Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Climate change

Iowa State University

Discipline
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Weather, Values, Capacity And Concern: Toward A Social-Cognitive Model Of Specialty Crop Farmers’ Perceptions Of Climate Change Risk, Guang Han, Ethan D. Schoolman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton Jun 2021

Weather, Values, Capacity And Concern: Toward A Social-Cognitive Model Of Specialty Crop Farmers’ Perceptions Of Climate Change Risk, Guang Han, Ethan D. Schoolman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton

Sociology Publications

As specialty crop production has become increasingly important to U.S. agriculture, public and private stakeholders have called for research and outreach efforts centered on risks posed by climate change. Drawing on a survey of specialty crop farmers, this study explores farmers’ perceptions of climate change risks. Underlying cognitive, experiential, and socio-cultural factors hypothesized to influence farmers’ climate change risk perceptions are tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Results show that specialty crop farmers exhibit an overall moderate concern about climatic risks. The more capable and prepared farmers feel themselves to be, the less concerned they are about climate change ...


Can Climatic Variables Improve Phenological Predictions For Butterfly Species?, Bret J. Lang, Mark P. Widrlechner, Philip M. Dixon, Janette Thompson Jan 2020

Can Climatic Variables Improve Phenological Predictions For Butterfly Species?, Bret J. Lang, Mark P. Widrlechner, Philip M. Dixon, Janette Thompson

Horticulture Publications

Changes in butterfly phenology due to climate changes have led to the need for models based on factors other than calendar date to predict butterfly development, allowing those monitoring their populations to increase the effectiveness of field surveys. In this study, we developed two simple climatic models, one using yearly accumulated growing degree days (GDD) and the other using yearly accumulated shortwave radiation flux densities (SRAD), to determine if these variables can predict first emergence of three butterfly species with less error than an approach based on the average ordinal date of first observation at a site. Furthermore, we investigated ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. Jan 2020

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Dec 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


The Effect Of Land-Use Change On Soil Ch4 And N2o Fluxes, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Saha, M. G. Dumont, M. Hernández, M. A. Adams Mar 2019

The Effect Of Land-Use Change On Soil Ch4 And N2o Fluxes, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Saha, M. G. Dumont, M. Hernández, M. A. Adams

Agronomy Publications

Land-use change is a prominent feature of the Anthropocene. Transitions between natural and human-managed ecosystems affect biogeochemical cycles in many ways, but soil processes are amongst the least understood. We used a global meta-analysis (62 studies, 1670 paired comparisons) to examine effects of land conversion on soil-atmosphere fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from upland soils, and determine soil and environmental factors driving these effects. Conversion from a natural ecosystem to any anthropogenic land use increased soil CH4 and N2O fluxes by 234 kg CO2-equivalents ha-1 y- 1, on average. Reversion of managed ecosystems to that resembling natural ...


Evaluating The Utility Of Species Distribution Models In Informing Climate Change-Resilient Grassland Restoration Strategy, Nicholas J. Lyon, Diane M. Debinski, Imtiaz Rangwala Feb 2019

Evaluating The Utility Of Species Distribution Models In Informing Climate Change-Resilient Grassland Restoration Strategy, Nicholas J. Lyon, Diane M. Debinski, Imtiaz Rangwala

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Tallgrass prairie ecosystems in North America are heavily degraded and require effective restoration strategies if prairie specialist taxa are to be preserved. One common management tool used to restore grassland is the application of a seed-mix of native prairie plant species. While this technique is effective in the short-term, it is critical that species' resilience to changing climate be evaluated when designing these mixes. By utilizing species distribution models (SDMs), species' bioclimatic envelopes–and thus the geographic area suitable for them–can be quantified and predicted under various future climate regimes, and current seed-mixes may be modified to include more ...


Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney Jan 2019

Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney

Entomology Publications

More than any other group of macro-organisms, true flies (Diptera) dominate the freshwater environment. Nearly one-third of all flies—roughly 46,000 species—have some developmental connection with an aquatic environment. Their abundance, ubiquity, and diversity of adaptations to the aquatic environment position them as major drivers of ecosystem processes and as sources of products and bioinspiration for the benefit of human society. Larval flies are well represented as ecosystem engineers and keystone species that alter the abiotic and biotic environments through activities such as burrowing, grazing, suspension feeding, and predation. The enormous populations sometimes achieved by aquatic flies can ...


The Revolution Of Crossdating In Marine Palaeoecology And Palaeoclimatology, Bryan A. Black, Carin Andersson, Paul G. Butler, Michael L. Carroll, Kristine L. Delong, David J. Reynolds, Bernd R. Schöne, James Scourse, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alan D. Wanamaker, Rob Witbaard Jan 2019

The Revolution Of Crossdating In Marine Palaeoecology And Palaeoclimatology, Bryan A. Black, Carin Andersson, Paul G. Butler, Michael L. Carroll, Kristine L. Delong, David J. Reynolds, Bernd R. Schöne, James Scourse, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alan D. Wanamaker, Rob Witbaard

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Over the past century, the dendrochronology technique of crossdating has been widely used to generate a global network of tree-ring chronologies that serves as a leading indicator of environmental variability and change. Only recently, however, has this same approach been applied to growth increments in calcified structures of bivalves, fish, and corals in the world’s oceans. As in trees, these crossdated marine chronologies are well replicated, annually resolved and absolutely dated, providing uninterrupted multi-decadal to millennial histories of ocean paleoclimatic and paleoecological processes. Moreover, they span an extensive geographic range, multiple trophic levels, habitats, and functional types, and can ...


Past, Present And Future: Geographic And Temporal Variation In A Fig–Fig Wasp Mutualism, Finn Piatscheck Jan 2019

Past, Present And Future: Geographic And Temporal Variation In A Fig–Fig Wasp Mutualism, Finn Piatscheck

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

All living organisms interact with different degrees of interdependence and in ways that are integral to their ecology and evolution. Of the many forms of species interaction, mutualism is one in which species reciprocally obtain benefits from their interactions. Because mutualism is ubiquitous in nature, mutualists are commonly associated with a broader community of species whose interactions vary across a mutualist–antagonist spectrum and in space and time, and so they play a broadly important role in ecosystem function and species evolution. Flowering plants are widely distributed, typically primary producers, and thus foundational ecosystem elements. They are also ubiquitously associated ...


Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth Jan 2019

Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize-based agricultural systems dominate the U.S. Midwest landscape and maintaining productive systems in the short- and long-term are high priorities for the agricultural sector. Climate change has and will continue to alter the environment in which farmers produce their crops. Information and recommendations are necessary for understanding the magnitude of warming and adaptation strategies that can mitigate intensified precipitation events, moisture shortages, and increased temperatures. The multi-faceted changes in temperature were aggregated using thermal time as an agro-climate index to describe the warming relevant for producing maize. Across 1054 counties, the change in thermal time since 1950 was disproportionally ...


Drought Tolerance In Soybean: Methods For Improvement, Emily Thorp Jan 2019

Drought Tolerance In Soybean: Methods For Improvement, Emily Thorp

Creative Components

As opposed to the past, plant breeders today have access to far greater technology, and far greater obstacles to overcome. One of those challenges is the need for drought tolerance in crops such as soybeans. Soybeans are a major crop, affected by drought due to a lack of tolerance traits in cultivars grown today. Drought tolerant soybeans are important globally, because soybeans are grown in many countries around the world where yield losses from drought are frequent. Therefore, it is essential for farmers to make changes to their practices to help their crops tolerate or avoid drought, and breeding programs ...


In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger Jan 2019

In Silico Design Of Crop Ideotypes Under A Wide Range Of Water Availability, Talukder Z. Jubery, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Matthew E. Gilbert, Daniel Attinger

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Given the changing climate and increasing impact of agriculture on global resources, it is important to identify phenotypes which are global and sustainable optima. Here, an in silico framework is constructed by coupling evolutionary optimization with thermodynamically sound crop physiology, and its ability to rationally design phenotypes with maximum productivity is demonstrated, within well‐defined limits on water availability. Results reveal that in mesic environments, such as the North American Midwest, and semi‐arid environments, such as Colorado, phenotypes optimized for maximum productivity and survival under drought are similar to those with maximum productivity under irrigated conditions. In hot and ...


Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul Mar 2018

Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

1. Novel ecosystems can differ from the native systems they replaced. We used phenology measures to compare ecosystem functioning between novel exotic-dominated and native-dominated grasslands in the central U.S.

2. Phenology, or timing of biological events, is affected by climate and land use changes. We assessed how phenology shifts are being altered by exotic species dominance by comparing remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index within growing seasons at exotic- and native-dominated sites along a latitudinal gradient. Exotic species were dominated by the C3 species functional group in the north and the C4 species functional group in the south.

3 ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter Dec 2017

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning Jun 2017

Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from swine production systems are relatively well researched with the exception of emissions from land application of manure. GHGs inventories are needed for process-based modeling and science-based regulations. Thus, the objective of this observational study was to measure GHG fluxes from land application of swine manure on a typical corn field. Assessment of GHG emissions from deep injected land-applied swine manure, fall and reapplication in the spring, on a typical US Midwestern corn-on-corn farm was completed. Static chambers were used for flux measurement along with gas analysis on a GC-FID-ECD. Measured gas concentrations were used to ...


Using Regional Climate Projections To Guide Grassland Community Restoration In The Face Of Climate Change, Kristin Kane, Diane M. Debinski, Chris Anderson, John D. Scasta, David M. Engle, James R. Miller May 2017

Using Regional Climate Projections To Guide Grassland Community Restoration In The Face Of Climate Change, Kristin Kane, Diane M. Debinski, Chris Anderson, John D. Scasta, David M. Engle, James R. Miller

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grassland loss has been extensive worldwide, endangering the associated biodiversity and human well-being that are both dependent on these ecosystems. Ecologists have developed approaches to restore grassland communities and many have been successful, particularly where soils are rich, precipitation is abundant, and seeds of native plant species can be obtained. However, climate change adds a new filter needed in planning grassland restoration efforts. Potential responses of species to future climate conditions must also be considered in planning for long-term resilience. We demonstrate this methodology using a site-specific model and a maximum entropy approach to predict changes in habitat suitability for ...


Effects Of Experimentally Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming On Montane Meadow Plant Phenology And Floral Resources, J. A. Sherwood, D. M. Debinski, P. C. Caragea, M. J. Germino Mar 2017

Effects Of Experimentally Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming On Montane Meadow Plant Phenology And Floral Resources, J. A. Sherwood, D. M. Debinski, P. C. Caragea, M. J. Germino

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Climate change can have a broad range of effects on ecosystems and organisms, and early responses may include shifts in vegetation phenology and productivity that may not coincide with the energetics and forage timing of higher trophic levels. We evaluated phenology, annual height growth, and foliar frost responses of forbs to a factorial experiment of snow removal (SR) and warming in a high‐elevation meadow over two years in the Rocky Mountains, United States. Species included arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata , early‐season emergence and flowering) and buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum, semi‐woody and late‐season flowering), key forbs for pollinator and ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu Jan 2017

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Temporal Variability Of Soil Respiration In Experimental Tree Plantations In Lowland Costa Rica, James W. Raich Jan 2017

Temporal Variability Of Soil Respiration In Experimental Tree Plantations In Lowland Costa Rica, James W. Raich

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The principal objective of this study was to determine if there is consistent temporal variability in soil respiration from different forest plantations in a lowland tropical rainforest environment. Soil respiration was measured regularly over 2004 to 2010 in replicated plantations of 15- to 20-year-old evergreen tropical trees in lowland Costa Rica. Statistically significant but small differences in soil respiration were observed among hours of the day; daytime measurements were suitable for determining mean fluxes in this study. Fluxes varied more substantially among months, with the highest average emissions (5.9 μmol·m−2·s−1) occurring in September and low ...


Rethinking Adaptive Capacity: A Study Of Midwestern U.S. Corn Farmers, Syed Maaz Gardezi Jan 2017

Rethinking Adaptive Capacity: A Study Of Midwestern U.S. Corn Farmers, Syed Maaz Gardezi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is one of the most significant challenges facing agriculture and society in the 21st century. In the Midwest, the projected trend toward more extreme rainfall has meant that farm-level responses are needed to maintain or increase crop yield and reduce soil erosion. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to environmental change. Thus, it is critical to understand their ability to take suitable actions for reducing risks and transforming agriculture to a more resilient system. Adaptive capacity is a term that is often used to describe farmers’ ability to access financial and technical ...


Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations And The Vegetation Of Prairie Potholes: Potential Impacts Of Climate Change, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, David M. Mushet Dec 2016

Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations And The Vegetation Of Prairie Potholes: Potential Impacts Of Climate Change, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, David M. Mushet

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan Aug 2016

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


Adapting To Climate Change Through Tile Drainage: A Structural Ricardian Analysis, Kevin Meyer, David A. Keiser Jan 2016

Adapting To Climate Change Through Tile Drainage: A Structural Ricardian Analysis, Kevin Meyer, David A. Keiser

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

This paper provides the first estimates of the effects of climate change on agriculture while explicitly modeling tile drainage. We show in a simple conceptual model that the value of precipitation should differ between drained and non-drained land, implying that pooling these lands could bias estimates of the effects of climate change on land values. We test this hypothesis by estimating a Structural Ricardian model for U.S. counties east of the 100th meridian. Consistent with our theoretical model, our estimates show that the value of precipitation is higher on non-drained lands.


The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort Jan 2016

The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort

Agronomy Publications

Photorespiration is essential for C3 plants but operates at the massive expense of fixed carbon dioxide and energy. Photorespiration is initiated when the initial enzyme of photosynthesis, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco), reacts with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and produces a toxic compound that is then recycled by photorespiration. Photorespiration can be modeled at the canopy and regional scales to determine its cost under current and future atmospheres. A regional-scale model reveals that photorespiration currently decreases US soybean and wheat yields by 36% and 20%, respectively, and a 5% decrease in the losses due to photorespiration would be worth ...


Recent Afforestation In The Iowa River And Vorskla River Basins: A Comparative Trends Analysis, Yury G. Chendev, Jason A. Hubbart, Edgar A. Terekhin, Anthony R. Lupo, Tom J. Sauer, C. Lee Burras Jan 2016

Recent Afforestation In The Iowa River And Vorskla River Basins: A Comparative Trends Analysis, Yury G. Chendev, Jason A. Hubbart, Edgar A. Terekhin, Anthony R. Lupo, Tom J. Sauer, C. Lee Burras

Agronomy Publications

Afforestation trends were compared between two continentally-distinct, yet similar ecoregions to characterize similarities or differences in forest advancement due to natural and anthropogenic forcings. Temporal changes in forest cover were analyzed using high resolution aerial and satellite photographs for Southeast Iowa, USA, and satellite photographs for the western Belgorod Oblast, Russia. An increase in forested area was shown to occur over a 44-year period from 1970–2014 in Iowa where afforestation was reflected by the aggregation of smaller forest units. In the Belgorod region the opposite occurred in that there was an increase in the number of smaller forested units ...


Agricultural Labor In Midwestern United States Specialty Cropping Systems, Anna Liora Johnson Jan 2016

Agricultural Labor In Midwestern United States Specialty Cropping Systems, Anna Liora Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Midwest specialty crop production is highly dependent on its workers, many of whom are immigrants. Growers are contending with changes in the composition and size of the farm worker labor force due in part to shifts in immigration patterns. They are also facing changes in weather patterns due to climate change. This research addresses how growers can manage the labor needs of their operations through these shifts. First, a vulnerability framework is applied to interviews with Michigan specialty crop growers on their experiences with variability of labor and weather in their specialty crop systems. This study finds that growers are ...


Placing Bounds On Extreme Temperature Response Of Maize, Christopher J. Anderson, Bruce A. Babcock, Yixing Peng, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell Dec 2015

Placing Bounds On Extreme Temperature Response Of Maize, Christopher J. Anderson, Bruce A. Babcock, Yixing Peng, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell

Economics Publications

Plant water availability is a key factor that determines maize yield response to excess heat. Lack of available data has limited researchers' ability to estimate this relationship at regional and global scales. Using a new soil moisture data set developed by running a crop growth simulator over historical data we demonstrate how current estimates of maize yield sensitivity to high temperature are misleading. We develop an empirical model relating observed yields to climate variables and soil moisture in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on yield sensitivity to high temperatures. For the portion of ...


Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall Aug 2015

Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall

Sociology Publications

Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers’ beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is ...


Effects Of Climate And Plant Phenology On Recruitment Of Moose At The Southern Extent Of Their Range, Kevin L. Monteith, Robert W. Klaver, Kent R. Hersey, A. Andrew Holland, Timothy P. Thomas, Matthew J. Kauffman Aug 2015

Effects Of Climate And Plant Phenology On Recruitment Of Moose At The Southern Extent Of Their Range, Kevin L. Monteith, Robert W. Klaver, Kent R. Hersey, A. Andrew Holland, Timothy P. Thomas, Matthew J. Kauffman

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend ...