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2016

International Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1152

Full-Text Articles in Law

Astroturf Activism, Melissa J. Durkee Dec 2016

Astroturf Activism, Melissa J. Durkee

Scholarly Works

Corporate influence in government is more than a national issue; it is an international phenomenon. For years, businesses have been infiltrating international legal processes. They secretly lobby lawmakers through front groups: “astroturf” imitations of grassroots organizations. But because this business lobbying is covert, it has been underappreciated in both the literature and the law. This Article unearths the “astroturf activism” phenomenon. It offers an original descriptive account that classifies modes of business access to international officials and identifies harms, then develops a critical analysis of the laws that regulate this access. I show that the perplexing set of access rules …


Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: Current Debate And Indonesia's Interest, Gulardi Nurbintoro, Haryo Budi Nugroho Dec 2016

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: Current Debate And Indonesia's Interest, Gulardi Nurbintoro, Haryo Budi Nugroho

Indonesia Law Review

The drafters of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) have left behind a lacunae in terms of the regulations concerning Biodiversity in the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ). As living organisms are found in the deep seabed in areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as the utilization of marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction for commercial purposes, States are currently deliberating on the proper regime in dealing with the management and exploitation of the biodiversity. Some States argue that Part XI UNCLOS applies hence BBNJ is also part of the Common Heritage of Mankind. On …


Aviation Law: Warsaw Convention Liability Principles Extend To Damage From Terrorist Attack, Leon Adams Jr. Dec 2016

Aviation Law: Warsaw Convention Liability Principles Extend To Damage From Terrorist Attack, Leon Adams Jr.

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Legal Implications Of Direct Satellite Broadcasting – The U.N. Working Group, Nancy M. Lesko Dec 2016

Legal Implications Of Direct Satellite Broadcasting – The U.N. Working Group, Nancy M. Lesko

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Maintenance Of Value In The General Account And Valuation Of The Sdr In The Special Drawing Account Of The Imf, Robert C. Effros Dec 2016

Maintenance Of Value In The General Account And Valuation Of The Sdr In The Special Drawing Account Of The Imf, Robert C. Effros

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Some Remarks On Self-Defense And Intervention: A Reaction To Reading Law And Civil War In The Modern World, Josef Rohlik Dec 2016

Some Remarks On Self-Defense And Intervention: A Reaction To Reading Law And Civil War In The Modern World, Josef Rohlik

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Domestic Courts In The International Legal Order: A Tribute To Richard Falk, Janet Walker Dec 2016

The Role Of Domestic Courts In The International Legal Order: A Tribute To Richard Falk, Janet Walker

Janet Walker

Forty years ago, when I was a child, the world was a different place. Tele- vision was a new invention:


The Legality Of Extraterritorial Application Of Competition Law And The Need To Adopt A Unified Approach, Thanh Phan Dec 2016

The Legality Of Extraterritorial Application Of Competition Law And The Need To Adopt A Unified Approach, Thanh Phan

Louisiana Law Review

The article focuses on the international law and the foundation of the extraterritorial application of competition law (EACL) and proposes a unified approach for all countries to use when considering the extraterritorial application of competition law.


Historical Trauma And Refugee Reception: Armenians And Syrian-Armenian Co-Ethnics, Nicole M. Campos Dec 2016

Historical Trauma And Refugee Reception: Armenians And Syrian-Armenian Co-Ethnics, Nicole M. Campos

Master's Theses

This thesis considers the ways in which Armenian history has influenced integration of Syrian-Armenian refugees into Armenia due to the ongoing Syrian War. Ethnic Armenian outlooks were analyzed relative to the influx of Syrian refugees, particularly co-ethnic Syrian-Armenians. Field work in Armenia found a sustained cultural impression of Armenians’ Soviet membership and genocide. Findings suggest that recognizing the importance of history as it may or may not affect migration reception policies and attitudes is important to developing sustainable resettlement environments, at least until repatriation or third-country resettlement becomes an option to migrants. Ultimately, this thesis argues that more attention must …


Running For Ayotzinapa: A Father's Marathon To Find His Son, Gustavo Martínez Dec 2016

Running For Ayotzinapa: A Father's Marathon To Find His Son, Gustavo Martínez

Capstones

People find a world of reasons to run marathons: to fight cancer, to raise money for a charity, to fulfill a promise. But Antonio Tizapa runs for the reason that has dictated his every waking moment for more than two years: finding his son. The story is presented through a written piece and a video short documentary. It follows Tizapa through events and races in the New York City area.

http://intl-clarke.2016.journalism.cuny.edu/2016/12/30/running-for-ayotzinapa-a-fathers-marathon-to-find-his-missing-son/


Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez Dec 2016

Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez

Master's Theses

According to US Customs and Border Protection, over 59 thousand unaccompanied minors from the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) have been detained at the US border, of those 59 thousand, 17 thousand are from El Salvador. El Salvador is home to some of the most dangerous and ruthless gangs of the twenty-first century. Their ruthlessness comes from 1980s guerrilla warfare experience. In addition, El Salvador serves as a transshipment point for illicit substances from South America into Mexico. These dynamics fuel the homicide rate of the region as local gang members must protect their territory by any means …


Chemical Weapons And Other Atrocities: Contrasting Responses To The Syrian Crisis, Tim Mccormack Dec 2016

Chemical Weapons And Other Atrocities: Contrasting Responses To The Syrian Crisis, Tim Mccormack

International Law Studies

Why has the use of chemical weapons in Syria engendered such a substantive multilateral response in stark contrast to almost every other egregious international law violation perpetrated against the civilian population? Various theories have been offered but the explanation has little to do with humanitarian concerns for Syrian victims and is more readily explicable by unusual (in the Syrian context) alignment of U.S. and Russian national interests. Bashar al-Assad was convinced to accede to the Chemical Weapons Convention, to surrender his stockpiles of chemical weapons and to co-operate with international investigators deployed under UN Security Council auspices amid a cacophony …


Co-Developing Drugs With Indigenous Communities: Lessons From Peruvian Law And The Ayahuasca Patent Dispute, Daniel S. Sem Dec 2016

Co-Developing Drugs With Indigenous Communities: Lessons From Peruvian Law And The Ayahuasca Patent Dispute, Daniel S. Sem

Richmond Journal of Law & Technology

This paper will examine the issues surrounding the codevelopment of drugs derived from traditional medicines used by indigenous peoples in Amazonia, with a focus on Peru. In particular, this paper will explore what national, regional and international legal structures are in place to protect the interests of indigenous peoples, while at the same time providing medical benefit to the world. This issue is explored in the context of Peruvian, U.S., and international treaties – especially the TRIPS agreement, the Andean Community, sui generis protections, and the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement.


Beyond Trade Deals: Charting A Post-Brexit Course For Uk Investment Treaties, Lise Johnson, Lorenzo Cotula Dec 2016

Beyond Trade Deals: Charting A Post-Brexit Course For Uk Investment Treaties, Lise Johnson, Lorenzo Cotula

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The Brexit referendum has raised questions about the future terms of the United Kingdom’s engagement with the world economy. While a debate over the UK’s future approach to trade deals has already begun, a similar discussion has yet to develop on the treaties that govern foreign investment. As this briefing note by Lorenzo Cotula of the International Institute for Environment and Development, and Lise Johnson of CCSI highlights, the stakes are high: ill-designed treaties could leave the UK excessively exposed to legal claims by foreign companies and could fail to address relevant economic, social and environmental challenges. While meaningful negotiations …


The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera Dec 2016

The U.S. Law Regime Of Sovereign Immunity And The Sovereign Wealth Funds, Victorino J. Tejera

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article is concerned with the applicability of sovereign immunity to the so-called sovereign wealth funds (“SWFs”) within the U.S. legal system. While sovereign immunity has existed for at least two centuries, SWFs and the types of investment activities they conduct on behalf of their parent foreign states are a rather recent phenomenon. As a result, the issue of the applicability of the rules on sovereign immunity to the SWFs poses novel legal challenges and difficulties. In a nutshell, this article is intended to answer the following questions: Are SWFs entitled to invoke sovereign immunity before U.S. courts? If so, …


Gender Discrimination And Statelessness In The Gulf Cooperation Council States, Betsy L. Fisher Dec 2016

Gender Discrimination And Statelessness In The Gulf Cooperation Council States, Betsy L. Fisher

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Using the Gulf Cooperation Council countries as a case study, this Article outlines the ways in which gender and birth status discrimination create new cases of statelessness. These occur when women are legally unable to convey their nationality to their children. This Article studies gender and birth status discrimination in nationality laws and in civil registration, family, and criminal law in each GCC state: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Ending statelessness will require these states to end discrimination against women and non-marital children in all of its forms in law and practice.


Defining “Accidents” In The Air: Why Tort Law Principles Are Essential To Interpret The Montreal Convention’S “Accident” Requirement, Alexa West Dec 2016

Defining “Accidents” In The Air: Why Tort Law Principles Are Essential To Interpret The Montreal Convention’S “Accident” Requirement, Alexa West

Fordham Law Review

This Note examines the history of, and the reasons for, the Montreal Convention, which in part forces airlines to indemnify passengers for injuries resulting from “accidents”—a term undefined in the treaty. The Montreal Convention and the subsequent case law interpreting it demonstrate how, to qualify as an “accident,” the injury-producing incident must be causally connected to the plane’s operation. Importantly, the causal connection’s adequacy should be evaluated according to American tort jurisprudence even though the accident requirement itself is an exception to general tort law. This Note focuses on a particular type of injury-producing event, a copassenger tort, because of …


Embedded Contracts And A Continuum Of Sovereign Debt, Odette Lienau Dec 2016

Embedded Contracts And A Continuum Of Sovereign Debt, Odette Lienau

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

What is the relationship of a government to its population as it pertains to sovereign debt? And how does this fit into the larger web of relationships and obligations that make up the international financial arena? These questions are incredibly difficult to think through – beyond the capacity of one author alone. I am therefore grateful to have the company of Yuri Biondi, Barry Herman, Tomoko Ishikawa, and Kunibert Raffer in beginning to consider them. In addressing their thoughtful and thought-provoking comments, I see this response less as an opportunity to answer every potential challenge or differential emphasis. Indeed, the …


Punishing Genocide: A Comparative Empirical Analysis Of Sentencing Laws And Practices At The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda (Ictr), Rwandan Domestic Courts, And Gacaca Courts, Barbora Hola, Hollie Nyseth Brehm Dec 2016

Punishing Genocide: A Comparative Empirical Analysis Of Sentencing Laws And Practices At The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda (Ictr), Rwandan Domestic Courts, And Gacaca Courts, Barbora Hola, Hollie Nyseth Brehm

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article compares sentencing of those convicted of participation in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. With over one million people facing trial, Rwanda constitutes the world’s most comprehensive case of criminal accountability after genocide and presents an important case study of punishing genocide. Criminal courts at three different levels— international, domestic, and local—sought justice in the aftermath of the violence. In order to compare punishment at each level, we analyze an unprecedented database of sentences given by the ICTR, the Rwandan domestic courts, and Rwanda’s Gacaca courts. The analysis demonstrates that sentencing varied across the three levels—ranging from limited time …


Case Note: Case Of Vasiliauskas V. Lithuania In The European Court Of Human Rights, Stoyan Panov Dec 2016

Case Note: Case Of Vasiliauskas V. Lithuania In The European Court Of Human Rights, Stoyan Panov

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Playing Off-Key: Trans-Atlantic Data Regulation In A Discordant World, Jennifer L. Bauer Dec 2016

Playing Off-Key: Trans-Atlantic Data Regulation In A Discordant World, Jennifer L. Bauer

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Masthead Dec 2016

Masthead

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


How New York Investors Financed The Looting Of Syria, Ukraine, And Iraq: The Need To Increase Civil Liabilities For "Current Possessors" Of Stolen Antiquities In The 21st Century, Lukas Padegimas Dec 2016

How New York Investors Financed The Looting Of Syria, Ukraine, And Iraq: The Need To Increase Civil Liabilities For "Current Possessors" Of Stolen Antiquities In The 21st Century, Lukas Padegimas

Global Business Law Review

This note argues that the U.S. should pass its own self-policing legislation that will make it less enticing for thieves to try to sell stolen antiquities to the U.S. market. Our world heritage is under threat from undeterred looting, which results in antiquities vanishing from museum storerooms and archeological sites before ending up in the storerooms of investors. Currently, source nations that attempt to have stolen antiquities returned are deterred by the high legal costs involved. As the biggest market for stolen cultural property, states within the U.S. should amend current replevin laws so that the possessors of stolen cultural …


Mitigating Cyber Risk In It Supply Chains, Maureen Wallace Dec 2016

Mitigating Cyber Risk In It Supply Chains, Maureen Wallace

Global Business Law Review

This note argues that the United States needs to utilize current federal agencies to begin introducing cyber supply chain risk management regulation for IT supply chains. Cyber supply chain risk management is a critical area of cybersecurity that has barely been recognized by the United States government. The globalization of the digital world has introduced a new spectrum of risk management issues that affect the products exchanged by businesses and consumed by individuals and government agencies. While there have been some initiatives toward the promotion of tighter cybersecurity regulation, most initiatives only concern the public sector, leaving the private sector …


De L'Affaire Katanga Au Contrat Social Global: Un Regard Sur La Cour Pénale Internationale, Juan Branco Nov 2016

De L'Affaire Katanga Au Contrat Social Global: Un Regard Sur La Cour Pénale Internationale, Juan Branco

Juan Branco

No abstract provided.


U.S. Patent Extraterritoriality Within The International Context, Amy L. Landers Nov 2016

U.S. Patent Extraterritoriality Within The International Context, Amy L. Landers

Amy L. Landers

Globalization has prompted the evolution of our definition of sovereignty. In the patent context, this has arisen amidst a recent focus on the extraterritorial reach of patent remedies. Some of the theoretical challenges are examined in a recent series of decisions of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. These decisions evidence the tensions that arise in when transnational conduct is evaluated within the Westphalian framework developed in the 1600’s. In essence, resolving them requires grappling with the problems that arise “where the reality of human interaction, with its plural sources of norms, seems to be chafing against …


Act Of State Doctrine: Actions Of Intervenors Appointed By The Cuban Government And Statements Of Counsel Do Not Constitute Sufficient Acts Of State To Come Within The Doctrine (Alfred Dunhill Of London, Inc. V. Republic Of Cuba, S. Ct. 1976), John C. Stephens Nov 2016

Act Of State Doctrine: Actions Of Intervenors Appointed By The Cuban Government And Statements Of Counsel Do Not Constitute Sufficient Acts Of State To Come Within The Doctrine (Alfred Dunhill Of London, Inc. V. Republic Of Cuba, S. Ct. 1976), John C. Stephens

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Jus Cogens In International Law, With A Projected List, Marjorie M. Whiteman Nov 2016

Jus Cogens In International Law, With A Projected List, Marjorie M. Whiteman

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The World Court And The Peaceful Settlement Of Disputes, Cornelius F. Murphy Jr. Nov 2016

The World Court And The Peaceful Settlement Of Disputes, Cornelius F. Murphy Jr.

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Law And Modernization In China: The Juridical Behavior Of The Chinese Communists, Daniel J. Hoffheimer Nov 2016

Law And Modernization In China: The Juridical Behavior Of The Chinese Communists, Daniel J. Hoffheimer

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.