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Metaphor

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Violence Of Free Speech And Press Metaphors, Erin C. Carroll Jan 2024

The Violence Of Free Speech And Press Metaphors, Erin C. Carroll

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Today, our free speech marketplace is often overwhelming, confusing, and even dangerous. Threats, misdirection, and lies abound. Online firestorms lead to offline violence. This Article argues that the way we conceptualize free speech and the free press are partly to blame: our metaphors are hurting us.

The primary metaphor courts have used for a century to describe free speech—the marketplace of ideas—has been linked to violence since its inception. Originating in a case about espionage and revolution, in a dissent written by Oliver Wendell Holmes, a thrice-injured Civil War veteran, the marketplace has been described as a space where competition …


Animation As An Early Source For Metaphor Acquisition By Younger Children, Dr. Mahmoud Arif Edan Nov 2022

Animation As An Early Source For Metaphor Acquisition By Younger Children, Dr. Mahmoud Arif Edan

Midad AL-Adab Refereed Quarterly Journal

The purpose of this study is to highlight evidence the animations the primary source for younger children to acquire metaphors. They can make use of those cartoons to recognise and activate their conceptual maps. The study applied the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) by Lakoff, & Johnson (1980) to be the theoretical framework of this study. The data collection is one-on-one method interviews (or face to face) which is the major and commonest type of the data collection methods in research whose nature is qualitative, yet this research applies the mixed method that combines the prose of the quantitative and qualitative …


The Romantic Author As Compelled Speaker, Sonya G. Bonneau Nov 2022

The Romantic Author As Compelled Speaker, Sonya G. Bonneau

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The romantic author trope has been extensively criticized in the copyright context, yet it threatens to emerge as a new pillar of First Amendment compelled speech jurisprudence. Justice Thomas’s concurring opinion in Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission exemplifies the trope’s rhetorical power, and the costs of that approach. Casting the baker as an artist, Justice Thomas finds that creating custom wedding cakes was speech, and that applying a public accommodations law to require service to a same-sex couple triggered strict scrutiny review. This is an extraordinary result. Although the Court never adjudicated the compelled speech claim, it will …


Creativity In Language: Reflections On Polysemy, Metaphors, Idioms, Collocations…And The Like, Adel Sakakini, Diana Hadi Jan 2020

Creativity In Language: Reflections On Polysemy, Metaphors, Idioms, Collocations…And The Like, Adel Sakakini, Diana Hadi

BAU Journal - Society, Culture and Human Behavior

According to Ronald Carter (2011), Creativity is such a complex and protean term to define. It involves inventiveness, imagination, novelty, originality and a myriad of other aspects. In language, in particular, creativity manifests itself in humans’ ability to produce an infinite number of sentences never spoken before and understand sentences never heard before or what Chomsky calls “creative aspect” of language use (Fromkin and Rodman, 1993.) It is of two types: rule-bound creativity and rule-breaking creativity. The researchers explore creativity employed in different language discourse such as slips of the pen, slips of the tongue, oxymoron, paradox, collocation, blends, anomaly, …


Law, Metaphor, And The Encrypted Machine, Lex Gill Sep 2018

Law, Metaphor, And The Encrypted Machine, Lex Gill

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

The metaphors we use to imagine, describe, and regulate new technologies have profound legal implications. This article offers a critical examination of the metaphors we choose to describe encryption technology and aims to uncover some of the normative and legal implications of those choices. The article begins with a basic technical backgrounder and reviews the main legal and policy problems raised by strong encryption. Then it explores the relationship between metaphor and the law, demonstrating that legal metaphor may be particularly determinative wherever the law seeks to integrate novel technologies into old legal frameworks. The article establishes a loose framework …


Savages, Victims, And Saviors: The Metaphor Of Human Rights, Makau Mutua Nov 2017

Savages, Victims, And Saviors: The Metaphor Of Human Rights, Makau Mutua

Makau Mutua

This article critically looks at the human rights project as a damning three-dimensional metaphor that exposes multiple complexes. It argues that the grand narrative of human rights contains a subtext which depicts an epochal contest pitting savages, on the one hand, against victims and saviors, on the other. The savages-victims-saviors (SVS) construction lays bare some of the hypocrisies of the human rights project and asks human rights thinkers and advocates to become more self-reflective. The piece questions the universality and cultural neutrality of the human rights project. It calls for the construction of a truly universal human rights corpus, one …


Speech And Strife, Robert L. Tsai Nov 2016

Speech And Strife, Robert L. Tsai

Robert L Tsai

The essay strives for a better understanding of the myths, symbols, categories of power, and images deployed by the Supreme Court to signal how we ought to think about its authority. Taking examples from free speech jurisprudence, the essay proceeds in three steps. First, Tsai argues that the First Amendment constitutes a deep source of cultural authority for the Court. As a result, linguistic and doctrinal innovation in the free speech area have been at least as bold and imaginative as that in areas like the Commerce Clause. Second, in turning to cognitive theory, he distinguishes between formal legal argumentation …


Democracy's Handmaid, Robert L. Tsai Nov 2016

Democracy's Handmaid, Robert L. Tsai

Robert L Tsai

Democratic theory presupposes open channels of dialogue, but focuses almost exclusively on matters of institutional design writ large. The philosophy of language explicates linguistic infrastructure, but often avoids exploring the political significance of its findings. In this Article, Tsai draws from the two disciplines to reach new insights about the democracy enhancing qualities of popular constitutional language. Employing examples from the founding era, the struggle for black civil rights, the religious awakening of the last two decades, and the search for gay equality, he presents a model of constitutional dialogue that emphasizes common modalities and mobilized vernacular. According to this …


Very Like A Whale: Analogy And The Law, Jeffrey D. Kahn Jan 2016

Very Like A Whale: Analogy And The Law, Jeffrey D. Kahn

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Analogical reasoning is common in legal writing, just as analogies are a part of everyday life. Indeed, they may be inescapable features of human cognition. Used well, analogies illuminate the writer’s reasons and persuade the reader. Used poorly, however, they may obscure or even replace the precision and detail in reasoning that is crucial to the development of law. Without entering the ongoing debate about the nature of human thought, this article explores some of the dangers present in the relationship that analogy maintains with law. In particular, the article examines the risks inherent in analogizing across a technological or …


Ip As Metaphor, Brian L. Frye Jul 2015

Ip As Metaphor, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Everybody hates intellectual property trolls. They are parasites, who abuse intellectual property by forcing innovators to pay an unjust toll. Even worse are intellectual property pirates. They are thieves, who steal intellectual property by using it without the consent of its owner. By contrast, everybody loves innovators. They are farmers, entitled to reap what they have sown and enjoy the fruits of their labor.

But trolls, pirates, and farmers are metaphors. A "troll" abuses intellectual property only if its ownership or use of that intellectual property is unjustified, a "pirate" steals intellectual property only if the ownership of that intellectual …


Andy Warhol’S Pantry, Brian L. Frye Apr 2015

Andy Warhol’S Pantry, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article examines Andy Warhol’s use of food and food products as a metaphor for commerce and consumption. It observes that Warhol’s use of images and marks was often inconsistent with copyright and trademark doctrine, and suggests that the fair use doctrine should in-corporate a “Warhol test.”


Speech And Strife, Robert Tsai Mar 2015

Speech And Strife, Robert Tsai

Robert L. Tsai

The essay strives for a better understanding of the myths, symbols, categories of power, and images deployed by the Supreme Court to signal how we ought to think about its authority. Taking examples from free speech jurisprudence, the essay proceeds in three steps. First, Tsai argues that the First Amendment constitutes a deep source of cultural authority for the Court. As a result, linguistic and doctrinal innovation in the free speech area have been at least as bold and imaginative as that in areas like the Commerce Clause. Second, in turning to cognitive theory, he distinguishes between formal legal argumentation …


Democracy's Handmaid, Robert Tsai Mar 2015

Democracy's Handmaid, Robert Tsai

Robert L. Tsai

Democratic theory presupposes open channels of dialogue, but focuses almost exclusively on matters of institutional design writ large. The philosophy of language explicates linguistic infrastructure, but often avoids exploring the political significance of its findings. In this Article, Tsai draws from the two disciplines to reach new insights about the democracy enhancing qualities of popular constitutional language. Employing examples from the founding era, the struggle for black civil rights, the religious awakening of the last two decades, and the search for gay equality, he presents a model of constitutional dialogue that emphasizes common modalities and mobilized vernacular. According to this …


Causality In Contemporary American Sociology: An Empirical Assessment And Critique, Brandon Vaidyanathan, Michael Strand, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Thomas Buschman, Meghan Davis, Amanda Varela Feb 2015

Causality In Contemporary American Sociology: An Empirical Assessment And Critique, Brandon Vaidyanathan, Michael Strand, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Thomas Buschman, Meghan Davis, Amanda Varela

School of Peace Studies: Faculty Scholarship

Using a unique data set of causal usage drawn from research articles published between 2006–2008 in the American Journal of Sociology and American Sociological Review, this article offers an empirical assessment of causality in American sociology. Testing various aspects of what we consider the conventional wisdom on causality in the discipline, we find that (1) “variablistic” or “covering law” models are not the dominant way of making causal claims, (2) research methods affect but do not determine causal usage, and (3) the use of explicit causal language and the concept of “mechanisms” to make causal claims is limited. Instead, we …


Ballad Of A Thin Man: Sociolegal Studies In A Time Of Postmodern Crisis, Jonathan Simon Oct 2014

Ballad Of A Thin Man: Sociolegal Studies In A Time Of Postmodern Crisis, Jonathan Simon

Jonathan S Simon

This article comments on a speech by Boaventura de Sousa Santos which was addressed to the Law and Society Association during its Annual Meeting on June 3, 1995 in Toronto, Canada, about the metaphors of a new conception of law. According to Santos, what is taking place, as of 1995, is simultaneously a crisis of subjectivity and government. The project of emancipation, Santos suggests, has collapsed into regulation. Santos offers three metaphors for the kinds of knowledge and law which may facilitate the construction of postmodern subjectivities. In the frontier, the baroque, and the South, Santos finds emancipatory possibilities. He …


The Worst Test Of Truth: The "Marketplace Of Ideas" As Faulty Metaphor, Thomas W. Joo Feb 2014

The Worst Test Of Truth: The "Marketplace Of Ideas" As Faulty Metaphor, Thomas W. Joo

Thomas W Joo

In his famous dissent in Abrams v. United States, Justice Holmes proclaimed that “the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market.” This Article critiques the basic argument against speech regulation that has developed from the “marketplace of ideas” metaphor: that speech should be “free” because markets are “free,” and because free markets produce “truth.” These assertions about markets are taken for granted, but they portray markets and market regulation inaccurately; thus economic markets provide a poor analogy for the deregulation of speech.

First Amendment jurisprudence invokes the …


Metaphor And Analogy: The Sun And Moon Of Legal Persuasion, Linda L. Berger Jan 2014

Metaphor And Analogy: The Sun And Moon Of Legal Persuasion, Linda L. Berger

Linda L. Berger

Drawing on recent studies in social cognition, decision making, and analogical processing, this article will recommend that lawyers turn to novel characterizations and metaphors to solve a particular kind of persuasion problem that is created by the way judges and juries think and decide. According to social cognition researchers, we perceive and interpret new information by following a process of schematic cognition, analogizing the new data we encounter to the knowledge structures embedded in our memories. Decision-making researchers differentiate between intuitive and reflective processes (System 1 and System 2), and they agree that in System 1 decision making, only the …


The Law Is A Causeway: Metaphor And The Rule Of Law In Russia, Jeffrey D. Kahn Jan 2014

The Law Is A Causeway: Metaphor And The Rule Of Law In Russia, Jeffrey D. Kahn

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

The chapter explores how a metaphor for the rule of law created by the playwright Robert Bolt captures the difficulty that Russia has experienced in its self-proclaimed pursuit of a rule-of-law state: "The law is not a 'light' for you or any man to see by; the law is n instrument of any kind. The law is a causeway upon which, so long as he keeps to it, a citizen may walk safely." In Russia, the failure to build a rule-of-law state has been, among other things, a failure to create what this metaphor describes as the essence of that …


Table Annexed To Article: Our Constitutional Kinesis: Words That Can Go Like A Machine, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Mar 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Our Constitutional Kinesis: Words That Can Go Like A Machine, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Americans have long been known for their appreciation of the kinetic effort involved in writing constitutional text, as long as the work begun at York, Pa (October, 1777) is subordinated to that commenced at Philadelphia (May, 1787). Gathered in one place are selected ‘machine’ quotes by which text itself is ennobled as automaton. OCL lists and reports for further investigation into this phenomenon.


A Revised View Of The Judicial Hunch, Linda L. Berger Jan 2013

A Revised View Of The Judicial Hunch, Linda L. Berger

Linda L. Berger

Judicial intuition is misunderstood. Labeled as cognitive bias, it is held responsible for stereotypes of character and credibility. Framed as mental shortcut, it is blamed for overconfident and mistaken predictions. Depicted as flashes of insight, it takes credit for unearned wisdom. The true value of judicial intuition falls somewhere in between. When judges are making judgments about people (he looks trustworthy) or the future (she will be the better parent), the critics are correct: intuition based on past experience may close minds. Once a judge recognizes a familiar pattern in a few details, she may fail to see the whole …


Metaphor In Law As Poetic And Propositional Language, Linda L. Berger Jan 2013

Metaphor In Law As Poetic And Propositional Language, Linda L. Berger

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Metaphor And Analogy: The Sun And Moon Of Legal Persuasion, Linda L. Berger Jan 2013

Metaphor And Analogy: The Sun And Moon Of Legal Persuasion, Linda L. Berger

Scholarly Works

Drawing on recent studies of social cognition, decision making, and analogical processing, this article recommends that lawyers turn to novel characterizations and metaphors to solve a particular kind of persuasion problem that is created by the way judges and juries think and decide. According to social cognition researchers, we perceive and interpret new information by following a process of schematic cognition, analogizing the new data we encounter to the knowledge structures embedded in our memories. Decision-making researchers differentiate between intuitive and reflective processes (System 1 and System 2), and they agree that in System 1 decision making, only the most …


Metaphor In Law As Poetic And Propositional Language, Linda L. Berger Dec 2012

Metaphor In Law As Poetic And Propositional Language, Linda L. Berger

Linda L. Berger

My argument in this essay is that although lawyers routinely use and abuse metaphor as propositional language, they mostly neglect the use of metaphor as poetic language. Poetic metaphor openly invites you to view a topic or a target from a new angle by setting it against or alongside a light source; in this way, it prompts second looks and encourages insights. Propositional metaphor, by comparison, appears designed to persuade you to view the target or the topic under discussion as something you already know about because of your experience with the source. As a result, you are better able …


Like A Glass Slipper On Step-Sister, How The One-Ring Rules Them All At Trial, Cathren Page Jul 2012

Like A Glass Slipper On Step-Sister, How The One-Ring Rules Them All At Trial, Cathren Page

Cathren Page

The literary concept of an endowed object can weave a thread of narrative continuity throughout a trial and resonates in the mind of the judge or juror. In literature, an endowed object is a material object that reverberates with symbolic significance throughout the story. The object can develop the theme, character, and emotions. Examples include Cinderella’s glass slipper, the one-ring, the handkerchief in Othello, and the mocking jay pin from The Hunger Games. Endowed objects have been persuasive symbols in famous trials as well. Endowed objects include the glove in the O.J. Simpson murder trial and John Wilkes Booth’s boot …


The Count's Dilemma, Or, Harmony And Dissonance In Legal Language, Ian Gallacher Jan 2012

The Count's Dilemma, Or, Harmony And Dissonance In Legal Language, Ian Gallacher

Ian Gallacher

Lawyers have had a long, but ambivalent, relationship with metaphor. Viewed by some as a mere literary device, a trick of language that "adds little of substance to an argument," metaphor is seen by others as an essential component of legal language, a rhetorical device inseparable from thought. On one thing, though, all can agree: lawyers only have words to express their thoughts, so they have an obligation to use words, whether used metaphorically or not, as exactly as possible. This article offers a critique of the way lawyers meet this obligation when they use metaphors based in musical language. …


The Count's Dilemma, Or, Harmony And Dissonance In Legal Language, Ian Gallacher Jan 2012

The Count's Dilemma, Or, Harmony And Dissonance In Legal Language, Ian Gallacher

College of Law - Faculty Scholarship

Lawyers have had a long, but ambivalent, relationship with metaphor. Viewed by some as a mere literary device, a trick of language that "adds little of substance to an argument," metaphor is seen by others as an essential component of legal language, a rhetorical device inseparable from thought. On one thing, though, all can agree: lawyers only have words to express their thoughts, so they have an obligation to use words, whether used metaphorically or not, as exactly as possible.

This article offers a critique of the way lawyers meet this obligation when they use metaphors based in musical language. …


Failed Constitutional Metaphors: The Wall Of Separation And The Penumbra, Louis J. Sirico Jr. Jan 2011

Failed Constitutional Metaphors: The Wall Of Separation And The Penumbra, Louis J. Sirico Jr.

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Lady, Or The Tiger? A Field Guide To Metaphor & Narrative, Linda L. Berger Jan 2011

The Lady, Or The Tiger? A Field Guide To Metaphor & Narrative, Linda L. Berger

Scholarly Works

Metaphor and narrative reassure us that things hang together, providing a sense of coherence to the patterns and paths we employ for perception and expression. In this field guide, I hope to illustrate - with images and stories when possible - how better understanding of metaphor and narrative can guide those engaged in legal rhetoric and persuasion.

The article briefly summarizes cognitive theory relating to metaphor and narrative, provides snapshots of their use in the field, in real-life legal persuasion, and suggests ways to adapt metaphor and narrative to a specific example of legal persuasion. In the field guide section, …


The Lady, Or The Tiger? A Field Guide To Metaphor And Narrative, Linda L. Berger Dec 2010

The Lady, Or The Tiger? A Field Guide To Metaphor And Narrative, Linda L. Berger

Linda L. Berger

Metaphor and narrative reassure us that things hang together, providing a sense of coherence to the patterns and paths we employ for perception and expression. In this field guide, I hope to illustrate—with images and stories when possible—how better understanding of metaphor and narrative can guide those engaged in legal rhetoric and persuasion. The article briefly summarizes cognitive theory relating to metaphor and narrative, provides snapshots of their use in the field, in real-life legal persuasion, and suggests ways to adapt metaphor and narrative to a specific example of legal persuasion. In the field guide section, the article uncovers a …


A Sense Of Disentitlement: Frame-Shifting And Metaphor In Ashcroft V. Iqbal, Lisa A. Eichhorn Sep 2010

A Sense Of Disentitlement: Frame-Shifting And Metaphor In Ashcroft V. Iqbal, Lisa A. Eichhorn

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.