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Full-Text Articles in Law

Give Or Take—Is The Droit De Suite A Taking Without Just Compensation?, Jeremy Cohen Jan 2024

Give Or Take—Is The Droit De Suite A Taking Without Just Compensation?, Jeremy Cohen

Pepperdine Law Review

The Constitution mandates Congress to protect the arts and sciences directly by creating an exclusive right called copyright. However, visual artists such as painters, sculptors, and photographers in the United States still cannot participate in the significant profits from the secondary sales of their copyrighted works at public and private auctions. In over eighty countries worldwide, the droit de suite, also known as the Artist Resale Royalty (ARR), grants visual artists such royalties. Unfortunately, the United States currently lacks such a royalty, despite multiple unsuccessful attempts by Congress to pass federal legislation. Although California enacted its own version of the …


Brief For Former And Current Law Library Directors, Professors, And Academics As Amici Curiae In Support Of Defendant-Appellant, Michelle M. Wu, Austin Martin Williams Dec 2023

Brief For Former And Current Law Library Directors, Professors, And Academics As Amici Curiae In Support Of Defendant-Appellant, Michelle M. Wu, Austin Martin Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Copyright Act and libraries have a shared purpose: to spread knowledge to the public. See Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., 510 U.S. 569, 574 (1994) (noting the purpose of copyright is “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts”). Libraries rely on balanced, careful application of the fair use balancing test to achieve that purpose. Amici respectfully submit that the District Court's decision collapsed copyright law's multi-part fair-use balancing test into a theory focused primarily on economics. Amici further respectfully submit that the District Court's fair-use analysis was broadly applied to Internet Archive's (IA) activities without distinguishing …


Copyright Fiduciaries: Problems And Solutions, Jessica Silbey Oct 2023

Copyright Fiduciaries: Problems And Solutions, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

Andrew Gilden & Eva E. Subotnik, Copyright’s Capacity Gap, 57 U.C. Davis L. Rev. __ (forthcoming, 2023), available at SSRN (Aug. 9, 2023).

In this forthcoming article, Andrew Gilden and Eva Subotnik begin an important conversation about an underexplored area of copyright law. Their focus is copyright law’s inconsistent treatment of mental capacity. Under copyright law, copyright authors can produce valuable copyrighted work but those same authors may lack the legal capacity to make decisions about if, when, or how to exploit that work. For example, children and people with mental illness or disability can be copyright authors, but …


The Social Value Of Intellectual Property, Alina Ng Boyte Jul 2023

The Social Value Of Intellectual Property, Alina Ng Boyte

IP Theory

No abstract provided.


Fair’S Fair: How Public Benefit Considerations In The Fair Use Doctrine Can Patch Bias In Artificial Intelligence Systems, Patrick K. Lin Jul 2023

Fair’S Fair: How Public Benefit Considerations In The Fair Use Doctrine Can Patch Bias In Artificial Intelligence Systems, Patrick K. Lin

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) expands relentlessly despite well documented examples of bias in AI systems, from facial recognition failing to differentiate between darker-skinned faces to hiring tools discriminating against female candidates. These biases can be introduced to AI systems in a variety of ways; however, a major source of bias is found in training datasets, the collection of images, text, audio, or information used to build and train AI systems. This Article first grapples with the pressure copyright law exerts on AI developers and researchers to use biased training data to build algorithms, focusing on the potential risk …


Visualizing Copyright Law: Lessons From Conceptual Artists, Sandra M. Aistars Jun 2023

Visualizing Copyright Law: Lessons From Conceptual Artists, Sandra M. Aistars

Akron Law Review

Copyright law does not require an object to be “art” to be protectable, except in one respect: copyright protection does not extend to useful articles. As a result, courts engage in analysis strikingly similar to that of conceptual artists visualizing art. Copyright law has an uneasy relationship with conceptual art because the Copyright Act also requires works to be original and fixed in a tangible medium. Requirements that have led some to conclude that the kind of art where “the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work” should not be protectable by copyright.

This article examines …


Game On—Copyrighted Tattoos In Video Games As Fair Use, Emilie Smith Jun 2023

Game On—Copyrighted Tattoos In Video Games As Fair Use, Emilie Smith

Marquette Law Review

With its fact-intensive inquiries and limited bright-line rules, copyright law is known for its ambiguity, and courts often differ in their interpretations of various doctrines. The fair use doctrine is no different, and was in fact designed to grant courts discretion in making their determinations, all with the aim of maintaining the true purpose of the copyright law. Recent technologies and popularized forms of art only complicate things, adding rougher terrain to an already confusing landscape.


We Are Never Getting Back Together: A Statutory Framework For Reconciling Artist/Label Relationships, Harrison Simons Jun 2023

We Are Never Getting Back Together: A Statutory Framework For Reconciling Artist/Label Relationships, Harrison Simons

Washington Law Review Online

Taylor Swift could tell you a thing or two about record label drama. Artists like Swift who want to break into the big leagues and top the charts must rely on record labels’ deep pockets and institutional knowledge to do so. But artists, especially young ones, are often asked to sign deals with labels that leave them with little control over their careers. For many, the risk is worth the reward. However, many others come to regret their decision, with careers that languish or sputter out in label purgatory. Anyone with an ear for the music industry knows that artist-label …


Give Starving Artists A Piece Of The Ip Pie: Making Room At The Table For Performers’ Rights, Meagan A. Sharp May 2023

Give Starving Artists A Piece Of The Ip Pie: Making Room At The Table For Performers’ Rights, Meagan A. Sharp

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

Creators protect their valuable intellectual property interests through copyright. Historically, stage performers struggled to secure copyright ownership in their performances within a larger production. As the theatre landscape changes, however, trends indicate that producers will increasingly rely on performers to develop characters and shows. This reliance could prove to be an exploitative practice if performers do not receive additional compensation for their part in creating successful works. This Note first examines the meanings of authorship, fixation, and control under the Copyright Act of 1976, then widens its lens to consider alternate interpretations of these technical terms in light of an …


A System Out Of Balance: A Critical Analysis Of Philosophical Justifications For Copyright Law Through The Lenz Of Users' Rights, Mitchell Longan Apr 2023

A System Out Of Balance: A Critical Analysis Of Philosophical Justifications For Copyright Law Through The Lenz Of Users' Rights, Mitchell Longan

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Ultimately, this Article has three goals. The first is to offer an analysis of users’ rights under copyright law from four commonly used theoretical perspectives. These are labor, personality, economic and utilitarian theories. In doing so, this Article will demonstrate that the philosophies that underpin modern copyright law support a broad and liberal set of rights for derivative creativity. It will argue that current treatment of derivative works is unnecessarily conservative from a theoretical perspective. Second, this Article will demonstrate how, in spite of theory that supports a healthy community of derivative creativity, those who practice it have been further …


Harmonizing Music Theory And Music Law, Peter Nicolas Mar 2023

Harmonizing Music Theory And Music Law, Peter Nicolas

Articles

Those litigating and adjudicating music copyright disputes find themselves at the intersection of two complex fields: U.S. copyright law and music theory. While the attorneys and judges typically have at least some experience with the former, neither they nor the jurors typically have formal training in or experience with the latter. As a result, legal opinions purporting to incorporate musical concepts sometimes fail to do so accurately, resulting in decisions that are inconsistent with copyright law and policy.

This Article seeks to harmonize U.S. copyright law with relevant principles of music theory. It begins with an accessible primer on basic …


Co-Authorship Between Photographers And Portrait Subjects, Molly Torsen Stech Feb 2023

Co-Authorship Between Photographers And Portrait Subjects, Molly Torsen Stech

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

work with the intent of merging their contributions into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole, the authors are considered joint authors. For photographic works, judicial precedent establishes that the creative contributions necessary to support a copyright claim include the author’s choices concerning elements such as lighting, pose, garments, background, facial expression, and angle. In many visual works, however, those creative elements are determined not solely by a photographer, but also by the subject, who can sulk or smile, stand with good posture or stoop, and be situated in full light or obfuscated by shadow, among many other options. …


Conceptualizing A "Right To Research" And Its Implications For Copyright Law: An International And European Perspective, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jutte Jan 2023

Conceptualizing A "Right To Research" And Its Implications For Copyright Law: An International And European Perspective, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jutte

American University International Law Review

Copyright, at international, European, and national levels, does not provide a legal framework that prioritizes enabling and incentivizing research using protected works and information to the extent necessary and desirable in a digital, data-driven society in order to build a sustainable ecosystem for innovation and creativity. While small progress has been made, for example with the recent introduction of specific exceptions for research purposes and for text and data mining in certain national legislations as well as in the European Union law, a horizontal approach towards a more research-friendly copyright ecosystem has so far failed to evolve. By revisiting international …


Misreading Campbell: Lessons For Warhol, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell Jan 2023

Misreading Campbell: Lessons For Warhol, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell

Faculty Scholarship

In Andy Warhol Foundation (AWF) v. Goldsmith, the Supreme Court is set to revisit its most salient fair use precedent that introduced the idea of a “transformative use.” Purporting to rely on the Court’s adoption of “transformative use” as a way of understanding the fair use doctrine in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., many lower courts, including the district court below, have effectively substituted an amorphous “transformativeness” inquiry for the full statutory framework and factors that Congress and Campbell prescribe. At the oral argument in AWF, the Justices focused on how the transformativeness of a work might …


Co-Authorship Between Photographers And Portrait Subjects, Molly T. Stech Oct 2022

Co-Authorship Between Photographers And Portrait Subjects, Molly T. Stech

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Copyright law provides that when two or more authors create a single work with the intent of merging their contributions into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole, the authors are considered joint authors. For photographic works, judicial precedent establishes that the creative contributions necessary to support a copyright claim include the author’s choices concerning elements such as lighting, pose, garments, background, facial expression, and angle. In many visual works, however, those creative elements are determined not solely by a photographer, but also by the subject, who can sulk or smile, stand with good posture or stoop, and be …


Comments On Preliminary Draft 8 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg Oct 2022

Comments On Preliminary Draft 8 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

PD8 represents a great deal of labor, for which the Reporters deserve recognition. As detailed below, however, PD8’s occasional departures from or omissions of statutory text may not only be misleading or confusing, but – as has been the case with prior drafts – often have the result, if not the purpose, of whittling down the scope of copyright protection. In addition to identifying those instances and explaining their consequences, the following comments will suggest clarifications to some of the Comments and Illustrations.


Brief Of Michelle M. Wu As Amicus Curiae, Michelle M. Wu Jul 2022

Brief Of Michelle M. Wu As Amicus Curiae, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Copyright is, above all else, a balancing act. This equity principle is especially important when technology collides with traditional copyright. Market effects are certainly an important feature of that balance but must be weighed against other equitable interests, regardless of their technological form. Literary criticism, second-hand sales, and library lending all have the potential to impact sales but nevertheless are considered social goods that copyright is intended to foster.

Controlled digital lending ("CDL") was established to innovate these core, well-established components of copyright law, allowing libraries to secure their collections and maintain their relevance as physical stewards of knowledge in …


The Hollywood Circuit’S Protection Of The Batmobile Provides An Uncertain Future For First Amendment Protections, Nicole Geiser Jan 2022

The Hollywood Circuit’S Protection Of The Batmobile Provides An Uncertain Future For First Amendment Protections, Nicole Geiser

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This Comment analyzes the potentially damaging impact the Ninth Circuit’s decision in Towle could have on modern copyright law and the First Amendment. Part I will provide an overview of modern copyright law, challenges faced when deciding the level of protection that should be afforded to characters, and the important difference between literary characters and visually depicted characters and how it can affect the degree of protection allowed. Part II will discuss the history of character copyright, specifically, the different tests adopted by circuit courts and the impact each one has on the protection of characters. Part III will analyze …


Kernochan Center News - Spring 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2022

Kernochan Center News - Spring 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


An Initial Examination Of Computer Programs As Creative Works, Trina C. Kershaw, Ralph D. Clifford, Firas Khatib, Adnan El-Nasan Jan 2022

An Initial Examination Of Computer Programs As Creative Works, Trina C. Kershaw, Ralph D. Clifford, Firas Khatib, Adnan El-Nasan

Faculty Publications

Products from many domains (art, music, engineering design, literature, etc.) are considered to be creative works, but there is a misconception that computer programs are limited by set expressions and thus have no room for creativity. To determine whether computer programs are creative works, we collected programs from 23 advanced graduate students that were written to solve simple and complex bioinformatics problems. These programs were assessed for their variability of expression using a new measurement that we designed. They were also evaluated on several elements of their creativity using a version of Cropley and Kaufman’s (2012) Creative Solution Diagnosis Scale …


Regulatory Models For Copyright Protection Of Online Musical Works: Should Ghana Follow The Eu Approach?, Kow Abekah-Wonkyi Jan 2022

Regulatory Models For Copyright Protection Of Online Musical Works: Should Ghana Follow The Eu Approach?, Kow Abekah-Wonkyi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the era of digitization and internet, the relevance of appropriate copyright laws that would safeguard the rights and interests of musicians and their works on internet platforms cannot be overemphasized, given the tendency for such platforms to facilitate the unauthorized access of copyrighted contents.

In Ghana, the pervasive issues around music copyright and the internet as characterized by unlicensed access to copyrighted works on internet and digital platforms, have been subjected to some intense conversations that border on the potency of the laws, as well as the effectiveness of the various mandated state institutions in responding to such issues. …


Proving Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell Jan 2022

Proving Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell

Faculty Scholarship

Proof that a defendant actually copied from a copyrighted work is a critical part of a claim for copyright infringement. Indeed, absent such copying, there is no infringement. The most common method of proving copying involves the use of circumstantial evidence, consisting of proof that a defendant had “access” to the protected work, and a showing of “similarities” between the copy and the protected work. In inferring copying from the combination of such evidence, courts have for many decades developed a framework known as the “inverse ratio rule,” which allows them to modulate the level of proof needed on access …


Copyright, Creativity, Big Media And Cultural Value: Incorporating The Author, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2022

Copyright, Creativity, Big Media And Cultural Value: Incorporating The Author, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Copyright, Creativity, Big Media and Cultural Value is a wide-ranging work of immense erudition and archival research, combining several historical studies of the ‘incorporation’ of the author in different sectors of the ‘creative industries’. The book’s subtitle, ‘Incorporating the Author’, astutely encompasses multiple meanings, whose implications the book works through. These include the author as an initiating participant in a larger economic structure (Chapter 3 (print publishing)). But also, the author as a bit player enveloped by a larger economic structure (Chapter 5 (film industry)). And the author (or performer) as an autonomous object of economic value (Chapters …


Comments On Council Draft 6 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Jan 2022

Comments On Council Draft 6 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

We appreciate the Reporters’ incorporation of some of our comments on recent drafts. There remain, however, certain flaws in CD6 that should be addressed. We explain the issues, below.


Kernochan Center News - Fall 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2022

Kernochan Center News - Fall 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


The Last Line Of Defense: Addressing Section 512(G)’S Dwindling Capacity To Protect Educational Fair Users On The Internet, Gersham Johnson Jan 2022

The Last Line Of Defense: Addressing Section 512(G)’S Dwindling Capacity To Protect Educational Fair Users On The Internet, Gersham Johnson

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly transformed education from one of the least digitized sectors in the U.S. economy to a largely online phenomenon, with up to 93% of households with school-age children relying on distance learning. The value of online educational opportunities has extended beyond traditional purveyors of education as well, with online service providers (OSPs) like YouTube reporting an increase in average daily views for educational videos produced by subscribers (“users”).

The rise of user-generated content in online education (“educational content”) is merely part of a larger sea change as more content is uploaded to OSPs than ever before. …


The Case For The Ccb: A Defense Of The Constitutionality Of The Copyright Claims Board, Adam Vischio Jan 2022

The Case For The Ccb: A Defense Of The Constitutionality Of The Copyright Claims Board, Adam Vischio

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

Copyright litigation is expensive. Since copyright is federal law, disputes must be heard in federal court. Federal litigation can be prohibitively costly for creators bringing small claims, essentially leaving them with a right without a remedy against infringement of their work. Congress sought to alleviate this financial burden in 2020 when it passed the Copyright Alternative in Small-Claims Enforcement (“CASE”) Act, thus creating the Copyright Claims Board (“CCB”) to adjudicate small copyright disputes.

Opponents raised constitutional concerns about the CCB throughout the legislative process. The concerns included the fact that the CCB officers would wield unreviewable power and that Congress …


Openness Through The Lenses Of The Three-Step-Test: International Perspectives On Copyright Protection, Marinos Papadopoulos, Nikos Koutras Oct 2021

Openness Through The Lenses Of The Three-Step-Test: International Perspectives On Copyright Protection, Marinos Papadopoulos, Nikos Koutras

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This paper is focused on openness movement and the principles that said movement declared regarding the use of works set under copyright protection to enable for open access works. The three-step-test legal edifice is deeply rooted in international copyright law; its meaning and application is of vital importance for any consideration of amending copyright law with the aim to include provisions for openness. Unless a provision for openness passes the three-step-test there can be no sustainable amendment of copyright law in favour of openness.


Comments On Preliminary Draft 7 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Oct 2021

Comments On Preliminary Draft 7 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

PD7 is often confusing, largely as a result of failure to provide important explanations or definitions, or to tell the reader where that information can be found. Key terms, such as “edicts of law” and “formalities” remain undefined. Formalities are a principal topic of PD7; they deserve a more thorough description than the draft contains, addressing what formalities are, whether every declaratory obligation (or option) is a “formality,” or only those that go to the existence or enforcement of copyright (this is the Berne Convention meaning of “formality”).


Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore May 2021

Code Ownership : Plagiarism And Use, Alexis Nicole Amore

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Technology is moving at unmeasurable rates to that of law. Ownership rights and legality become harder to grasp distant theories. With community code-sharing and limiting language structures, when does code become plagiarized or entity-owned? The disciplines of Cyberlaw and computer science are used to provide a better understanding.

The Cyberlaw discipline explores how jurisdiction views cyberspace, source code, and source code’s placement within legislation. Due to cyberspace’s ever-evolving nature, litigation struggles to encompass the possibilities within it. Computer science delves into theory-based excursions that define the law’s shape in the cyber realm. It bolsters the possibility of implementing progressive legislation …