2020

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ethoxyresorufin (ER)-O-deethylation (EROD) activity has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity. The kinetics of CYP1A activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in kidney microsomes are limited due to the much lower EROD activity in this organ. Here, we developed and validated a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the characterization of the EROD activity in the rat kidney microsomes. In a 50 µL reaction mixture, rat kidney microsomes (0.25 mg/mL) were incubated with ER (0.1–5 µM) and NADPH (1 mM) for 10 min. Acidic solvents, such as trichloroacetic acid or formic …


Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang Jun 2020

Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4–5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric adenocarcinoma (CRL-1739), breast …


Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli May 2020

Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that regulate cell cycle and signaling pathways. In addition to its association with cancer, dysfunction of primary cilia is responsible for the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and other ciliopathies. Because the association between cilia formation or length and cell cycle or division is poorly understood, we here evaluated their correlation in this study. Using Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) technique, we showed that PKD and the cancer/tumorigenic epithelial cells PC3, DU145, and NL20-TA were associated with abnormal ploidy. We also showed that PKD and the cancer epithelia were highly proliferative. Importantly, the cancer epithelial cells …


Lew.1wr1 Rats Have Increased Beta Cell Area And Decreased Pancreas Area During Their T1d Susceptibility Window, Evann Fowler Jan 2020

Lew.1wr1 Rats Have Increased Beta Cell Area And Decreased Pancreas Area During Their T1d Susceptibility Window, Evann Fowler

Summer Community of Scholars Posters (RCEU and HCR Combined Programs)

No abstract provided.