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Citizenship, Race, And Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2022

Citizenship, Race, And Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

This Article will discuss the interplay between citizenship, race, and ratification of statehood in the United States, both historically and prospectively. Part II will discuss the development and history of the Insular Cases and the creation of the Territorial Incorporation Doctrine (“TID”), focusing on the Territory of Puerto Rico and how the issues of citizenship, race, and statehood have evolved in shadow of empire as a result. Part III will look back on the admission to the Union of New Mexico and Arizona—the forty-seventh and forty-eighth states—and discuss the substantial difficulties these territories had in getting admitted for statehood due …


Judicial Application Of Strict Liability Local Ordinances, Guyora Binder, Brenner Fissell Aug 2021

Judicial Application Of Strict Liability Local Ordinances, Guyora Binder, Brenner Fissell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Disbanding Police Agencies, Anthony O'Rourke, Rick Su, Guyora Binder May 2021

Disbanding Police Agencies, Anthony O'Rourke, Rick Su, Guyora Binder

Journal Articles

Since the killing of George Floyd, a national consensus has emerged that reforms are needed to prevent discriminatory and violent policing. Calls to defund and abolish the police have provoked pushback, but several cities are considering disbanding or reducing their police forces. This Essay assesses disbanding as a reform strategy from a democratic and institutionalist perspective. Should localities disband their police forces? One reason to do so is that discriminatory police departments are often too insulated from democratic oversight to be reformed. But can localities succeed in disbanding and replacing their forces with something better? Unfortunately, the structural entrenchment of …


Removing Police From Schools Using State Law Heightened Scrutiny, Christina Payne-Tsoupros Jan 2021

Removing Police From Schools Using State Law Heightened Scrutiny, Christina Payne-Tsoupros

Journal Articles

This Article argues that school police, often called school resource officers, interfere with the state law right to education and proposes using the constitutional right to education under state law as a mechanism to remove police from schools. Disparities in school discipline for Black and brown children are well-known. After discussing the legal structures of school policing, this Article uses the Disability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit) theoretical framework developed by Subini Annamma, David Connor, and Beth Ferri to explain why police are unacceptable in schools. Operating under the premise that school police are unacceptable, this Article then analyzes mechanisms to …


How Mobile Homes Correlate With Per Capita Income, Randall K. Johnson May 2020

How Mobile Homes Correlate With Per Capita Income, Randall K. Johnson

Journal Articles

This study explores the nature of the relationship between the number of state-regulated mobile homes and per capita income, so as to determine whether higher-income parts of Illinois have more mobile homes than would be predicted by a recent BBC News article. It does so by identifying a simple way to determine the direction and strength of any relationship between mobile homes and per capita income, which that article assumes to be negative, if only at the county level in Illinois. The study, specifically, collects and analyzes mobile home data from Illinois and per capita income data from the U.S. …


Forgotten Borrowers: Protecting Private Student Loan Borrowers Through State Law, Judith Fox Jan 2020

Forgotten Borrowers: Protecting Private Student Loan Borrowers Through State Law, Judith Fox

Journal Articles

Private student loan borrowers arguably have the fewest protections of any users of credit in the United States. In a scarcely debated amendment to federal bankruptcy law, in 2005 private student lenders gained the same protections against discharge previously afforded to federal student lenders. Yet, private student loan borrowers received none of the rights available to federal student loan borrowers. These include income-driven repayment, relief from repayment on disability, loan discharge for fraud or closed schools, and public service loan forgiveness. Private student loan borrowers thus have neither the bankruptcy protections afforded to non-student loan debtors nor the repayment and …


The Legislature At War: Bandits, Runaways And The Emergence Of A Virginia Doctrine Of Separation Of Powers, Matthew J. Steilen May 2019

The Legislature At War: Bandits, Runaways And The Emergence Of A Virginia Doctrine Of Separation Of Powers, Matthew J. Steilen

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Why Police Should Protect Complainant Autonomy, Randall K. Johnson Apr 2019

Why Police Should Protect Complainant Autonomy, Randall K. Johnson

Journal Articles

Abstract: This Article is one in a series of papers that sets the record straight about the type, quality, and quantity of information that U.S. administrative agencies may employ to make more informed policy decisions. The Article does its work in, at least, three ways. First, it encourages better use of scarce public sector resources by calling for reform of the police complaint intake process. Next, this Article identifies the causes of police complaint inefficiencies by critically assessing how intake is done by the Chicago Police Department (CPD). Lastly, it provides guidance about how to achieve CPD intake reform by …


Anti-Sanctuary And Immigration Localism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Rick Su, Rose Cuison Villazor Apr 2019

Anti-Sanctuary And Immigration Localism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Rick Su, Rose Cuison Villazor

Journal Articles

A new front in the war against sanctuary cities has emerged. Until recently, the fight against sanctuary cities has largely focused on the federal government's efforts to defund states like California and cities like Chicago and New York for resisting federal immigration enforcement. Thus far, localities have mainly prevailed against this federal anti-sanctuary campaign, relying on federalism protections afforded by the Tenth Amendment's anticommandeering and anticoercion doctrines. Recently, however, the battle lines have shifted with the proliferation of state-level laws that similarly seek to punish sanctuary cities. States across the country are directly mandating local participation, and courts thus far …


Reconstructing An Administrative Republic, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski Jan 2018

Reconstructing An Administrative Republic, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski

Journal Articles

The book Constitutional Coup, by Professor Jon D. Michaels, offers a learned, lucid, and important argument about the relationship between privatization, constitutional structure, and public values in administrative governance. In particular, Michaels argues that the press toward privatization in this domain poses a serious threat to the United States' separation of powers and the public interest. This review essay introduces readers to Michaels' argument and then raises two questions: First, it asks whether Michaels’ method of constitutional interpretation and doctrinal analysis accelerate the trend toward privatization and consolidation of power in agency heads, the very evils he seeks to avoid. …


Have Cities Abandoned Home Rule?, Rick Su Apr 2017

Have Cities Abandoned Home Rule?, Rick Su

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Intrastate Federalism, Rick Su Oct 2016

Intrastate Federalism, Rick Su

Journal Articles

In debates about the role of federalism in America, much turns on the differences between states. But what about divisions within states? The site of political conflict in America is shifting: battles once marked by interstate conflict at the national level are increasingly reflected in intrastate clashes at the local. This shift has not undermined the role of federalism in American politics, as many predicted. Rather, federalism's role has evolved to encompass the growing divide within states and between localities. In other words, federalism disputes — formally structured as between the federal government and the states — are increasingly being …


Practice-Driven Changes To Constitutional Structures Of Governance, James A. Gardner Jan 2016

Practice-Driven Changes To Constitutional Structures Of Governance, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

Among the methods of informal constitutional change, perhaps the least studied or understood is change resulting from alterations in the way governance is practiced. Such changes, typically initiated by political actors in the executive and legislative branches, is probably the most common kind of constitutional change, and is almost certainly the most common source of informal change to structural provisions. In the United States, the best known instances of practice-driven changes to constitutional structure come from the federal level – the rise of a formal party system, for example, or the dramatic twentieth-century expansion of presidential power. Yet by far …


Rising Arizona: The Legacy Of The Jim Crow Southwest On Immigration Law And Policy After 100 Years Of Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2014

Rising Arizona: The Legacy Of The Jim Crow Southwest On Immigration Law And Policy After 100 Years Of Statehood, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

United States immigration law and policy is one the most controversial issues of our day, and perhaps no location has come under more scrutiny for the way it has attempted to deal with the problem of undocumented immigration than the State of Arizona. Though Arizona recently became notorious for its “papers please” law, SB 1070, the American Southwest has long been a bastion of discriminatory race-based law and policy – immigration and otherwise – directed toward Latinos, American Indians, African-Americans, and other non-White racial and ethnic minorities. While largely ignored by both legal and American historians, the socalled “Jim Crow …


Autonomy And Isomorphism: The Unfulfilled Promise Of Structural Autonomy In American State Constitutions, James A. Gardner Jan 2014

Autonomy And Isomorphism: The Unfulfilled Promise Of Structural Autonomy In American State Constitutions, James A. Gardner

Journal Articles

In the American system of federalism, states have almost complete freedom to adopt institutions and practices of internal self-governance that they find best-suited to the needs and preferences of their citizens. Nevertheless, states have not availed themselves of these opportunities: the structural provisions of state constitutions tend to converge strongly with one another and with the U.S. Constitution. This paper examines two important periods of such convergence: the period from 1776 through the first few decades of the nineteenth century, when states were inventing institutions of democratic governance and representation; and the period following the Supreme Court’s one person, one …


The States Of Immigration, Rick Su Mar 2013

The States Of Immigration, Rick Su

Journal Articles

Immigration is a national issue and a federal responsibility — so why are states so actively involved? Their legal authority over immigration is questionable. Their institutional capacity to regulate it is limited. Even the legal actions that states take sometimes seem pointless from a regulatory perspective. Why do they enact legislation that essentially copies existing federal law? Why do they pursue regulations that are likely to be enjoined or struck down by courts? Why do they give so little priority to the immigration laws that do survive?

This Article sheds light on this seemingly irrational behavior. It argues that state …


The Promise And Peril Of Cities And Immigration Policy, Rick Su Jan 2013

The Promise And Peril Of Cities And Immigration Policy, Rick Su

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Site-Specific Laws, John Copeland Nagle Jan 2013

Site-Specific Laws, John Copeland Nagle

Journal Articles

Congress often enacts statutes that only apply to a specific place. This essay identifies the instances in which site-specific legislation is appropriate. It recounts the uses of such legislation, the theoretical debate surrounding it, and the circumstances in which it is desirable. Site-specific legislation plays an important role in enabling Congress to prescribe its preferred policy even when agreement on broader legislation. My suggestion, therefore, is that general legislation should remain the default for congressional action, but site-specific legislation is appropriate when (a) there are convincing reasons for adopting special rules for a particular place, (b) there is no agreement …


Urban Politics And The Assimilation Of Immigrant Voters, Rick Su Dec 2012

Urban Politics And The Assimilation Of Immigrant Voters, Rick Su

Journal Articles

Despite the growing strength of immigrant voters in the U.S., immigrants continue to participate at the polls in much lower rates than not only native voters, but also immigrants in the past. What accounts for this disparity? Looking beyond the characteristics of the immigrants themselves, this essay argues that a major reason lies in the different political structure that immigrants face upon their arrival, especially at the local level. Tracing the evolution of big city politics alongside, and in response to, the three major waves of foreign immigration to the U.S., this essay outlines three competing models of immigrant political …


Pardon Me - The Need For A Fair And Impartial Judiciary, Jim Rosenblatt Jul 2012

Pardon Me - The Need For A Fair And Impartial Judiciary, Jim Rosenblatt

Journal Articles

The pardons issued by former Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour shortly before he left office created a swirl of controversy in Mississippi that played out in the national media. The Governor's Mansion, the Hinds County Courthouse, the State Capitol, and the Gartin Justice Building were frequent backdrops for media stories that took place over a two-month period reporting on "Pardongate." Several elements combined to make these pardons controversial and to make the issue such good fodder for the media.


Locating Keith Aoki: Space, Geography, And Local Government Law, Rick Su Jun 2012

Locating Keith Aoki: Space, Geography, And Local Government Law, Rick Su

Journal Articles

The late legal scholar Keith Aoki wrote on a wide range of legal issues, from intellectual property and genetic engineering to immigration and racial politics. This retrospective highlights his work on space, legal geography, and local government law. Aoki not only began his legal career exploring these issues, he also continuously drew upon their insights to frame legal inquiries in other fields as the scope of his research expanded. This essay shows Aoki to be more than an innovator in the study of space, legal geography and local government law. Indeed, he was one of their most important ambassadors.


Managing The Urban Commons, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2012

Managing The Urban Commons, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Over the past several decades, debates about the appropriate tools of commons management have played themselves out in a particularly illuminating way in the management of urban public spaces. Some commentators urge, a là Garrett Hardin, that government coercion is needed to restore order to the urban commons. Others urge the privatization or quasi-privatization of urban public-spaces. On the ground in American cities, these theoretical arguments have been translated into concrete policies, especially policing strategies (e.g., order-maintenance and community policing) and urban development strategies (e.g., business improvement districts). This is an opportune time to reexamine the commons-management questions raised by …


Working On Immigration: Three Models Of Labor And Employment Regulation, Rick Su Jan 2012

Working On Immigration: Three Models Of Labor And Employment Regulation, Rick Su

Journal Articles

The desire to tailor our immigration system to the economic interests of our nation is as old as its founding. Yet after more than two centuries of regulatory tinkering, we seem no closer to finding the right balance. Contemporary observers largely ascribe this failure to conflicts over immigration. Shifting the focus, I suggest here that longstanding disagreements in the world of economic regulations — in particular, tensions over the government’s role in regulating labor conditions and employment practices — also explains much of the difficulty behind formulating a policy approach to immigration. In other words, we cannot reach a political …


The Road To S.B. 1070: How Arizona Became Ground Zero For The Immigrants' Rights Movement And The Continuing Struggle For Latino Civil Rights In America, Kristina M. Campbell Jan 2011

The Road To S.B. 1070: How Arizona Became Ground Zero For The Immigrants' Rights Movement And The Continuing Struggle For Latino Civil Rights In America, Kristina M. Campbell

Journal Articles

When Arizona Governor Janice K. Brewer signed the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act - better known as SB 1070 - into law in April 2010, the world was taken aback not only by the State of Arizona’s brazen attempt to regulate immigration at the state level, but by the manner in which it pledged to do so. By giving state and local law enforcement officials the responsibility to detain persons that they have “reasonable suspicion” to believe are unlawfully present, the Arizona immigration law was not only branded “the toughest immigration law in the country,” but it …


Restoring Lost Connections: Land Use, Policing, And Urban Vitality, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2011

Restoring Lost Connections: Land Use, Policing, And Urban Vitality, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Justice William Brennan rightfully reminded all of us that state constitutional law is too often neglected in our courtrooms and our classrooms. State constitutions, to borrow from the late Chief Justice William Rehnquist, ought not to be "relegated to the status of a poor relation" in our constitutional legal structure. They differ in important ways from the federal law Constitution-and those differences provide the space within which our democratic experiment flourishes. And I am sure if Justice Brennan were here with us today, he would agree that we also should not neglect the study of the state and local policies …


Do Joint Parenting Laws Make Any Difference?, Margaret Brinig, Douglas W. Allen Jan 2011

Do Joint Parenting Laws Make Any Difference?, Margaret Brinig, Douglas W. Allen

Journal Articles

Using a unique data set on divorcing couples, we analyze the effects of a change in legal entitlement on the outcomes for divorcing couples. In particular, we analyze the 1997 change to custody provisions in the State of Oregon. Prior to 1997, Oregon assigned custody, based on the discretion of the court, in the best interests of the child. This was changed to a presumption- of joint parenting, which manifests in the courts encouraging and imposing joint (or shared) custody in cases that otherwise would have had sole custody arrangements. We find that the law had several implications for divorce …


Localism And Capital Punishment, Stephen F. Smith Jan 2011

Localism And Capital Punishment, Stephen F. Smith

Journal Articles

Professor Adam Gershowitz presents an interesting proposal to transfer from localities to states the power to enforce the death penalty. In his view, state-level enforcement would result in a more rationally applied death penalty because states would be much more likely to make capital charging decisions based on desert, without the distorting influence of the severe resource constraints applicable to all but the wealthiest of localities. As well conceived as Professor Gershowitz’s proposal is, however, I remain skeptical that statewide enforcement of the death penalty would be preferable to continued local enforcement. First, Professor Gershowitz underestimates the benefits of localism …


See The Mojave!, John C. Nagle Jan 2011

See The Mojave!, John C. Nagle

Journal Articles

This article examines how the law is being asked to adjudicate disputed sights in the context of the Mojave Desert. The Mojave is the best known and most explored desert in the United States. For many people, though, the Mojave is missing from any list of America’s scenic wonders. The evolution in thinking about the Mojave’s aesthetics takes places in two acts. In the first act, covering the period from the nineteenth century to 1994, what began as a curious voice praising the desert’s scenery developed into a powerful movement that prompted Congress to enact the CDPA. The second act …


Police Discretion And Local Immigration Policymaking, Rick Su Jan 2011

Police Discretion And Local Immigration Policymaking, Rick Su

Journal Articles

Immigration responsibilities in the United States are formally charged to a broad range of federal agencies, from the overseas screening of the State Department to the border patrols of the Department of Homeland Security. Yet in recent years, no department seems to have received more attention than that of the local police. For some, local police departments are frustrating our nation’s immigration laws by failing to fully participate in federal enforcement efforts. For others, it is precisely their participation that is a cause for concern. In response to these competing interests, a proliferation of competing state and federal laws have …


Immigration As Urban Policy, Rick Su Oct 2010

Immigration As Urban Policy, Rick Su

Journal Articles

Immigration has done more to shape the physical and social landscape of many of America’s largest cities than almost any other economic or cultural force. Indeed, immigration is so central to urban development in the United States that it is a wonder why immigration is not explicitly discussed as an aspect of urban policy. Yet in the national conversation over immigration, one would strain to hear it described in this manner. This essay addresses this oversight by making the case for a reorientation of immigration toward urban policy; and it does so by advocating for an immigration regime that both …