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Full-Text Articles in Law

Neither A Borrower Nor A Lender Be: Analyzing The Sec’S Reaction To Crypto Lending, Carol R. Goforth Feb 2023

Neither A Borrower Nor A Lender Be: Analyzing The Sec’S Reaction To Crypto Lending, Carol R. Goforth

University of Massachusetts Law Review

In June 2021, the largest U.S.-based crypto exchange, Coinbase, announced plans to allow its customers to earn 4% interest on deposits of certain cryptoassets through a new “Coinbase Lend” program. Despite a positive reaction from its customers, on September 7, 2021, Coinbase announced it had received a notice from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to the effect that the Commission had preliminarily concluded that the proposed Lend program was a security and that Coinbase would be in violation of the federal securities laws if it proceeded. The threat of enforcement caused Coinbase to terminate the program. Shortly thereafter, in …


Penalty Default Rules In Quebec Contract Law, Zackary Goldford Dec 2022

Penalty Default Rules In Quebec Contract Law, Zackary Goldford

Journal of Civil Law Studies

Few would deny that contract law is filled with default rules, but there has been a great deal of scholarly debate about their purposes and functions. Some American scholars have argued that there are default rules that do not align with most parties’ expectations; indeed, they impose a burden on one or both parties if they are not departed from. Departing from these default rules typically requires one or both parties to share information that they might have otherwise kept to themselves. These have been called “penalty default rules.” While there is a significant amount of scholarship on penalty default …


Covid-19 And Cancelled 2020 College Football Games Contracts: Force Majeure?, Drew Thornley Dec 2022

Covid-19 And Cancelled 2020 College Football Games Contracts: Force Majeure?, Drew Thornley

St. Mary's Law Journal

After COVID-19, majeure clauses accounting for the possibility of a pandemic will become the norm in college football game contracts. Indeed, some contracts are already including pandemics in their lists of force majeure-triggering events. Such language has already been added to collegiate game contracts. For example, a contract signed in May 2020 for the 2025 football game between Wisconsin and Miami (Ohio) lists as force majeure-triggering events “regional or global epidemics, pandemics, quarantines, and other similar health threats (e.g.[,] coronavirus, influenza, etc.).” Scholars explain that “the onset of the novel coronavirus pandemic warranted immediate revisitation of college football contracts.”

However, …


Maritime Magic: How Cruise Lines Can Avoid State Law Compliance Through Passenger Contracts, Cameron Chuback Jul 2022

Maritime Magic: How Cruise Lines Can Avoid State Law Compliance Through Passenger Contracts, Cameron Chuback

University of Miami Law Review

Florida Statutes section 381.00316 prohibits businesses in Florida from requiring consumers to provide documentary proof of COVID-19 vaccination to access businesses’ goods and services. Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings (“NCLH”) has recently challenged section 381.00316’s applicability to its cruise operations because NCLH believes that requiring its passengers to provide documentary proof of COVID-19 vaccination is the one constant that allows NCLH’s cruise ships to smoothly access foreign ports, which have differing COVID-19 protocols and rules. In Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings, Ltd. v. Rivkees, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida ruled in favor of NCLH on this …


A Comment On Colla And Gulati, Cheeky Contracting, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan May 2022

A Comment On Colla And Gulati, Cheeky Contracting, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Colla and Gulati have identified a moment of disequilibrium in contract law and practice that tests the comfortable assumptions and taxonomies of contracts scholars. The dispute seems to pit the parties’ “real deal” against the paper deal, with attorneys for the creditors bewildered at Argentina’s novel and aggressive reading of its obligations. The focus of this commentary is, basically: How cheeky is cheeky?


Langdell And The Foundation Of Classical Contract Law, Daniel P. O’Gorman Apr 2022

Langdell And The Foundation Of Classical Contract Law, Daniel P. O’Gorman

Cleveland State Law Review

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars seeking to bring order to the common law developed what has since become known as classical contract law. Its leading architects were Christopher Columbus Langdell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and Samuel Williston, and their efforts involved seeking to provide an objective foundation for contract law. Any idea, however, that these three worked in coordination to create classical contract law would be mistaken. Holmes is considered a relentless critic of Langdell, and even Williston distanced himself from Langdell. This Article identifies in what ways Holmes and Williston differed from Langdell in their …


Rules Of Regularity: An Empirical Quest For Commercial Certainty In Arbitration, Cornelis J.W. Baaij Apr 2022

Rules Of Regularity: An Empirical Quest For Commercial Certainty In Arbitration, Cornelis J.W. Baaij

William & Mary Business Law Review

The U.S. Supreme Court justifies the broad enforceability of arbitration agreements with the notion that arbitration expands parties' autonomy to contract for an efficient alternative to court proceedings. Unfortunately, the current practice of both domestic and cross-border commercial arbitration does not fully live up to these expectations. It is crucial to both autonomy and efficiency theories of contract law that adjudicatory decision-making is predictable so parties can tailor their contracts accordingly. However, commercial arbitration's prevailing culture of confidentiality and lack of stare decisis diminishes commercial certainty. To bring the reality of commercial arbitration closer to the Supreme Court's reasoning, this …


Is The Biggest Offer The Best Offer?, Alyssa Croft Mar 2022

Is The Biggest Offer The Best Offer?, Alyssa Croft

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Many people strive to be professional athletes because of the respect and accomplishment it receives. You make a lot of money, it can be glamorous, you are in commercials and magazines, and sometimes even movies. However, there are some things people do not think about when it comes to professional athletes. One of the biggest is taxation! There are so many different things athletes must think about and do because of taxes so they can take home the most amount of money possible. Athletes must be careful about who they hire to help them with their taxes because they want …


If Past Is Prologue, Then The Future Is Bleak: Contracts, Covid–19, And The Changed Circumstances Doctrines, Danielle K. Hart Mar 2022

If Past Is Prologue, Then The Future Is Bleak: Contracts, Covid–19, And The Changed Circumstances Doctrines, Danielle K. Hart

Texas A&M Law Review

At the heart of most of the systemic problems currently confronting individuals and businesses as a result of the COVID–19 pandemic is quite literally a contract. Housing. Insurance. Food. Health care. Child care. Employment. Manufacturing. Construction. Supply chains. You name it. Contracts are implicated everywhere. So make no mistake: How contract law addresses these ostensibly private contracts will have profound social consequences. If the past really is prologue, then the future is indeed bleak. The empirical study conducted for this Article establishes what the conventional wisdom has claimed for the last 70 years. More specifically, the empirical study here shows …


The New Bailments, Danielle D’Onfro Mar 2022

The New Bailments, Danielle D’Onfro

Washington Law Review

The rise of cloud computing has dramatically changed how consumers and firms store their belongings. Property that owners once managed directly now exists primarily on infrastructure maintained by intermediaries. Consumers entrust their photos to Apple instead of scrapbooks; businesses put their documents on Amazon’s servers instead of in file cabinets; seemingly everything runs in the cloud. Were these belongings tangible, the relationship between owner and intermediary would be governed by the common-law doctrine of bailment. Bailments are mandatory relationships formed when one party entrusts their property to another. Within this relationship, the bailees owe the bailors a duty of care …


Misreading Menetti: The Case Does Not Help You Avoid Liability For Your Own Fraud, Val D. Ricks Feb 2022

Misreading Menetti: The Case Does Not Help You Avoid Liability For Your Own Fraud, Val D. Ricks

St. Mary's Law Journal

Several decades ago, an incorrect legal idea surfaced in Texas jurisprudence: that business entity actors are immune from liability for fraud that they themselves commit, as if the entity is solely responsible. Though the Supreme Court of Texas has rejected that result several times, it keeps coming back. The most recent manifestation is as a construction of Texas’s unique veil-piercing statute. Many lawyers have suggested that this view of the veil-piercing statute originated in Menetti v. Chavers, a San Antonio Court of Appeals case decided in 1998. Menetti has in fact played a prominent role in the movement to …


Managing Value Added Tax Issues In Indonesian Business Entities Post-Ifrs 15 Adoption, Prianto Budi Saptono, Ismail Khozen Jan 2022

Managing Value Added Tax Issues In Indonesian Business Entities Post-Ifrs 15 Adoption, Prianto Budi Saptono, Ismail Khozen

BISNIS & BIROKRASI: Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi dan Organisasi

This study analyzes challenges related to value-added tax (VAT) transactions in Indonesia following the convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards 15 (IFRS 15) into Statements of Financial Accounting Standards 72 (SFAS or "PSAK" 72). This study took a qualitative method, combining document abstraction from the literature with in-depth interviews with key informants selected purposively. This study provides an overview of the characteristics of transfer of control under PSAK 72 and the time of supply under the VAT Law. It is unavoidable that the two approaches go different paths. This study suggests that businesses in Indonesia revise the contract terms with …


Law School News: The Dean Meets The Governor 01-26-2022, Michael M. Bowden Jan 2022

Law School News: The Dean Meets The Governor 01-26-2022, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev Jan 2022

Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

We offer the first large scale descriptive study of residential leases, based on a dataset of ~170,000 residential leases filed in support of over ~200,000 Philadelphia eviction proceedings from 2005 through 2019. These leases are highly likely to contain unenforceable terms, and their pro-landlord tilt has increased sharply over time. Matching leases with individual tenant characteristics, we show that unlawful terms are surprisingly likely to be associated with more expensive leaseholds in richer, whiter parts of the city. This result is linked to landlords' growing adoption of shared forms, originally created by non-profit landlord associations, and more recently available online …


When Binding Doesn't Really Mean Binding: The Early Decision College Application, Jean Steadman Jan 2022

When Binding Doesn't Really Mean Binding: The Early Decision College Application, Jean Steadman

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


New York's Requirements For Contractual Definiteness With Application To The Formation Of Investment Vehicles, Royce De R. Barondes Jan 2022

New York's Requirements For Contractual Definiteness With Application To The Formation Of Investment Vehicles, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

A review of 82 modern New York cases reveals an unexpected frequency of authority requiring contractual definiteness as to what may reasonably appear to be minor terms.
Illustrative are cases holding inadequately definite ordinary ways preliminary agreements may express compensation on a percentage of net basis. Other unexpected authority (i) is less willing than expected to allow subsequent actions to provide sufficient definiteness to initially indefinite agreements and (ii) denies the enforceability of confidentiality provisions and a right of first refusal.
The survey includes some unexpected support for contracts specifying a plausibly material portion of the consideration with inadequate definiteness …


What Do Good Lawyers Know That The Rest Of Us Don't? Introducing First-Year Law Students To 'Legal Realism', Gregory S. Crespi Jan 2022

What Do Good Lawyers Know That The Rest Of Us Don't? Introducing First-Year Law Students To 'Legal Realism', Gregory S. Crespi

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

This short article presents the general outlines of a lecture that I usually give to my first-year contract law students, at about the end of their first week of classes, to get them started thinking about the process of judicial decision-making, and about the “legal realist” perspective regarding that process.


Lowering The Stakes Of The Employment Contract, Aditi Bagchi Jan 2022

Lowering The Stakes Of The Employment Contract, Aditi Bagchi

Faculty Scholarship

Every country has to make hard choices about the distribution of entitlements. But employers control the entitlements that individual Americans enjoy to a far greater extent than those in other rich democracies. In this Essay, I argue that, in the absence of the political consensus necessary to deliver state solutions to political questions, employers here are assigned an exaggerated role in employees’ lives. Government incentives for and directives to employers have become a strategy of political deflection. The effect has been to raise the stakes of employment well beyond the scope of those terms and conditions that relate to attracting …


Fit For Its Ordinary Purpose: Implied Warranties And Common Law Duties For Consumer Finance Contracts, Susan Block-Lieb, Edward J. Janger Jan 2022

Fit For Its Ordinary Purpose: Implied Warranties And Common Law Duties For Consumer Finance Contracts, Susan Block-Lieb, Edward J. Janger

Faculty Scholarship

The history of consumer goods and consumer credit markets pre-sents an anomaly: market transactions for consumer goods and credit transactions evolved in tandem from face to face and bespoke to standardized and widely distributed; the law governing these “product” markets has not. With consumer goods, the Uniform Commercial Code codifies implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, and the common law of tort provides strict liability for defective products. With consumer fi-nance contracts, borrowers enjoy scant common law protection. And yet both consumer goods and consumer contracts may be danger-ously defective “products.”

This Article reconsiders the traditional, …


But We Didn’T Agree To That!: Why Class Proceedings Should Not Be Implied From Silent Or Ambiguous Arbitration Clauses After Lamps Plus, Inc. V. Varela, Andrea Demelo Laprade Dec 2021

But We Didn’T Agree To That!: Why Class Proceedings Should Not Be Implied From Silent Or Ambiguous Arbitration Clauses After Lamps Plus, Inc. V. Varela, Andrea Demelo Laprade

Catholic University Law Review

The application of class arbitrability when a contract is silent on the matter remains a mystery. The Supreme Court has not clarified its stance on class arbitrability and preemptive effects of the Federal Arbitration Act on state law when applied to determine if class arbitrability is available. The purpose of this Paper is to address how the Lamps Plus v. Varela decision created more confusion about the question of class arbitrability. It argues that the failure to address the particulars of the availability of class arbitration will perpetuate litigation on this issue. This Paper suggests that the FAA’s purpose supports …


Alex Lyon & Son, Sales Managers & Auctioneers V. Leach: Auction Contracts, Bidder Qualifications, Offer And Acceptance, Waiver, And The Fallacy Of Treating All Bidders The Same, George A. Michak Dec 2021

Alex Lyon & Son, Sales Managers & Auctioneers V. Leach: Auction Contracts, Bidder Qualifications, Offer And Acceptance, Waiver, And The Fallacy Of Treating All Bidders The Same, George A. Michak

West Virginia Law Review Online

In Alex Lyon & Son, Sales Managers & Auctioneers v. Leach, 844 S.E.2d 120 (W. Va. 2020), the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia grappled with the contractual relationships among participants in an auction transaction and rendered an opinion that (i) misstates and misaligns the rights and obligations among auctioneers, sellers, bidders, and buyers, (ii) impedes the ability of an auctioneer to reasonably control the conduct of an auction, and (iii) threatens to artificially circumscribe the prerogative of sellers and auctioneers to assume greater risks relative to certain bidders in an effort to expand the bidder pool in …


Intro To Contracts, Anjelica Cappellino Oct 2021

Intro To Contracts, Anjelica Cappellino

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Towards Cnl-Based Verbalization Of Computational Contracts, Inari Listenmaa, Maryam Hanafiah, Regina Cheong, Andreas Kallberg Sep 2021

Towards Cnl-Based Verbalization Of Computational Contracts, Inari Listenmaa, Maryam Hanafiah, Regina Cheong, Andreas Kallberg

Centre for Computational Law

We present a CNL, which is a component of L4, a domain-specific programming language for drafting laws and contracts. Along with formal verification, L4’s core functionalities include natural language generation. We present the NLG pipeline and an interactive process for ambiguity resolution.


Cruise Contracts, Public Policy, And Foreign Forum Selection Clauses, John F. Coyle Jul 2021

Cruise Contracts, Public Policy, And Foreign Forum Selection Clauses, John F. Coyle

University of Miami Law Review

A cruise ship contract is the prototypical contract of adhesion. The passenger is presented with the contract on a take-it-or-leave-it basis. If she refuses to sign, the ship sails without her. To ensure that cruise companies do not draft one-sided contracts that are unfair to passengers, Congress has enacted a number of statutes that regulate these agreements. One such statute is 46 U.S.C. § 30509. This law stipulates that any contract provision that limits the liability of the cruise company for personal injury or death is void as against public policy if the ship stops at a U.S. port.
In …


Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson Jul 2021

Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson

Indiana Law Journal

Forum selection clauses are a staple of modern business law. Parties agree, ex ante, on where they can sue one another and then rely on the courts to enforce these agreements. Although the number of contracts containing forum selection clauses has skyrocketed in recent years, there is a dearth of empirical information about enforcement practice at the state level. Are there any states that refuse to enforce them? How frequently are they enforced? Under what circumstances, if any, will these clauses be deemed unenforceable? The existing literature provides few answers to these questions.

This Article aims to fill that gap. …


Cartoon Contracts And The Proactive Visualization Of Law, Michael D. Murray Jun 2021

Cartoon Contracts And The Proactive Visualization Of Law, Michael D. Murray

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Contracts have always relied on text first, foremost, and usually exclusively. Yet, this approach leaves many users of contracts in the dark as to the actual meaning of the transactional documents and instruments they enter into. The average contract routinely uses language that only lawyers, law-trained readers, and highly literate persons can truly understand. There is a movement in the law in the United States and many other nations called the visualization of law movement that attempts to bridge these gaps in contractual communication by using highly visual instruments. In appropriate circumstances, even cartoons and comic book forms of sequential …


Contract Design When Relationship-Specific Investment Produces Asymmetric Information, Albert H. Choi, George Triantis Jun 2021

Contract Design When Relationship-Specific Investment Produces Asymmetric Information, Albert H. Choi, George Triantis

Articles

Under conventional contract theory, contracts may be efficient by protecting relationship specific investment from holdup in subsequent (re)negotiation over terms of trade. This paper demonstrates a different problem when specific investment also provides significant private information to the investing party. This is fairly common: for example, a manufacturer invests to learn about its buyer's idiosyncratic needs or a collaborator invests to learn about a joint venture. We show how such private information can lead to subsequent bargaining failure and suboptimal ex ante relationship-specific investment. We also show that this inefficiency is worse if the parties enter into a binding and …


Independent Craft Breweries Struggle Under Distribution Laws That Create A Power Imbalance In Favor Of Wholesalers, Daniel Croxall May 2021

Independent Craft Breweries Struggle Under Distribution Laws That Create A Power Imbalance In Favor Of Wholesalers, Daniel Croxall

William & Mary Business Law Review

Independent craft breweries are facing historic challenges under the COVID-19 pandemic. To make matters worse, many states prohibit a brewery from terminating a distribution contract with a wholesaler absent statutorily defined “good cause,” which typically means fraud, bankruptcy, or other illegal conduct. In this context, lagging sales or poor distribution performance are not grounds for a brewery to terminate a distribution contract. This means that it is nearly impossible, legally or financially, for an independent craft brewery to terminate a distribution contract with an unsatisfactory wholesaler. In essence, states have statutorily tipped the balance of power in favor of distributors …


Legal System For Settlement Of Financial Equipment In Administration Contracts Under Algerian Ublie Bargains Law Of 1991, Revised- النظام القانوني لدفع المقابل المالي في العقد الإداري Apr 2021

Legal System For Settlement Of Financial Equipment In Administration Contracts Under Algerian Ublie Bargains Law Of 1991, Revised- النظام القانوني لدفع المقابل المالي في العقد الإداري

UAEU Law Journal

The researcher extensively details in Chapter I the right to receive financial equivalent in administrative contracts pointing to its origin and legal nature. In Chapter II he talks about the Admin. liability to comply with due dates, the possibility of activating its contractual obligations, demonstrating the Algerian 1991 public transactions law stipulations in comparison with French & Egyptian laws, indicating similarities & contradictions.

The researcher ended his research with his conclusion. & comments on the above - mentioned law.


Silence: Its Legal Effect On Concluding Contracts A Comparative Study Mar 2021

Silence: Its Legal Effect On Concluding Contracts A Comparative Study

UAEU Law Journal

Is based on mutual & verbal

Concluding a contract agreement/acceptance; however a contract can be concluded with several other ways. Silence does not necessarily express a specific view unless it is surrounded by certain conditions that may indicate that it expresses agreement/acceptance. There are some exceptions to the issue of silence when concluding a contract that silence would not necessarily mean agreement/acceptance. The essence of any legal behavior is free will which should be expressed clearly. All these exceptions are common and occur due to certain conditions which lead to silence.

The present study exemplifies some of the legislations; for …