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2003

Series

Law Enforcement and Corrections

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Law

Injustice Casts Shadow On History Of State Executions, John Bessler Dec 2003

Injustice Casts Shadow On History Of State Executions, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

This article, published in the StarTribune of Minneapolis, discusses the history of lynchings and executions in the State of Minnesota. It specifically discusses miscarriages of justice that have taken place in Minnesota, along with highlighting other problems associated with capital punishment.


Informal Methods Of Enhancing The Accountability Of Lawyers, W. Bradley Wendel Jul 2003

Informal Methods Of Enhancing The Accountability Of Lawyers, W. Bradley Wendel

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Community Policing In Portland, City Club Of Portland (Portland, Or.) May 2003

Community Policing In Portland, City Club Of Portland (Portland, Or.)

City Club of Portland

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Hanging Of Ephraim Wheeler : A Story Of Rape, Incest, And Justice In Early America, Michael F. Russo May 2003

Review Of The Hanging Of Ephraim Wheeler : A Story Of Rape, Incest, And Justice In Early America, Michael F. Russo

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Addressing Sexual Misconduct In Community Corrections, Brenda V. Smith, Maureen Buell, Elizabeth Layman, Susan W. Mccampbell Apr 2003

Addressing Sexual Misconduct In Community Corrections, Brenda V. Smith, Maureen Buell, Elizabeth Layman, Susan W. Mccampbell

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

INAPPROPRIATE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OFFENDERS AND EMPLOYEES of community-based corrections organizations have emerged as a serious issue. Among the most dangerous and destructive of these inappropriate relationships is sexual misconduct. The very nature of community corrections, with semi-autonomous employees, the increasing focus on a rehabilitative rather than the punitive model, the increase of offenders assigned to these programs, and actual allegations of sexual misconduct have raised the awareness of administrators of the need for action.


Strict Criminal Liability Limiting The State's Power To Condemn, Andrew Verstein Jan 2003

Strict Criminal Liability Limiting The State's Power To Condemn, Andrew Verstein

Lecturer and Other Affiliate Scholarship Series

H. L. A. Hart argues that strict criminal liability often undermines the moral condemnation associated with punishment and therefore its capacity for deterrence. Hart explains that insofar as legal punishment expresses the "odium, if not the hostility" of a community towards those who break its laws strict liability forces us to either condemn those who are not deserving of condemnation or to negate the moral condemnation of the law in general. One choice is immoral and the other reduces the effectiveness of a significant deterrent and is therefore counterproductive. Either way, the consequences of strict liability are undesirable. In this ...


Bringing Moral Values Into A Flawed Plea Bargaining System, Stephanos Bibas Jan 2003

Bringing Moral Values Into A Flawed Plea Bargaining System, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Regionalization Of International Criminal Law Enforcement: A Preliminary Exploration, William W. Burke-White Jan 2003

Regionalization Of International Criminal Law Enforcement: A Preliminary Exploration, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Wrongful Convictions And The Accuracy Of The Criminal Justice System, H. Patrick Furman Jan 2003

Wrongful Convictions And The Accuracy Of The Criminal Justice System, H. Patrick Furman

Articles

No abstract provided.


Diminished Rationality, Diminished Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse Jan 2003

Diminished Rationality, Diminished Responsibility, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Exhaustion Under The Prison Litigation Reform Act: The Consequence Of Procedural Error, Kermit Roosevelt Iii Jan 2003

Exhaustion Under The Prison Litigation Reform Act: The Consequence Of Procedural Error, Kermit Roosevelt Iii

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Adam, Eve, And Emma: On Criminal Responsibility And Moral Wisdom, Thomas Morawetz Jan 2003

Adam, Eve, And Emma: On Criminal Responsibility And Moral Wisdom, Thomas Morawetz

Faculty Articles and Papers

No abstract provided.


Final Report Of The Illinois Criminal Code Rewrite And Reform Commission, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T. Cahill Jan 2003

Final Report Of The Illinois Criminal Code Rewrite And Reform Commission, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T. Cahill

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Governor of Illinois created a commission to examine the problems with Illinois criminal law and to rewrite the Illinois criminal code. This two-volume Final Report of the Illinois Criminal Code Rewrite and Reform Commission proposes a new criminal code, in volume 1, together with an official commentary, in volume 2, that explains each provision and how and why it differs from existing law. The introduction to the Report summarizes the reasons for and the importance of criminal code reform, and describes the techniques used in this rewrite project, including both the project’s drafting principles and the methods by ...


Final Report Of The Kentucky Penal Code Revision Project, Paul H. Robinson, Kentucky Criminal Justice Council Staff Jan 2003

Final Report Of The Kentucky Penal Code Revision Project, Paul H. Robinson, Kentucky Criminal Justice Council Staff

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Kentucky Criminal Justice Council, a constitutional body in Kentucky, undertook this project to examine the problems with Kentucky criminal law and to rewrite the Kentucky criminal code. This two-volume Final Report of the Kentucky Penal Code Revision Project proposes a new criminal code, in volume 1, together with an official commentary, in volume 2, that explains each provision and how and why it differs from existing law. The introduction to the Report summarizes the reasons for and the importance of criminal code reform, and describes the techniques used in this rewrite project, including both the project’s drafting principles ...


Civil Rights Plaintiffs And John Doe Defendants: A Study In § 1983 Procedure, Howard M. Wasserman Jan 2003

Civil Rights Plaintiffs And John Doe Defendants: A Study In § 1983 Procedure, Howard M. Wasserman

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cultural Context Matters: Terry's "Seesaw Effect", Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2003

Cultural Context Matters: Terry's "Seesaw Effect", Frank Rudy Cooper

Scholarly Works

This Article investigates why the enforcement of a given legal doctrine may vary with changes in the cultural context in which it is applied. It argues that officials apply the law along an "enforcement practices continuum" in accord with changes in the prevailing articulations of the meaning of cultural identity norms associating particular groups with crime.

Terry v. Ohio doctrine allows police officers to make "stops" and "frisks" of limited scope upon reasonable suspicion of crime rather than requiring the higher standard of probable cause. The Article contends the officer discretion resulting from this "scope continuum" approach permits cultural identity ...


The Shaping Of Chance: Actuarial Models And Criminal Profiling At The Turn Of The Twenty-First Century, Bernard Harcourt Jan 2003

The Shaping Of Chance: Actuarial Models And Criminal Profiling At The Turn Of The Twenty-First Century, Bernard Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

The turn of the twentieth century marked a new era of individualization in the field of criminal law. Drawing on the new science of positivist criminology, legal scholars called for diagnosis of the causes of delinquence and for imposition of individualized courses of remedial treatment specifically adapted to these individual diagnoses. "[M]odern science recognizes that penal or remedial treatment cannot possibly be indiscriminate and machine-like, but must be adapted to the causes, and to the man as affected by those causes," leading criminal law scholars declared. "Thus the great truth of the present and the future, for criminal science ...


A Failed Experiment? Investigative Detention: Ten Years Later, James Stribopoulos Jan 2003

A Failed Experiment? Investigative Detention: Ten Years Later, James Stribopoulos

Articles & Book Chapters

Ten years ago, the Ontario Court of Appeal introduced the investigative detention power to Canada with its decision in R. v. Simpson. After providing some necessary background about the realities of police detention practices, the author offers a critical evaluation of Simpson and the ancillary powers doctrine that it relied upon to create this new police power. The author then proceeds to consider how well the investigative detention experiment has fared over the last decade, examining whether it has lived up to the goal that provided its inspiration, namely, the regulation of police detention practices. The author advances two major ...


Dying Twice: Incarceration On Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin Jan 2003

Dying Twice: Incarceration On Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Dying Twice is an important report. The work is a collaboration between the Corrections Committee of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, which I chaired, and the Committee on Capital Punishment of the Association chaired by Norman Greene. The working group that researched and wrote the report was drawn from members of both committees. The attorneys and the physician who served on the committee are wonderful, talented, dedicated people. It was a pleasure to work with professionals of this caliber on such an important effort. Dying Twice was endorsed as the position of the Association ...


Prosecutors And Their Agents, Agents And Their Prosecutors, Daniel C. Richman Jan 2003

Prosecutors And Their Agents, Agents And Their Prosecutors, Daniel C. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

This Article seeks to describe the dynamics of interaction between federal prosecutors and federal enforcement agents, and to suggest how these dynamics affect the exercise of enforcement discretion. After considering the virtues and pitfalls of both hierarchical and coordinate organizational modes, the Article offers a normative model that views prosecutors and agents as members of a "working group," with each side monitoring the other. It concludes by exploring how this model can be furthered or frustrated with various procedural and structural changes.


Reciprocal Effects Of Crime And Incarceration In New York City Neighborhoods, Jeffery Fagan, Valerie West, Jan Holland Jan 2003

Reciprocal Effects Of Crime And Incarceration In New York City Neighborhoods, Jeffery Fagan, Valerie West, Jan Holland

Faculty Scholarship

The concentration of incarceration in social groups and areas has emerged in the past decade as a topic of research and policy interest. This interest was fueled by several factors: persistent continued growth of incarceration through the 1990s, even as crime rates fell nationally for over seven years; persistent racial disparities in incarceration; assessments of the collateral consequences of incarceration that potentially aggravate the causal dynamics that lead to elevated crime rates; rapid growth in the number of returning prisoners to their communities; an influx that may strain social control in neighborhoods where social and economic disadvantages have already created ...


Reciprocal Effects Of Crime And Incarceration In New York City Neighborhoods, Jeffrey Fagan, Valerie West, Jan Holland Jan 2003

Reciprocal Effects Of Crime And Incarceration In New York City Neighborhoods, Jeffrey Fagan, Valerie West, Jan Holland

Faculty Scholarship

The social concentration of incarceration among non-whites is a recurring theme in criminal justice research and legal scholarship. Despite robust evidence of its social concentration, few studies have examined its spatial concentration, or the effects of spatially concentrated incarceration over time on individuals and social areas. In this article, we examine the growth and spatial concentration of incarceration in police precincts and smaller homogeneous neighborhoods in New York City from 1985-96. We show that rates of incarceration spiked sharply after 1985 as crime rates rose. Higher incarceration rates persisted through the 1990s, and declined far more slowly after 1990 than ...


From Violent Crime To Terrorism: The Changing Basis Of The Federal, State And Local Law Enforcement Dynamic, Daniel C. Richman Jan 2003

From Violent Crime To Terrorism: The Changing Basis Of The Federal, State And Local Law Enforcement Dynamic, Daniel C. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

Two lines of questions dominate discussions about how the nation ought to respond at home to the new (or rather newly perceived) terrorist threat: How do we ensure that information about potential terrorist activities is effectively gathered, shared, and used? And how do we ensure that the Government neither abuses the investigative authority we give it, nor demands more authority than it needs? Each line can profitably be pursued in its own terms. Yet to keep the conversations separate is to miss seeing how the very process of creating an effective domestic intelligence network may introduce a salutary level of ...


Rethinking Racial Profiling: A Critique Of The Economics, Civil Liberties, And Constitutional Literature, And Of Criminal Profiling More Generally, Bernard E. Harcourt Jan 2003

Rethinking Racial Profiling: A Critique Of The Economics, Civil Liberties, And Constitutional Literature, And Of Criminal Profiling More Generally, Bernard E. Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

New data on highway stops and searches from across the country have spawned renewed debate over racial profiling on the roads. The new data reveal consistently disproportionate searches of minority motorists, but, very often, an equal or lower general success rate – or "hit rate" – associated with those searches. Economists are developing new models of racial profiling to test whether the data are consistent with policing efficiency or racial prejudice, and argue that equal hit rates reflect that the police are maximizing the success rate of their searches. Civil liberties advocates are scrutinizing the same data and, in most cases, reaching ...


Trust Me, I’M A Judge: Why Binding Judicial Notice Of Jurisdictional Facts Violates The Right To Jury Trial, William M. Carter Jr. Jan 2003

Trust Me, I’M A Judge: Why Binding Judicial Notice Of Jurisdictional Facts Violates The Right To Jury Trial, William M. Carter Jr.

Articles

The conventional model of criminal trials holds that the prosecution is required to prove every element of the offense beyond the jury's reasonable doubt. The American criminal justice system is premised on the right of the accused to have all facts relevant to his guilt or innocence decided by a jury of his peers. The role of the judge is seen as limited to deciding issues of law and facilitating the jury's fact-finding. Despite these principles,judges are reluctant to submit to the jury elements of the offense that the judge perceives to be . routine, uncontroversial or uncontested ...


Inmate Litigation, Margo Schlanger Jan 2003

Inmate Litigation, Margo Schlanger

Articles

In 1995, prison and jail inmates brought about 40,000 new lawsuits in federal court nearly a fifth of the federal civil docket. Court records evidence a success rate for inmate plaintiffs under fifteen percent. These statistics highlight two qualities long associated with the inmate docket: its volume and the low rate of plaintiffs' success. Then, in 1996, Congress enacted the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA), which dramatically altered the litigation landscape, restricting inmates' access to federal court in a variety of ways. This Article examines inmate litigation before and after the PLRA. Looking first at the litigation process itself ...


The Louisa Van Wezel Schwartz Symposium On Mental Health Issues In Correctional Institutions - Proceedings, Brenda V. Smith Jan 2003

The Louisa Van Wezel Schwartz Symposium On Mental Health Issues In Correctional Institutions - Proceedings, Brenda V. Smith

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Now, you would think that I was as old as dirt after listening to that introduction. Well, the truth is, I am as old as dirt. And I told Paul Quander that we are both as old as dirt.

First, I want to thank Arlene for inviting me. Many, many months ago Arlene called and asked me if I would speak at this symposium on mental health in correctional institutions.


Watching You, Watching Me, Brenda V. Smith Jan 2003

Watching You, Watching Me, Brenda V. Smith

Project on Addressing Prison Rape - Articles

This article addresses these arguments and ultimately concludes that same-sex supervision should be adopted in U.S. prisons in supervising both male and female prisoners. First, while same-sex supervision may not prevent sexual misconduct, it may reduce it by cutting off a primary vector of sexual misconduct-cross-gender interactions between staff and inmates. Second, same-sex supervision may increase prisoner well-being by giving prisoners a greater sense of control over their bodies, thereby reducing their sense of vulnerability to abuse. Finally, adopting same-sex supervision policies would make the United States' position more congruent with international standards for the treatment of prisoners.


The Reliability Of The Administrative Office Of The U.S. Courts Database: An Initial Empirical Analysis, Theodore Eisenberg, Margo Schlanger Jan 2003

The Reliability Of The Administrative Office Of The U.S. Courts Database: An Initial Empirical Analysis, Theodore Eisenberg, Margo Schlanger

Articles

Researchers have long used federal court data assembled by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AO) and the Federal Judicial Center (FJC). The data include information about every case filed in federal district court and every appeal filed in the twelve nonspecialized federal appellate courts. Much research using the AO data spans subject matter areas, and includes articles on appeals, caseloads and case-processing times, case outcomes, the relation between demographics and case outcomes, class actions, diversity jurisdiction, and litigation generally. Other research using the AO data covers particular subject matter areas, such as inmate cases, contract cases, corporate ...