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Parity/Disparity: Electoral Gender Inequality On The Tightrope Of Liberal Constitutional Traditions, Darren Rosenblum Jan 2006

Parity/Disparity: Electoral Gender Inequality On The Tightrope Of Liberal Constitutional Traditions, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this article examines Parity's strangeness to United States observers. United States sex discrimination law ignores political representation issues. United States voting rights law contains no provisions for gender inequality. Most importantly, leading United States thinkers of all stripes roundly reject quotas. Part II details the Parity debate and its relationship to French democracy. The democracies of the United States and of France share Eighteenth Century Enlightenment origins. They also share some form of universalism (labeled “neutrality” in the United States by Cass Sunstein) establishing the equality of all citizens before the law. Parity serves as a good …


Back To Bakke: Defining The Strict Scrutiny Test For Affirmative Action Policies Aimed At Achieving Diversity In The Classroom, Leslie Yalof Garfield Jan 2005

Back To Bakke: Defining The Strict Scrutiny Test For Affirmative Action Policies Aimed At Achieving Diversity In The Classroom, Leslie Yalof Garfield

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article will identify the new strict scrutiny test, and will consider the reason for creating a separate definition of strict scrutiny for evaluating affirmative action policies that achieve diversity in the classroom. Part II of the Article will review constitutional challenges to affirmative action policies prior to Grutter and Gratz, and will discuss the split in the circuits that resulted from the Court's failure to endorse Justice Powell's definition of a compelling governmental interest in Bakke. Part III will provide an analysis of the Grutter and Gratz decisions, with a particular focus on each Court's discussion of the strict …


Dying Twice: Incarceration On Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin Jan 2003

Dying Twice: Incarceration On Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Dying Twice is an important report. The work is a collaboration between the Corrections Committee of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, which I chaired, and the Committee on Capital Punishment of the Association chaired by Norman Greene. The working group that researched and wrote the report was drawn from members of both committees. The attorneys and the physician who served on the committee are wonderful, talented, dedicated people. It was a pleasure to work with professionals of this caliber on such an important effort. Dying Twice was endorsed as the position of the Association …


Dying Twice: Conditions On New York's Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin Jan 2002

Dying Twice: Conditions On New York's Death Row, Michael B. Mushlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In 1995 New York State revived the death penalty as a punishment for certain categories of murder, and established a “death row” for condemned men at the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York (variously, “Clinton” or the “Prison”). Four years later, in October 1999, two committees of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York (the “Association”) joined together to study the conditions of confinement on this death row--or, as it is officially called, the Unit for Condemned Persons (the “UCP”). These committees--the Committee on Corrections and the Committee on Capital Punishment--formed a joint subcommittee (the …


"Trapped" In Sing Sing: Transgendered Prisoners Caught In The Gender Binarism, Darren Rosenblum Jan 2000

"Trapped" In Sing Sing: Transgendered Prisoners Caught In The Gender Binarism, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article first summarizes gender, transgendered identity, and legal issues facing transgendered people to contextualize the lives of transgendered prisoners. Parts II and III explore respectively the placement and treatment issues that complicate the incarceration of the transgendered. Corrections authorities, through indifference or incompetence, foster a shockingly inhumane daily existence for transgendered prisoners. In Part V, I examine the plight of transgendered prisoners through the metaphor of the miners' canary. Transgendered prisoners signal the grave dangers facing all of us in a wide array of social structures, elucidating the apparently intractable problems of gender. This Article simultaneously explores a human …


The Voting Rights Act And The "New And Improved" Intent Test: Old Wine In New Bottles, Randolph M. Mclaughlin Jan 2000

The Voting Rights Act And The "New And Improved" Intent Test: Old Wine In New Bottles, Randolph M. Mclaughlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Since the Supreme Court injected the issue of intent into the voting rights arena in Mobile v. Bolden,1 there has been a long and persistent struggle to reverse that decision. In 1982, Congress thought it had put the question of the quantum and quality of proof required to establish a violation of section 2 of the Voting Rights Act to rest when Congress amended that section. However, the courts quickly began a rear guard action to undermine congressional efforts to eliminate the intent requirement as an element of a plaintiff's claim. Both the Supreme Court and the circuit courts have …


Synopsis Of The Report Of The Second Circuit Task Force On Gender, Racial And Ethnic Fairness In The Courts, Jay C. Carlisle Jan 1999

Synopsis Of The Report Of The Second Circuit Task Force On Gender, Racial And Ethnic Fairness In The Courts, Jay C. Carlisle

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The recent Report of the Second Circuit Task Force on Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Fairness in the Courts (‘Taskforce‘) observes “some biased conduct toward parties and witnesses based on gender or race or ethnicity has occurred on the part of both judges and lawyers.” “Biased conduct toward lawyers based on gender or race or ethnicity, has occurred to a greater degree.” The Report concludes that such conduct is unacceptable and admonishes all participants in the Second Circuit courts to guard against it. The purpose of this Perspective is to review several sections of the Report. The Perspective is written from …


Geographically Sexual?: Advancing Lesbian And Gay Interests Through Proportional Representation, Darren Rosenblum Jan 1996

Geographically Sexual?: Advancing Lesbian And Gay Interests Through Proportional Representation, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article explores lesbian and gay interests and representational characteristics. Part II highlights the inadequacies of a single-member districting system in representing the interests of lesbian and gay communities. It concludes with an examination of the New York City Council's 1991 redistricting, where the mobilization of strong lesbian and gay communities in a receptive environment nonetheless failed to lead to effective representation of lesbian and gay interests in the City Council. Part III describes proportional representation systems and reveals how such systems would better serve lesbian and gay communities. Part IV acknowledges the political and legal obstacles …


Squaring Affirmative Action Admissions Policies With Federal Judicial Guidelines: A Model For The Twenty-First Century, Leslie Y. Garfield Jan 1996

Squaring Affirmative Action Admissions Policies With Federal Judicial Guidelines: A Model For The Twenty-First Century, Leslie Y. Garfield

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article will highlight the legal limitations law schools confront when adopting diversity admission policies in light of the new judicial climate that disfavors considering non-traditional race criteria in the admission decision process. Part I highlights the difficulty law schools face when trying to admit a fully diverse class under the traditional application process. Part II discusses the judicial response to voluntary diversity admission policies and other race-based preference policies and defines the appropriate standard for court review. Part III proposes a model diversity admission policy. Part IV analyzes this model policy under the Court's strict scrutiny test.


Overcoming "Stigmas": Lesbian And Gay Districts And Black Electoral Empowerment, Darren Rosenblum Jan 1995

Overcoming "Stigmas": Lesbian And Gay Districts And Black Electoral Empowerment, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article argues that the renewed disenfranchisement of blacks from districting remedies may be curbed through the use of community-based evidence similar to that used by lesbian and gay activists. Section One will explore the current position of blacks in the districting system, scrutinizing recent changes in the law that deprive blacks of their previously “protected” status under the Voting Rights Act. In 1995, the Miller v. Johnson decision notably held that race cannot be the predominant factor in the drawing of district lines. Blacks wishing to ensure that their interests are represented in the political process will therefore need …


Operation Rescue Versus A Woman's Right To Choose: A Conflict Without A Federal Remedy?, Randolph M. Mclaughlin Jan 1994

Operation Rescue Versus A Woman's Right To Choose: A Conflict Without A Federal Remedy?, Randolph M. Mclaughlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article discusses the need for federal protection of women seeking abortion-related services and the denial of protection of those women by the Supreme Court's narrow holding in Bray. Part II examines the precedents leading up to the Bray decision. A review of these cases demonstrates that Operation Rescue is a national conspiracy aimed at eliminating the right to abortion. The group uses physical force and blockades clinics in order to deny women and health care workers access to these facilities. In light of the inability or unwillingness of local law enforcement agencies to provide access to the clinics and …


Defending The Poor, Bennett L. Gershman Mar 1993

Defending The Poor, Bennett L. Gershman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Given the harsh reality that the quality of justice that people get in this country often depends on how much money they have , is our society's aspiration toward "equal justice" attainable? Probably not. A criminal defendant's poverty is not necessarily inconsistent with zealous advocacy. But whether lawyers for the poor adequately protect their clients' rights in criminal cases is the subject of ongoing debate.


Themes Of Injustice: Wrongful Convictions, Racial Prejudice, And Lawyer Incompetence, Bennett L. Gershman Jan 1993

Themes Of Injustice: Wrongful Convictions, Racial Prejudice, And Lawyer Incompetence, Bennett L. Gershman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The U. S. criminal justice system has undergone radical changes in the past generation. Crime is more complex; prosecutors are more powerful; and courts, corrections agencies, and defense services are burdened with larger case loads and tighter budgets. It is not the best of times to talk about justice. Yet, it is a subject that needs to be constantly addressed, particularly in times of crisis. The following essay focuses on some of the problems that present themselves in the criminal justice system today, including the conviction of innocent defendants, especially in capital cases; racial prejudice; and lawyer incompetence.


Chisom V. Roemer: Where Do We Go From Here?, Randolph M. Mclaughlin Jan 1992

Chisom V. Roemer: Where Do We Go From Here?, Randolph M. Mclaughlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In Chisom and Houston Lawyers' Association, the Court declined to address two substantive issues critical for pending and future litigation challenging the at-large election of state judges. The Court expressly stated that it would not decide the elements that must be proved to establish a violation of section 2 or the remedy that would be appropriate for a violation proven in the context of a judicial election. Part II will discuss the Chisom and Houston Lawyers' Association decisions. Analysis of these decisions, combined with a review of the legislative history, supports the Court's view of the amended section 2. In …


Bray V. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic: The Supreme Court's Next Opportunity To Unsettle Civil Rights Law, Randolph M. Mclaughlin Jan 1992

Bray V. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic: The Supreme Court's Next Opportunity To Unsettle Civil Rights Law, Randolph M. Mclaughlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The legislative history of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 is scrutinized to determine the factual predicate that led to the enactment of 42 U.S.C. § 1985(3) and the classes Congress sought to protect under its provisions. The legislative history is also analyzed to determine which rights Congress sought to protect in § 1985(3). Part III discusses the Supreme Court's misinterpretation of the statute and attempts to provide guidance as to the proper outcome in Bray.


Gideon V. Wainwright Revisited: What Does The Right To Counsel Guarantee Today?, Michael B. Mushlin Jan 1990

Gideon V. Wainwright Revisited: What Does The Right To Counsel Guarantee Today?, Michael B. Mushlin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In Gideon v. Wainwright, the Supreme Court unanimously held that indigent state felony defendants are constitutionally entitled to the appointment of trial counsel. The opinion aroused wide support, and even enthusiasm, almost from the moment it was announced in 1963. Two and a half decades later this support has not diminished. However, are the words of praise only lip service to the noble idea of the right to counsel? Has Gideon really made a difference? Has its promise of a fair shake for poor criminal defendants been kept, or has Gideon meant only that defendants are provided with the fleeting …


Endless Journey: Integration And The Provision Of Equal Educational Opportunity In Denver's Public Schools: A Study Of Keyes V. School District No. 1, James J. Fishman Jan 1989

Endless Journey: Integration And The Provision Of Equal Educational Opportunity In Denver's Public Schools: A Study Of Keyes V. School District No. 1, James J. Fishman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Denver was the first non-Southern City to undergo extensive litigation over the desegregation of its schools. In this context, it has become a mirror for the way America deals with its most pressing social problem: the integration of minorities into the educational, political and economic mainstream through equal educational opportunity. This study examines the difficulties of implementing a desegregation plan that would result in a unitary public school system and developing a plan that would provide an equal educational opportunity to the large hispano minority. We concentrate upon the implementation efforts after 1976 when Judge Richard Matsch was assigned to …


"The Right Of The People": Reconciling Collective And Individual Interests Under The Fourth Amendment, Donald L. Doernberg Jan 1983

"The Right Of The People": Reconciling Collective And Individual Interests Under The Fourth Amendment, Donald L. Doernberg

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Professor Doernberg examines a tension within fourth amendment jurisprudence and sugqests a means of resolving it. On the one hand, the Supreme Court has conferred fourth amendment standing only upon those whose personal privacy interests have been disturbed. On the other hand, the Court has allowed such persons to invoke the exclusionary rule only in circumstances where, in the Court's view, it would serve as an effective deterrent. Professor Doernberg traces these two po1icies to different conceptions of the fourth amendment: the first interprets the amendment as a guarantor of individual rights; the second construes it as an instrument for …


Abroad In The Land: Legal Strategies To Effectuate The Rights Of The Physically Disabled, Ann Powers Jan 1973

Abroad In The Land: Legal Strategies To Effectuate The Rights Of The Physically Disabled, Ann Powers

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In view of limited legislative action, the handicapped may be forced to resort to the courts in order to vindicate their rights. To do so, they must develop new legal strategies by using existing theories in previously unexplored ways. This Note will consider the development of such strategies in the areas of education, physical access and employment.