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Full-Text Articles in Law

Water Quality: Successes, Shortcomings, And The Future, Jaley F. Adkins Sep 2023

Water Quality: Successes, Shortcomings, And The Future, Jaley F. Adkins

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Manure, Methane, And Money: The Anaerobic Digester Disaster In California, Pegga Mosavi Jan 2023

Manure, Methane, And Money: The Anaerobic Digester Disaster In California, Pegga Mosavi

Animal Law Review

The small, idyllic family farms that come to mind at the first mention of farming are all but gone, replaced by enormous factories that churn out animals at record speed, with little regard for their health and welfare. These factory farms produce a host of issues, including pervasive water and air pollution, particularly in vulnerable agricultural communities like those of the San Joaquin Valley in California. While the detriments of the factory farm model are numerous, contribution to climate change in particular has garnered significant attention. Animal agriculture in the U.S. produces 36% of the country’s methane, a greenhouse gas …


Charting A Course To Conserve 30% Of Freshwaters By 2030, Sandra B. Zellmer Oct 2022

Charting A Course To Conserve 30% Of Freshwaters By 2030, Sandra B. Zellmer

William & Mary Law Review

One of President Biden’s earliest executive orders established an ambitious national goal to conserve at least 30 percent of U.S. lands, waters, and oceans by 2030. The Biden administration is not alone; over 100 countries support this goal as a means of combating climate change and slowing the pace of species extinction, both of which are accelerating at a rate that is unprecedented in history.

Despite its vow to pursue a wide-sweeping, all-of-government approach, Biden’s 30 by 30 initiative overlooks a critical component of the conservation goal—it pays virtually no attention to freshwater. Freshwater ecosystems are among the most endangered …


Upper Missouri Waterkeeper V. Epa, Clare Ols Apr 2022

Upper Missouri Waterkeeper V. Epa, Clare Ols

Public Land & Resources Law Review

State water quality standards developed under the Clean Water Act play a key role in curtailing the negative environmental, economic, and human health impacts of water pollution. Under the state water quality regulatory framework, EPA may grant variances to state standards should the state demonstrate the compliance with its standards is infeasible for a certain pollutant discharger or waterbody. Montana DEQ developed a variance for nutrients based on evidence that compliance with those standards would cause economic harm. EPA approved Montana's nutrient pollutant variance, and Upper Missouri Waterkeeper challenged EPA's approval on the grounds that the variance violates the Clean …


Quality Control: Potomac Riverkeeper V. Wheeler & Standards For Qualitative Citizen Water Quality Data In Virginia, Jacqueline Goodrum Apr 2022

Quality Control: Potomac Riverkeeper V. Wheeler & Standards For Qualitative Citizen Water Quality Data In Virginia, Jacqueline Goodrum

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Article explores the issue of quality of citizen data through the lens of Potomac Riverkeeper v. Wheeler, a recent impaired waters listing case concerning the Shenandoah River in Virginia. Part I of this Article provides a brief overview of citizen science data in regulation and policymaking under the CWA. Part II discusses Potomac Riverkeeper v. Wheeler, examining Virginia’s water quality-related data standards and DEQ’s use (and non-use) of citizen water quality-related data and information in that case. Finally, Part III argues that Virginia should establish clear, reasonable, and specific data quality standards for qualitative citizen data so …


Same As It Ever Was : The Tijuana River Sewage Crisis, Non-State Actors, And The State, James M. Cooper Jan 2022

Same As It Ever Was : The Tijuana River Sewage Crisis, Non-State Actors, And The State, James M. Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

Sewage—a scary mixture of human waste and industrial toxins—flows into the Tijuana River Valley, an environmentally sensitive watershed that straddles the United Mexican States ("Mexico") and the United States of America. Treatment plants, a deteriorating one in Punta Bandera with limited capacity south of the border, and another in San Diego County completed in 1997, are inadequate to process the volume of sewage. So much sewage made its way into the Tijuana River that CBS 60 Minutes broadcast a special report on the binational environmental disaster in 2020.

Border factories and a population spike contribute to the sewage. Maquiladoras, …


Feasibility Of Development Of Flood Resiliency Clearinghouse Program, Commonwealth Center For Recurrent Flooding Resiliency, Mujde Erten-Unal, Carol Considine, Mark W. Luckenbach, Elizabeth Armistead Andrews Nov 2021

Feasibility Of Development Of Flood Resiliency Clearinghouse Program, Commonwealth Center For Recurrent Flooding Resiliency, Mujde Erten-Unal, Carol Considine, Mark W. Luckenbach, Elizabeth Armistead Andrews

Commonwealth Center for Recurrent Flooding Resiliency (CCRFR): Reports

[Introduction]

House Bill 2187i, introduced by Delegate Keith Hodges in the 2021 session of the Virginia General Assembly, directed the Commonwealth Center for Recurrent Flooding Resiliency (CCRFR), a partnership between Old Dominion University, the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and the William & Mary Law School’s Virginia Coastal Policy Center (VCPC) established by Virginia Chapter 440 of the 2016 Acts of Assembly (HB 903), to evaluate the development of a Flood Resiliency Clearinghouse Program (henceforth Clearinghouse). The bill stipulated that the Center should work with the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) to evaluate solutions that manage …


Realigning The Clean Water Act: Comprehensive Treatment Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Robin M. Rotman, Ashley A. Hollis, Kathleen M. Trauth Sep 2021

Realigning The Clean Water Act: Comprehensive Treatment Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Robin M. Rotman, Ashley A. Hollis, Kathleen M. Trauth

Faculty Publications

Nonpoint source pollution is the biggest threat to water quality in the United States today. This Article argues for stronger federal controls over nonpoint source pollution. It begins by examining the history of water quality regulation in the United States, including the passage and amendment of the Clean Water Act and the evolving definition of “navigable waters” over time. The Article then discusses recent rulemaking and litigation developments, including the Clean Water Rule, the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, and the County of Maui, Hawaii v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund case. It offers three recommendations. First, the Article calls for a congressional …


"All I Do Is Win": The No-Lose Strategy Of Cafo Regulation Under The Caa, Karl J. Worsham Jun 2021

"All I Do Is Win": The No-Lose Strategy Of Cafo Regulation Under The Caa, Karl J. Worsham

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Corporate farms, often known as concentrated animial feeding operations ("CAFO'), provide inexpensive animal products but do so by externalizing the cost of their operation in the form of environmental harms and risks to human health. This article explores one possible approach to mitigating CAFO-caused harms. It argues that CAFO regulation under any one of three Clean Air Act ("CAA ") programs will result in net benefits, not just for air quality, but also for other CAFO-caused harms and thus, that CAA regulation of CAFOs is a no-lose strategy. The article then goes further to conclude that, while regulation under any …


Meic V. Deq, Kirsten D. Gerbatsch May 2021

Meic V. Deq, Kirsten D. Gerbatsch

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Hecla Mining Company and its subsidiaries want to develop two industrial silver and copper mines­­––the Montanore and Rock Creek projects––beneath northwest Montana’s Cabinet Mountains Wilderness. Environmental organizations, in just one of a series of legal challenges to protect high-quality designated resource waters and unique bull trout and grizzly bear habitat, brought an action seeking a declaration that Montana Department of Environmental Quality’s issuance of a permit for the Montanore Project was unlawful. The Montana Supreme Court, in a four-member majority, affirmed the district court’s vacatur and remanded the case to the state agency for further proceedings. The decision is celebrated …


Florida's Harmful Algal Blooms: Tiny Organisms Needing Massive Legislation, Jillian Barnard Feb 2021

Florida's Harmful Algal Blooms: Tiny Organisms Needing Massive Legislation, Jillian Barnard

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

No abstract provided.


California Should Lead The Nation In Controlling Agricultural Pollution, Helen H. Kang, Deborah Sivas May 2020

California Should Lead The Nation In Controlling Agricultural Pollution, Helen H. Kang, Deborah Sivas

Publications

Agricultural runoff is one of the largest sources of pollution in the nation’s waterways. In recent years, scientific journals and the media have been filled with reports of toxic algae blooms and dead zones near and far: The Everglades, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, and San Francisco Bay-Delta. Agricultural pollution also threatens public health in communities that rely on tainted groundwater. In California alone, more than a quarter million residents in largely agricultural areas are served by water systems with degraded groundwater quality.


Protecting Water Quality In Virginia: Recommendations To Combat Sea Level Rise And Increased Storm Events, Madhavi Kulkarni Apr 2020

Protecting Water Quality In Virginia: Recommendations To Combat Sea Level Rise And Increased Storm Events, Madhavi Kulkarni

Virginia Coastal Policy Center

Impairment of Virginia waters is tied to coastal storm hazards and sea level rise because excess floodwaters are contaminated by flood-exposed industrial and residential facilities, and these toxic floodwaters flow into the state’s water bodies. In Virginia, thousands of industrial facilities can potentially be subjected to the effects of stormwater flooding, hurricane storm surge, and sea level rise, in turn affecting water quality. Failing or unmaintained septic systems also pose a major threat to the quality of Virginia waters that increases with recurrent inundation by flood waters. A combination of changes to law and policy and investment in infrastructure are …


Water Resilience Portfolio, January 2020, California Natural Resources Agency, California Environmental Protection Agency, California Department Of Food And Agriculture Jan 2020

Water Resilience Portfolio, January 2020, California Natural Resources Agency, California Environmental Protection Agency, California Department Of Food And Agriculture

California Agencies

In April 2019, Governor Newsom directed state agencies through Executive Order N-10-19 to develop a “water resilience portfolio,” described as a set of actions to meet California’s water needs through the 21st century. The order identified seven principles on which to base this portfolio:

  • Prioritize multi-benefit approaches that meet several needs at once » Utilize natural infrastructure such as forests and floodplains
  • Embrace innovation and new technologies
  • Encourage regional approaches among water users sharing watersheds
  • Incorporate successful approaches from other parts of the world
  • Integrate investments, policies, and programs across state government
  • Strengthen partnerships with local, federal and tribal governments, …


Ohio's Avoidance Of Total Maximum Daily Load And The Continued Relevance Of The Constructive Submission Doctrine, Ashley Kirk Dec 2019

Ohio's Avoidance Of Total Maximum Daily Load And The Continued Relevance Of The Constructive Submission Doctrine, Ashley Kirk

Global Business Law Review

This Note examines several provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA)—in particular, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)—in the context of recent litigation over the State of Ohio’s plan to address Lake Erie water quality. It looks at the role of TMDLs in CWA implementation and explains Ohio’s response to Lake Erie water quality, asserting that Ohio’s ranking of Lake Erie as a "low priority," in conjunction with its plan to follow a non-binding international agreement, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, is simply an attempt to create another CWA loophole and avoid TMDL obligations. This Note also considers federal courts' …


Clean Drinking Water: A Stream Of Success And Opportunity For Reform, Kayla Weiser-Burton May 2019

Clean Drinking Water: A Stream Of Success And Opportunity For Reform, Kayla Weiser-Burton

Utah Law Review

The SDWA was a major regulatory step in protecting the nation’s drinking water and the public’s health. Creating a uniform set of regulations for levels of viruses, bacteria, and chemicals ensured cleaner water for all citizens and ultimately has allowed the United States to provide some of the cleanest water worldwide. The revisions made in 1986, 1996, and 2016 have continued to expand the SDWA by listing more contaminants for regulation as well as providing more federal funding to assist water providers in meeting these objectives.


Balancing Act: Water Quality Protection And Flood Resilience, Samatha Becker Apr 2019

Balancing Act: Water Quality Protection And Flood Resilience, Samatha Becker

Virginia Coastal Policy Center

Flood resilience efforts and laws designed to protect water quality may not always be compatible under current Virginia law. This paper will discuss two examples in particular. First, there can be tensions between the water quality goals under the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act and efforts to conduct flood resilience projects within 100 feet of the shoreline in Tidewater Virginia. Second, there are significant challenges faced by localities seeking to comply with the Virginia Stormwater Management Program, while also continuing to mitigate the impacts of flooding. These two examples stem from the larger question facing Virginia: as flooding increases, how does …


2003 - California Bulletin 118 - Update Mar 2019

2003 - California Bulletin 118 - Update

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

This is an update of the California Bulletin 118. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) recognized the need for collection, summary, and evaluation of groundwater data as tools in planning optimal use of the groundwater resource. Bulletin 118 presents the results of groundwater basin evaluations in California. The Bulletin 118 series was preceded by Water Quality Investigations Report No. 3, Ground Water Basins in California (referred to in this bulletin as Report No. 3), published in 1952 by the Department of Public Works, Division of Water Resources (the predecessor of DWR). The purpose of Report No. 3 was to …


2003 - Geohydrologic Framework Of Recharge And Seawater Intrusion In The Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz And Monterey Counties, California Jan 2019

2003 - Geohydrologic Framework Of Recharge And Seawater Intrusion In The Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz And Monterey Counties, California

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

The Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) must deal with issues of both water supply and water quality. Managing water resources for agricultural and municipal users requires maintaining a reliable water supply to meet growing demands while preventing ground-water overdraft and the related degradation of water quality. Important regional water-quality concerns include increased nitrate concentrations and seawater intrusion. To protect the quantity and quality of the ground-water supplies, the PVWMA has implemented a plan to prevent further seawater intrusion. In order to evaluate how these activities can be conducted most effectively, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the …


2001 - Hydrogeologic Investigation Of Salinas Valley Basin In The Vicinity Of Fort Ord And Marina Salinas Valley, California - Final Report Jan 2019

2001 - Hydrogeologic Investigation Of Salinas Valley Basin In The Vicinity Of Fort Ord And Marina Salinas Valley, California - Final Report

Monterey County Water Resources Agency Engineering Reports

This report evaluated the then current state or potential for seawater intrusion in the city of Marina and the former Fort Order area. Groundwater from this area primarily supplied drinking water wells as opposed to agricultural wells. Aquifers evaluated in this study area include the perched zone or A-aquifer, the Pressure 180-Foot Aquifer (180-Foot Aquifer), the Pressure 400-Foot Aquifer ( 400-Foot Aquifer), the Deep Aquifer, and aquifers within the Purisima and Santa Margarita Formations. The I80-Foot and 400-Foot Aquifers are the focus of this study because both aquifers outcrop along the canyon walls of Monterey Bay where they interface with …


2002 - North Monterey County Comprehensive Water Resources Management Plan Jan 2019

2002 - North Monterey County Comprehensive Water Resources Management Plan

Monterey County Water Resources Agency Water Reports

North Monterey County experiences severe water supply and quality problems including falling water levels, seawater intrusion, and nitrate contamination. The region is in a significant state of overdraft where current demands greatly exceed the annual level of recharge. Without increased supplies, dramatic changes need to occur to the North County land use pattern to reduce demand. The Comprehensive Water Resources Management Plan combines water conservation, water supply, water quality, and land use actions into comprehensive policy alternatives. It is clear, however, that capital facilities are necessary if the problem is to be solved.

The study area overlies a portion of …


1997 - Water Resources Data Report, Water Year 1994-1995 Jan 2019

1997 - Water Resources Data Report, Water Year 1994-1995

Monterey County Water Resources Agency Water Reports

California State legislation outlines the objectives and purposes of the Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) and states that the MCWRA is to “carry on technical and other necessary investigations, make measurements, collect data, make analyses, studies and inspections pertaining to water supply, water rights, control of flood and storm waters and use of water both within and outside of the agency ...” The MCWRA is responsible for the managing, planning and engineering of the water resources of the Salinas Valley. This report was prepared in part to fulfill that responsibility.


Red Mining: Mining And The Right To Water In Porgera, Papua New Guinea, Human Rights Institute, Earth Institute Jan 2019

Red Mining: Mining And The Right To Water In Porgera, Papua New Guinea, Human Rights Institute, Earth Institute

Human Rights Institute

An interdisciplinary study of the human right to water in the villages near the Porgera Joint Venture (PJV) gold mine in Papua New Guinea (PNG) finds that local residents do not have consistent access to sufficient, acceptable, and safe water, or adequate information about their water resources. It concludes that the PNG government and the mining companies Barrick Gold and Zijin Mining, as well as their jointly controlled operator of the mine, Barrick (Niugini) Limited (BNL), can do more to meet their human rights obligations and responsibilities.


Calming Troubled Waters: Local Solutions, Part I, John R. Nolon Jan 2019

Calming Troubled Waters: Local Solutions, Part I, John R. Nolon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In 1861, the Ohio Supreme Court adopted the Absolute Use Rule to govern groundwater, essentially allowing landowners its unencumbered use. The opinion noted that the behavior of subterranean water was “occult and mysterious” and that it was beyond the competence of judges to determine its appropriate use. The Ohio court reversed course in 1984 and adopted the Reasonable Use Rule. By then, scientific knowledge had advanced to the point that the interconnected movement of water was more readily discoverable. The court noted that a primary goal of water law should be to conform to hydrologic fact. This Article explores the …


2006 - Salinas Valley Integrated Regional Water Management Functionally Equivalent Plan Summary Document Update Dec 2018

2006 - Salinas Valley Integrated Regional Water Management Functionally Equivalent Plan Summary Document Update

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) and the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) are encouraging local and regional water management planners to establish integrated regional water management plans through the collaboration of planning efforts and project coordination. The intent is to encourage planners to implement projects focused on meeting multiple water resources needs on a regional basis. Jointly, both agencies are soliciting grant applications for Proposition 50 Chapter 8 grant funding, which was established to provide a fiscal tool to support integrated regional water management. In order to take advantage of this funding opportunity, Monterey County Water Resources …


2016 - Memorandum Of Understanding For Integrated Regional Water Management In The Greater Monterey County Region With Amendments Through December 2016 Dec 2018

2016 - Memorandum Of Understanding For Integrated Regional Water Management In The Greater Monterey County Region With Amendments Through December 2016

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

An Integrated Regional Water Management Plan (IRWM Plan) developed by 18 member entities that include government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational organizations, water service districts, private water companies, and organizations representing agricultural, environmental, and community interests. The IRWM Plan is an expansion and modification of a previous plan – the May 2006 Salinas Valley Integrated Regional Water Management Functionally Equivalent Plan developed by Monterey County Water Resources Agency. This MOU recognizes the joint commitment of the undersigned parties to develop an IRWM Plan for the Greater Monterey County Region. The MOU does not impose any further commitments or obligations upon any …


Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii May 2018

Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the nation. Recreational marijuana use is legal in eight states. Medical marijuana use is legal in thirteen states. Only three states maintain an absolute criminal prohibition on marijuana use. Many of these legalization initiatives propose to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol, and many titles are variations of the "Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act." For political and public health reasons the analogy makes sense, but it also reveals a regulatory blind spot. States may be using alcohol as a model for regulating the distribution, retail, and consumption of marijuana, but marijuana is much more …


Safe Drinking Water In The U.S.: A Prediction Of When The Entire U.S. Population Will Have Access To Safe Drinking Water, Blossom Hamika, Haley Merrill, Zoyla Orellana Jan 2018

Safe Drinking Water In The U.S.: A Prediction Of When The Entire U.S. Population Will Have Access To Safe Drinking Water, Blossom Hamika, Haley Merrill, Zoyla Orellana

Math 365 Class Projects

This research is to show when all of the U.S. will have access to safe drinking water.


The Semicommons And Wisconsin Water Quality, David A. Strifling Jan 2018

The Semicommons And Wisconsin Water Quality, David A. Strifling

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

From the Great Lakes to pristine northern streams, Wisconsin boasts a plentiful and valuable array of water resources. Yet water stress analyses show that this natural capital is deeply threatened in a variety of ways. The pressure results primarily from human activity, ranging from general overuse to colonization by anthropogenically introduced non-native species. Some of the greatest water quality problems, however, are caused by land use practices that lead to polluted runoff from farm fields and urban settings. The onset of climate change has the potential to further exacerbate all of this. These issues, coupled with the failure of existing …