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Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

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The Case For A Global Excess Profits Tax: A Response To Dr. Tarcísio Diniz Magalhães & Professor Allison Christians, Paige Powers Aug 2022

The Case For A Global Excess Profits Tax: A Response To Dr. Tarcísio Diniz Magalhães & Professor Allison Christians, Paige Powers

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In striving to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments across the globe acted quickly to implement various "stayat- home" orders and bans on all "non-essential activities." While these actions were likely effective in slowing the spread of the virus, the economic impacts were felt almost immediately. The US deficit rose to $3.1 trillion following massive spending to aid individuals and small businesses. Internationally, governments have been increasing their debt loads to combat both the health and financial impacts of the pandemic. Indeed, by the end of 2020, the international debt load increased to a record-breaking $281 trillion. Almost …


"Just Ice" For Bourbon: The Need For Gis In International Protection Of America's Beloved Spirit, Haley Scott Aug 2022

"Just Ice" For Bourbon: The Need For Gis In International Protection Of America's Beloved Spirit, Haley Scott

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The term "bourbon" has become increasingly popular in markets all over the globe. The popularity of the bourbon trend has been exploited for both labelling liquors and describing nonalcoholic products. Bourbon has several separate definitions, usually differing on the issue of the geographical scope of the spirit's production. The bourbon liquor industry has experienced periods of significant downturn followed by periods of explosive revival, motivated mainly by foreign interest, from countries such as Japan, in the product In the 1970s, Japanese interest in whisky and US bourbon facilitated a resurgence of the then-struggling US bourbon industry. In 2018, production of …


The Brcko Arbitration: A Blueprint For Ending Current And Future Ethnic Territorial Conflicts, Emma Delaney Strenski Aug 2022

The Brcko Arbitration: A Blueprint For Ending Current And Future Ethnic Territorial Conflicts, Emma Delaney Strenski

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Within the fields of conflict resolution, political science, and history, I am researching the effectiveness of mediating an end to current and future ethnic, territorial conflicts through international law specifically an international arbitration process. I am using the Brcko Arbitration, completed as part of the Dayton Peace Accords, as a case study of the effectiveness of international arbitration in peace building. After three years of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992-1995, Brcko was a multiethnic and multireligious city and was a cultural dividing line between the two ethnically autonomous regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its options were to join …


The Ends And The Means: Indigenous Sovereignty, Climate-Related Legal Actions, And Frameworks Of Justice, Connor Marcum Feb 2022

The Ends And The Means: Indigenous Sovereignty, Climate-Related Legal Actions, And Frameworks Of Justice, Connor Marcum

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Philosophy professor Timothy Morton uses climate change as his foremost example of what he calls a hyperobject: an object that occupies both more physical space and more time than humans can usefully comprehend. For example, one can understand local meteorological occurrences in isolation without necessarily understanding that a given storm was more severe than it should have been because an overall increase in global temperatures makes for a more aggressive, active hydrological cycle. Environmental organizations focused on raising awareness understand this. Public campaigns to wed the nebulous idea of climate change to specific, concrete images are incredibly memorable: think of …


Understanding The Nansen Passport: A System Of Manipulation, Kacey Bengel Feb 2022

Understanding The Nansen Passport: A System Of Manipulation, Kacey Bengel

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The aftermath of World War I, the "war to end all wars," left the world with as many new problems as it did resolutions. State powers tested and expanded the boundaries and interpretations of international law; in the end, there were the triumphant Allied Powers, the heavily wounded Central Powers, and millions of displaced individuals left adrift in the wake. Never before had the international community attempted to address the issue of refugees, and the product of the postwar efforts did not provide a complete solution. This paper will analyze the international community's] response to the massive refugee crisis and …


Ending Demand For Modern-Day Slavery: An Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Global Marketplace, Rachel Leach Feb 2022

Ending Demand For Modern-Day Slavery: An Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Global Marketplace, Rachel Leach

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The purpose of this paper is to inform readers of the prevalence of and increasing demand for human trafficking, both domestically and globally, and to propose necessary next steps governments must take in order to end the demand for such human exploitation. This paper will closely analyze the issue of trafficking humans for sex and labor within the Western Hemisphere and throughout Asia by using the United States and China as primary case studies. These case studies analyze the specific actions or inactions taken by the United States and Chinese governments to combat modern day slavery, as well as the …


Penises, Nipples, And Bums, Oh My!: An Examination Of How Freedom Of Expression Applies To Public Nudity, Clara Gutwein Aug 2021

Penises, Nipples, And Bums, Oh My!: An Examination Of How Freedom Of Expression Applies To Public Nudity, Clara Gutwein

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

How do you solve a problem like the nipple? A woman's nipples are both erotic and utilitarian, obscene and maternal. She must never show them in public. She must show them to feed her child. Nipples are for men. Nipples are for babies. Nipples, it seems, are for everyone except a woman herself. The law, too, has something to say about nipples. It is completely constitutional for the government to prevent women from publicly showing their nipples in order to protect morality and public order. Thus, the law assumes an inversely proportional relationship between the number of publicly exposed nipples …


Zero Sympathy: Unaccompanied Minors' Rights In The Us Immigration System, Mahrukh Ali Aug 2021

Zero Sympathy: Unaccompanied Minors' Rights In The Us Immigration System, Mahrukh Ali

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

This note analyzes the US Government's approach to unaccompanied minors and the webs they must navigate when they are apprehended by the US immigration system. More importantly, this note calls for reformative approaches to children's rights through acknowledging the differences between adults and children while simultaneously taking their vulnerability and autonomy into account. After explaining the migrant crisis along with its implications and examining the underlying reasons fostering this movement, this note discusses the legal options available for unaccompanied minors. It draws on the shortcomings of the immigration system as the system labels unaccompanied minors as dependent children, but also …


Mitigating The Effects Of Intellectual Property Colonialism On Budding Cannabis Markets, Hughie Kellner Aug 2021

Mitigating The Effects Of Intellectual Property Colonialism On Budding Cannabis Markets, Hughie Kellner

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Globalization has reduced barriers to trade, communication, and understanding, opening opportunities that extend far beyond national borders. However, in this bounty of opportunity lie obligations, and often those obligations tie a nation's hands when trying to deal with a problem that arises. One obligation nations face is upholding the United Nations' (UN) decision to prevent the illicit use of cannabis. Another is supporting and following the World Trade Organization's (WTO) near elimination of barriers for companies to bring patent and trademark protection with them into any country they do business with. In a modern globalized economy, if a nation fails …


Calling The Shots: Balancing Parental And Child Rights In The Age Of Anti-Vax, Mahrukh Badar Aug 2021

Calling The Shots: Balancing Parental And Child Rights In The Age Of Anti-Vax, Mahrukh Badar

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Vaccinations have become a contentious issue in recent times. Although there has always been opposition to vaccines, the internet has made it possible for pseudoscience and false information to spread like never before. This has led to alarming declines in vaccine confidence and adherence rates globally. High-income countries have seen the sharpest drop in vaccine confidence rates. Factors such as the complacency effect and religious objections likely explain this decline. Most countries have attempted to raise vaccine confidence levels by enacting laws that make vaccinations for children compulsory, with strict penalties for parents who refuse to comply. In addition to …


I Just Took A Dna Test—Turns Out, I'M 100% Breaching My Donor Anonymity Contract: Direct-To-Consumer Dna Testing And Parental Medical-Decision-Making, Morgan C. York Aug 2021

I Just Took A Dna Test—Turns Out, I'M 100% Breaching My Donor Anonymity Contract: Direct-To-Consumer Dna Testing And Parental Medical-Decision-Making, Morgan C. York

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Part I of this note provides a brief history of assisted reproductive technology and its increased use throughout the world, illustrating the growing number of donor-conceived children and the related importance of knowing genetic information. Part I also surveys regulations concerning donor anonymity in the United States and the United Kingdom to illustrate different jurisdictions' approaches to the regulation of donor anonymity. This note uses the United Kingdom as a model of countries that have prohibited sperm donor anonymity. Part II of this note discusses direct-to-consumer DNA testing, specifically 23andMe's products. This note selects 23andMe as the direct-to-consumer company for …


How The World's Largest Economies Regulate Data Privacy: Drawbacks, Benefits, & Proposed Solutions, Alexander J. Pantos Aug 2021

How The World's Largest Economies Regulate Data Privacy: Drawbacks, Benefits, & Proposed Solutions, Alexander J. Pantos

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

National data privacy regimes are quickly gaining traction and ubiquity around the globe. Moving forward, countries will face a range of difficult decisions surrounding how best to engage internationally in cross border data flow, particularly in the context of personal information (PI).

This article takes a bird's-eye view of the current state of data privacy regimes in the world's four highest GDP regions. In part, this article hopes to provide a succinct analysis of these data privacy regimes, with a focus on the balance they strike between granting individuals rights in their data and placing responsibilities on businesses that deal …


Multilateralism, Pushback, And Prospects For Global Engagement?, Michael Donald Kirby The Honourable Aug 2020

Multilateralism, Pushback, And Prospects For Global Engagement?, Michael Donald Kirby The Honourable

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In this article, the author draws on long engagement with multilateralism, both in domestic jurisdiction and international institutions. He describes the growth of post-War United Nations activities and the increasing impact of international law, including on universal human rights. He records international initiatives on global problems like HI V/AIDS and in individual countries, such as Cambodia and North Korea. He then describes recent examples of '"pushback" against multilateralism, especially on the part of the United States, the United Kingdom, some European countries, and Australia. He concludes with illustrations and reasons why the global community should remain optimistic about multilateralism, despite …


The Dangers Of Humanitarian Intervention And The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine, And A Partial Solution, Matthew Bellinger Aug 2020

The Dangers Of Humanitarian Intervention And The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine, And A Partial Solution, Matthew Bellinger

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

When the United Nations (UN) was formed, one of its most important goals was to render war obsolete. The UN Charter states as a goal the hope to "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war." When President Franklin D. Roosevelt first described his vision for a post-World War II international organization, he envisioned an organization that would promote and facilitate "international cooperation . . . to consider and deal with the problem of world relations." He also wanted a council that would "concern itself with peaceful settlement of international disputes." The UN Charter itself took the then-unprecedented step of …


Afghanistan Legislative Commitments To The Wto: A Deeper Look At Afghanistan's Compliance With Trips, Hafizullah Seddiqi Aug 2020

Afghanistan Legislative Commitments To The Wto: A Deeper Look At Afghanistan's Compliance With Trips, Hafizullah Seddiqi

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In 2016, Afghanistan formally acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) to improve its worldwide trading prospects. However, this journey began much earlier. To join the WTO, one of Afghanistan's commitments was to reform its then-existing trademark laws. Intellectual property (IP)-related laws are, in general, one of the fields that countries must reform prior to joining the WTO, so as to be in accordance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). While Afghanistan has enacted some IPrelated statutes, including the 2009 Law on Trade Marks Registration, it continues to fall short of conforming to TRIPS because …


Who Is A Refugee?: Twenty-Five Years Of Domestic Implementation And Judicial Interpretation Of The 1969 Oaw And 1951 Un Refugee Conventions In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Tiyanjana Maluwa, Anton Katz Aug 2020

Who Is A Refugee?: Twenty-Five Years Of Domestic Implementation And Judicial Interpretation Of The 1969 Oaw And 1951 Un Refugee Conventions In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Tiyanjana Maluwa, Anton Katz

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

As a party to the UN Refugee Convention and the OAU Refugee Convention, South Africa is obligated to apply international refugee law when addressing the protection needs of asylum seekers in the country. The Refugees Act, 1998 encapsulates the cardinal principles of the two conventions. This essay discusses how government officials and judges have interpreted and applied these principles in asylum application cases. These cases demonstrate that officials are either not always fully conversant with the legal obligations, incumbent upon the government, arising from both international law and domestic law or purposefully ignore them. For the most part, officials tend …


Addressing Transplant Tourism Problems And Proposed Solutions: Regulation Instead Of Prohibition, Colleen Naumovich Aug 2020

Addressing Transplant Tourism Problems And Proposed Solutions: Regulation Instead Of Prohibition, Colleen Naumovich

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Medical tourism, as defined by scholar Glenn Cohen, is "the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment."' Transplant tourism, a type of medical tourism, is traveling abroad to purchase an organ for transplant. Although organ sale is currently illegal in every country except Iran, many countries-such as India, the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Egypt-have thriving black markets for these goods. Organ transplants are often the only effective means of treating end state organ failure, and the demand for transplants is especially high in developed and middle-income countries. Shortages of available donors and organs, however, have caused …


Immunity From Suit For International Organizations: The Judiciary's New Que Of Separating Lawsuit Sheep From Lawsuit Goats, Ylli Dautaj Aug 2020

Immunity From Suit For International Organizations: The Judiciary's New Que Of Separating Lawsuit Sheep From Lawsuit Goats, Ylli Dautaj

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

I. Introduction

II. Immunity from Suit in Public International Law

(A) Sovereign Immunity

(i) Sources of Sovereign Immunity

(ii) Legal Theory on Sovereign Immunity

(iii) Doctrinal Evolution of Sovereign Immunity

(B) Jurisdictional Immunity for International Organizations

(C) Sovereign Immunity and Immunity for International Organizations

Domestically

III. Jam v. Int'l Finance Corporation:

A New Dawn for International Organizations in the United States

(A) Jam v. Int'l Finance Corporation: Majority View

(B) Jam v. Int'l Finance Corporation: Dissenting Opinion by Justice Breyer

IV. The Exception that Proves but does not Swallow the rule on Virtually

Absolute Immunity: Criticism of the Majority in …


Finding International Law In Private Governance: How Codes Of Conduct In The Apparel Industry Refer To International Instruments, Phillip Paiement, Sophie Melchers Aug 2020

Finding International Law In Private Governance: How Codes Of Conduct In The Apparel Industry Refer To International Instruments, Phillip Paiement, Sophie Melchers

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Multinational enterprises increasingly use Codes of Conduct to govern the conditions of labor and production among their suppliers' operations around the globe. These Codes of Conduct, produced unilaterally by companies as well as by multi-stakeholder bodies, often include references to public international law instruments. This article takes a closer look at thirty-eight Codes of Conduct from the global apparel industry and uses social network analysis to identify the patterns in these Codes and how they refer to international legal instruments. Although some international legal instruments stipulate rules that can be directly transposed into the private context of supply chains, this …


Authority And The Globalisation Of Inclusion And Exclusion: Author Meets Readers, Hand Lindahl, Christine Bell Prof, Friedrich Kratochwil, Hans-W. Micklitz, Carlos Thiebaut, Bert Van Roermund Aug 2020

Authority And The Globalisation Of Inclusion And Exclusion: Author Meets Readers, Hand Lindahl, Christine Bell Prof, Friedrich Kratochwil, Hans-W. Micklitz, Carlos Thiebaut, Bert Van Roermund

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Authority is written against the background of intense resistance to globalization processes by a range of political movements and grassroots organizations. These processes are complex and have a variety of dimensions. One of these is the emergence of global legal orders, which I define, in a rough and ready manner, as relatively autonomous legal orders that claim or aspire to claim global validity for themselves. They too-most obviously the World Trade Organization (WTO)-are the butt of resistance. Whatever its forms and aspirations, resistance to globalization is fueled by their peculiar dynamic. Indeed, emergent global legal orders spawn massive exclusion when …


Temporary Protection Status: A Yugoslavian Precedent, Medina Dzubur Aug 2020

Temporary Protection Status: A Yugoslavian Precedent, Medina Dzubur

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Analyzing the past use of temporary protection status to shield those facing "ethnic cleansing, massacres, mass rapes, and cultural vandalism" is fundamental in understanding how this tool can be utilized to protect modern refugees, and why EU members have refused to implement this status further. In other words, should temporary protection status, considering the legal framework and the socioeconomic effects, be granted to Syrian refugees? This note argues in favor of granting temporary protection status to Syrian refugees because the status (1) offers a recourse for displaced persons that would not be covered by traditional legal protections, (2) produces quicker …


When Freedom Of Speech Comes At A Cost: A Case Study Of E.S. V. Austria, Rachael Taylor Aug 2020

When Freedom Of Speech Comes At A Cost: A Case Study Of E.S. V. Austria, Rachael Taylor

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In the fall of 2018, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) issued a decision upholding the criminal conviction of an Austrian national (E.S.) in violation of Austria's Criminal Code against the disparagement of religious doctrines. Her initial conviction in the Austrian court was based on statements she made about the Prophet Muhammad while teaching a series of seminars entitled "Basic Information on Islam." In upholding her conviction, the ECtHR found that there had been no violation of the Austrian's right to freedom of expression under Article 10 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (Convention), and …


Passport To Plastics: Cosmetic Surgery Tourism, Medical Malpractice, And The Automatic Establishment Of Personal Jurisdiction By Way Of The Joint Commission International, Elizabeth Astrup Aug 2020

Passport To Plastics: Cosmetic Surgery Tourism, Medical Malpractice, And The Automatic Establishment Of Personal Jurisdiction By Way Of The Joint Commission International, Elizabeth Astrup

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

For centuries, tourists have visited lands near and far in search of experiences unavailable in their home countries. From golfing the best courses in the world, to yoga retreats in remote locations, many tourist activities provide experiential opportunities along with health and wellness benefits. Currently, an increasing number of individuals are opting to cross international borders to receive medical treatments, often at reduced costs. While many scholars use the term health tourism to encompass all health and wellness travel purposes, this note uses the term medical tourism to distinguish tourism for the specific purpose of medical treatments or procedures. Medical …


The Right To Access To Justice: Its Conceptual Architecture, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado Feb 2020

The Right To Access To Justice: Its Conceptual Architecture, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The aim of this article is descriptive and analytical, rather than normative. This article aims to contribute to the current understanding of the ways in which modern legal consciousness builds, and is built by, the concept of access to justice. This concept, as part of the web of meanings that structures modern legal culture, provides the context in which modern subjects make sense of who they are and how they should interact with the world around them. This article examines the subjectivities, conceptual geographies, and interpretations of history created by the right to access to justice. It also examines a …


Introduction, Colin Crawford, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado Feb 2020

Introduction, Colin Crawford, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The papers gathered in this volume analyze access to justice in Latin America, Europe, and North America from a philosophical, legal, and sociological perspective. In these three regions of the world, as in the rest of the globe, liberal democracies face a troubling gap between the normative and the descriptive: the access to justice promises made by the legal and political system are not fully realized in practice. The studies collected here, therefore, share two baseline assumptions. First, the right of access to justice is fundamental in a liberal state. Access to justice ensures that citizens are able to defend …


Public Law, Precarity, And Access To Justice, Amnon Lev Feb 2020

Public Law, Precarity, And Access To Justice, Amnon Lev

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In the first part, I examine Thomas Hobbes' theory of commonwealth to see how it situates subjects in relation to justice. Hobbes famously founds his commonwealth on the equal subjection of all to the Leviathan, which is the equal subjection of all to law. We need to understand why he nevertheless needs to accommodate the diversity of society-the basic fact that some are weak while others are not-into the operation of the public law machine. As we shall see, the accommodation of social diversity is tied to a proto-liberal distinction between social spheres that relegates much of human life to …


Access To Justice For Collective And Diffuse Rights: Theoretical Challenges And Opportunities For Social Contract Theory, Colin Crawford Feb 2020

Access To Justice For Collective And Diffuse Rights: Theoretical Challenges And Opportunities For Social Contract Theory, Colin Crawford

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

This analysis consists of three principal parts. First, it briefly reviews the classical contract account that explains how and why individuals enter civil society, found in the writings of both Hobbes and Locke. The analysis then examines the limited extent to which classical contract theory treats questions of rights vindication or, in more modern terms, with questions of access to justice. Second, the analysis examines the nature of collective and diffuse rights claims and will make a case for their importance in the modern world. Third, the analysis seeks to identify arguments from the classical account that might be useful …


The Mandarins Of The Law: Pro Bono Legal Work From A Comparative Perspective, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado Feb 2020

The Mandarins Of The Law: Pro Bono Legal Work From A Comparative Perspective, Daniel Bonilla Maldonado

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In Part I, I present the elements that form the standard global concept of pro bono work. Pro bono work is a global phenomenon defined by, and based on, a transnational discourse. In the first section of Part I, I argue that this transnational discourse conceptualizes pro bono work as a set of institutionalized free legal services that lawyers voluntarily provide to people with few financial resources or to protect the public interest. In the three following sections, I specify and analyze the concepts of subject, time, and space that this understanding of pro bono work creates, to present the …


Pro Bono Work In Colombia: How Can It Help Broaden, Equalize, And Ensure Access To Justice, Ana Bejarano Ricaurte Feb 2020

Pro Bono Work In Colombia: How Can It Help Broaden, Equalize, And Ensure Access To Justice, Ana Bejarano Ricaurte

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

This article does not discuss whether pro bono programs should exist in Colombia, or whether they cause positive transformation in the legal profession. These issues are examined in other types of legal literature, and this author departs from the standpoint of viewing this type of work as a positive practice within the legal culture. The main thesis of this article is that pro bono work is still developing in Colombia, both in its numbers of participating attorneys and clients, as well as in the ways it is affecting the legal culture. As important as it might be, the work of …


Movement Lawyering, Scott L. Cummings Feb 2020

Movement Lawyering, Scott L. Cummings

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

This article examines the relation between movement lawyering and American legal theory, explores the meaning and content of movement lawyering in the contemporary American context, and reflects on the implications of movement lawyering for the theory and practice of access to justice around the globe. It suggests that the rise of movement lawyering signals frustration with process-oriented solutions to fundamental problems of inequality and discrimination in the legal system, and challenges access to justice proponents to frame their work in connection with a political strategy that builds on movements for progressive legal change. In this sense, the article suggests that …