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Full-Text Articles in Law

Schrems's Slippery Slope: Strengthening Governance Mechanisms To Rehabilitate Eu-U.S. Cross-Border Data Transfers After Schrems Ii, Edward W. Mclaughlin Oct 2021

Schrems's Slippery Slope: Strengthening Governance Mechanisms To Rehabilitate Eu-U.S. Cross-Border Data Transfers After Schrems Ii, Edward W. Mclaughlin

Fordham Law Review

In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) invalidated the Privacy Shield Framework, the central data governance mechanism that once governed cross-border data transfers from the European Union (EU) to the United States. For the second time in five years, Europe’s top court invalidated the primary method of cross-border data transfers. Both times the CJEU found that the United States’s surveillance laws were, and remain, overbroad and fail to provide EU citizens with protections that are essentially equivalent to those guaranteed under the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in light of the ...


The Runaway Presidential Power Over Diplomacy, Jean Galbraith Sep 2021

The Runaway Presidential Power Over Diplomacy, Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The President claims exclusive control over diplomacy within our constitutional system. Relying on this claim, executive branch lawyers repeatedly reject congressional mandates regarding international engagement. In their view, Congress cannot specify what the policy of the United States is with respect to foreign corruption, cannot bar a technology-focused agency from communicating with China, cannot impose notice requirements for withdrawal from a treaty with Russia, cannot instruct Treasury officials how to vote in the World Bank, and cannot require the disclosure of a trade-related report. And these are just a few of many examples from recent years. The President’s assertedly ...


The Ila Study Group On The Role Of Cities In International Law City Report: Windsor, Christopher Waters Sep 2021

The Ila Study Group On The Role Of Cities In International Law City Report: Windsor, Christopher Waters

Law Publications

Windsor, Ontario is a border city. Windsor sits opposite Detroit, Michigan on the Detroit River, along the Canada-US boundary. Although this is a city report on Windsor, it is impossible to describe the border experience without the centrality of Detroit to Windsor’s self-perception or role in city diplomacy. The border region is integrated economically, culturally and through interpersonal relations. Despite these ties and the obvious potential for transnational sensibility, neither Windsor - nor its big cousin across the Detroit River - has sought a prominent role as international actors. The governance links between the cities are low-key and informal.


Contested Sovereignties: States, Media Platforms, Peoples, And The Regulation Of Media Content And Big Data In The Networked Society, Pascale Chapdelaine, Jaqueline Mcleod Rogers Aug 2021

Contested Sovereignties: States, Media Platforms, Peoples, And The Regulation Of Media Content And Big Data In The Networked Society, Pascale Chapdelaine, Jaqueline Mcleod Rogers

Law Publications

This article examines the legal and normative foundations of media content regulation in the borderless networked society. We explore the extent to which internet undertakings should be subject to state regulation, in light of Canada’s ongoing debates and legislative reform. We bring a cross-disciplinary perspective (from the subject fields of law; communications studies, in particular McLuhan’s now classic probes; international relations; and technology studies) to enable both policy and language analysis. We apply the concept of sovereignty to states (national cultural and digital sovereignty), media platforms (transnational sovereignty), and citizens (autonomy and personal data sovereignty) to examine the ...


Carbon Accounting By Public And Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading To Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Emily Spittle Aug 2021

Carbon Accounting By Public And Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading To Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Emily Spittle

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

To further and fully understand how to plan for the decarbonization of mining value chains, we need better data on carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, neither consumers, corporates, or financial institutions know the embodied emissions in the products they produce or sell. While methods like life-cycle analysis and environmental product declarations exist, none use a verifiable, comparable, or widely adopted emissions reporting framework capable of sending supply chain signals.

To truly reform material supply chains, new solutions for markets, capital, and policy are required. COMET (the Coalition on Materials Emissions Transparency) – an alliance launched at Davos in ...


European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch Jul 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This EU Food Law Update will focus on the recent developments in the areas of genetically modified organisms, novel foods, feed safety, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, salmonella and food borne diseases, food additives, organic farming, food contact materials, and labeling.


Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts Jul 2021

Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the modern global food system - marked by the trade flow of a variety of food products and ingredients from multiple locations in the world - economically motivated adulteration has emerged as a growing menace that threatens the health and wellbeing of consumers, the economic livelihoods of honest purveyors of food in the global marketplace, and the integrity and viability of national food regulatory systems. Economic adulteration is a form of cheating that includes the padding, diluting, and substituting of food product. Although this cheating is rooted in past food systems, the new paradigm for economic adulteration - a vast international food-trade ...


Application Of The Due Diligence Principle To Cyber Operations, Tomohiro Mikanagi Jul 2021

Application Of The Due Diligence Principle To Cyber Operations, Tomohiro Mikanagi

International Law Studies

The discreet use of proxies by States renders it difficult to prove attribution to States under the existing rules of attribution. On the other hand, the due diligence principle, if applicable, does not require attribution but can lead to the invocation of State responsibility for cyber operations emanating from the territory of other States. In the Corfu Channel judgment the ICJ recognized “every State’s obligation not to allow knowingly its territory to be used for acts contrary to the rights of other States,” and UN Member States agreed that existing international law applies to cyber operations. However, the UN ...


Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards A Living Income For Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, Solina Kennedy Jul 2021

Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards A Living Income For Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, Solina Kennedy

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Coffee, one of the world’s most popular beverages, provides livelihoods for at least 60 million people across dozens of countries. Promoting the long-term health, wellbeing, and environmental sustainability of the much beloved coffee sector should be a clear priority.

CCSI has continued its work on coffee sustainability with a 2021 report: “Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards a Living Income for Producers.” The report focuses on a critical but under-examined topic: the impact of coffee company sourcing practices on coffee producer and farmworker well-being. The report, commissioned by a long-term investment manager, analyzes the sourcing practices of ten large coffee roasters ...


Five Years After The Adoption Of The Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected In Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Mara Greenberg Jul 2021

Five Years After The Adoption Of The Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected In Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Mara Greenberg

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Domestic laws are the ideal legal instrument to regulate the mining sector’s contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Even so, as a stop-gap-measure, governments may consider updating model mining development agreements (MMDAs) or negotiating climate­-related contractual provisions. This CCSI paper explores whether governments are using, and how they can use, investor–state mining contracts to advance climate goals. We synthesize our findings and recommendations for six categories of provisions: integrating renewable energy into mining products, reducing deforestation, requiring a climate risk assessment and community vulnerability assessment, regulating water use, requiring tailings dam design justifications, and integrating climate ...


Comparison Between The Ipcc Reporting Framework And Country Practice, Jiarui Chen, Martin Dietrich Brauch Jul 2021

Comparison Between The Ipcc Reporting Framework And Country Practice, Jiarui Chen, Martin Dietrich Brauch

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

To further and fully understand how to plan for the decarbonization of mining value chains, we need better data on carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, neither consumers, corporates, or financial institutions know the embodied emissions in the products they produce or sell. While methods like life-cycle analysis and environmental product declarations exist, none use a verifiable, comparable, or widely adopted emissions reporting framework capable of sending supply chain signals.

To truly reform material supply chains, new solutions for markets, capital, and policy are required. COMET (the Coalition on Materials Emissions Transparency) – an alliance launched at Davos in ...


The United Nations And Human Rights Non-Governmental Organizations (Ngos) - Seventy-Five Years Of Consultations, Collaboration, And Contributions (1945-2000), George E. Edwards Jun 2021

The United Nations And Human Rights Non-Governmental Organizations (Ngos) - Seventy-Five Years Of Consultations, Collaboration, And Contributions (1945-2000), George E. Edwards

Pace International Law Review

At the San Francisco Conference where the United Nations Charter was negotiated, participants and observers included representatives of “societies and organizations”—non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The precise number and identities of those NGOs is unclear, but 42 of the participants were consultants to the U.S. delegation that successfully lobbied for the Charter to include an official relationship between the U.N. and NGOs, and the promotion and protection of human rights. NGOs thus had a profoundly positive impact on the creation of the United Nations. For the first 75 years of the U.N.’s existence, NGOs have played an ...


2016 China Food Law Update, Michael T. Roberts, Ching-Fu Lin Jun 2021

2016 China Food Law Update, Michael T. Roberts, Ching-Fu Lin

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This update of China food law builds on a unique feature for the Journal of Food Law .& Policy that has been provided since the Journal's inception - separate food law updates for both the United States and European Union. "Recognizing the globalness of the modem food system, these updates have served an invaluable role in keeping scholars and practitioners abreast of the world's leading food regulatory systems." China's emergence as a developed, modem food regulatory system with the potential of being a leading food regulatory system makes sense given its position as a world economic powerhouse. China's ...


Moving Towards Harmonization Of The Food Safety Standards: Role Of The Tpp And Ttip Agreements, Ksenia A. Petrovets Jun 2021

Moving Towards Harmonization Of The Food Safety Standards: Role Of The Tpp And Ttip Agreements, Ksenia A. Petrovets

Journal of Food Law & Policy

We are now less dependent on locally available food resources that we have ever been. The continuing industrialization of food production, the advancement in technologies and the rapid development of supply chains granted us the luxury of immediate access to a variety of products originating from local supermarkets all over the world. This, along with the greater level of food production industrialization, inevitably comes the rise of related food safety risks. Because of the enlargement of producing operations, an emerging safety threat in one place may result in a foodborne illness outbreak thousands of miles away from its place of ...


Revisiting The International Court Of Justice Procedure For The Revision Of Judgments, Juliette Mcintyre Jun 2021

Revisiting The International Court Of Justice Procedure For The Revision Of Judgments, Juliette Mcintyre

Michigan Journal of International Law

The International Court of Justice (“ICJ”) is a court of first and last instance. Its decisions are “final and without appeal.” At first blush, this seems uncontroversial; it is a simple restatement of the well-established principle of res judicata. But if the court makes a judicial pronouncement without all the facts to hand, can one say that the decision is legitimate and authoritative? Pursuant to article 61 of the ICJ’s Statute, the court does have the authority to revise a judgment in certain, limited circumstances. Revision is a remedy that enables the court, upon the application of a party ...


International Tax Law Between Loyalty, Exit, And Voice, Tarcísio Diniz Magalhães Jun 2021

International Tax Law Between Loyalty, Exit, And Voice, Tarcísio Diniz Magalhães

Dalhousie Law Journal

Discourse on the merits and pitfalls of multilateral cooperation for advancing justice in international tax law have recently re-emerged in the literature. Some tax scholars, even while criticizing global projects like the OECD/G20 initiatives on base erosion, profit shifting and the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy, insist that cooperative efforts herald a step in the right direction. Others contest the feasibility of international cooperation or its value for developing countries. Drawing on Albert Hirschman’s oft-cited framework for actor behaviour under institutional malperformance, this article shows that there are three alternatives for those discontented with ...


Regulating Disinformation In Europe: Implications For Speech And Privacy, Joris Van Hoboken, Ronan Ó Fathaigh May 2021

Regulating Disinformation In Europe: Implications For Speech And Privacy, Joris Van Hoboken, Ronan Ó Fathaigh

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

This Article examines the ongoing dynamics in the regulation of disinformation in Europe, focusing on the intersection between the right to freedom of expression and the right to privacy. Importantly, there has been a recent wave of regulatory measures and other forms of pressure on online platforms to tackle disinformation in Europe. These measures play out in different ways at the intersection of the right to freedom of expression and the right to privacy. Crucially, as governments, journalists, and researchers seek greater transparency and access to information from online platforms to evaluate their impact on the health of their democracies ...


The Limits Of International Law In Content Moderation, Evelyn Douek May 2021

The Limits Of International Law In Content Moderation, Evelyn Douek

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

In remarkably short order, there has been growing convergence, especially in academia and civil society, around the idea that major social media platforms should use international human rights law (IHRL) as the basis for their content moderation rules. Even platforms themselves have begun to agree. But why have these legendarily growth-obsessed companies been so quick to voluntarily say they are jumping on this bandwagon? Afterall, advocates for incorporating IHRL into content moderation governance generally envision it operating as a constraint on social media platforms’ operations. There are both encouraging and less encouraging explanations. For the glass half-full types, there is ...


Transnational Legal Ordering Of Data, Disinformation, Privacy, And Speech, David Kaye, Gregory C. Shaffer May 2021

Transnational Legal Ordering Of Data, Disinformation, Privacy, And Speech, David Kaye, Gregory C. Shaffer

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Data As Public Goods Or Private Properties?: A Way Out Of Conflict Between Data Protection And Free Speech, Kyung Sin Park May 2021

Data As Public Goods Or Private Properties?: A Way Out Of Conflict Between Data Protection And Free Speech, Kyung Sin Park

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

In this Article, I will review the origins of data protection laws and reestablish the concept of “data surveillance” as the primary evil that data protection laws should try to abate. From this review, I discover a transnational principle that strong data protection laws are must-haves for all jurisdictions wishing to protect privacy for their people, but that data protection laws should not be applied to data that have been made publicly available through legitimate process. I then find legislative examples embodying such principle. Next, I will look at “scientific research” exemptions from data subjects’ control on pseudonymized data, and ...


Politicizing International Human Rights: The United States’ Border Apartheid Policies And The Universality Of Human Rights, Ally Myers May 2021

Politicizing International Human Rights: The United States’ Border Apartheid Policies And The Universality Of Human Rights, Ally Myers

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

This Note uses the example of the United States’ immigration policies to analyze the following questions: (1) what type of rights international human rights are; (2) where these rights come from; (3) how their content should be determined; and (4) what conditions need to exist in order for them to be enforced. The Note argues that answering these questions is an essential prerequisite to enforcing human rights in a way that is truly universal. Part I of the Note grounds these questions in human experience through the case of a refugee seeking asylum at the U.S. border in San ...


Misguided At Best, Malevolent At Worst: The International Impact Of United States Policy On Reproductive Rights, Lindsay Marum May 2021

Misguided At Best, Malevolent At Worst: The International Impact Of United States Policy On Reproductive Rights, Lindsay Marum

UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational, and Comparative Law

This Note discusses the effect of U.S. foreign policies on the reproductive rights of women in developing countries. Many international human rights treaties and their progeny have consistently found that reproductive rights are intertwined with basic human rights, such as the right to privacy, the right to health, the right to education, and the right to start a family. Despite considering itself a superpower among all other countries, U.S. policies like the Helms Amendment and the Mexico City Policy fail to adhere to these basic international human rights standards. At the same time the United States recognized the ...


United States Food Law Update: Shrouded By Election-Year Politics, State Initiatives And Private Lawsuits Fill In The Gaps Created By Congressional And Agency Ossification, A. Bryan Endres, Lisa R. Schlessinger, Rachel Armstrong May 2021

United States Food Law Update: Shrouded By Election-Year Politics, State Initiatives And Private Lawsuits Fill In The Gaps Created By Congressional And Agency Ossification, A. Bryan Endres, Lisa R. Schlessinger, Rachel Armstrong

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Observers of food law in the 2012 presidential election year witnessed a dramatic slowing of federal initiatives-perhaps arising from a desire by both Congress and the administration to avoid upsetting critical constituent groups during a year seemingly dominated by campaigns and endless talking points. For example, Congress failed to take action on a unique compromise between what some had considered mortal enemies-the Humane Society of the United States and United Egg Producers-that would implement a federal animal welfare standard for laying hens in return for abandoning ballot measures in various states. Similarly, the FDA waited until the early days of ...


Revising Seed Purity Laws To Account For The Adventitious Presence Of Genetically Modified Varieties: A First Step Towards Coexistence, A. Bryan Endres May 2021

Revising Seed Purity Laws To Account For The Adventitious Presence Of Genetically Modified Varieties: A First Step Towards Coexistence, A. Bryan Endres

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Adoption of genetically modified (GM) seed varieties in the United States, Canada, and South America continues to expand, with GM crops comprising almost 76 million hectares and over 93 percent of the total biotech cropland worldwide. As an increasing number of farmers plant GM varieties, the potential for adventitious mixture of genetically modified DNA with products produced via organic and conventional (non-GM) methods also increases. Many consumers of organic and identity-preserved products, however, object to the adventitious presence of genetically modified DNA at even low levels. Accordingly, the ability of farmers to choose between conventional, organic, or GM crop production ...


Do European Union Non-Tariff Barriers Create Economic Nuisances In The United States?, Thomas P. Redick, Michael J. Adrian May 2021

Do European Union Non-Tariff Barriers Create Economic Nuisances In The United States?, Thomas P. Redick, Michael J. Adrian

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The European Union's new traceability system for biotech crops will lead to the proliferation of non-tariff barriers affecting biotech crops. This, in turn, will lead to economic dislocation and attendant liability in the United States, which is losing billions of dollars in export trade. A chain of complex legal problems will arise for United States-based companies as they strive to trace particular genetically modified (GM) events and avoid commingling. The European Union (E. U) tracing law for biotech crops applies at each stage of commodity commerce, from grain shippers leading back through elevators, growers, and seed companies. Warranty liability ...


Traceability And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Crops, Food, And Feed In The European Union, Margaret Rosso Grossman May 2021

Traceability And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Crops, Food, And Feed In The European Union, Margaret Rosso Grossman

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the last several years, European Union (E.U.) policy has encouraged development of biotechnology, including genetically modified (GM) (that is, bioengineered) agricultural crops. The E.U. developed a strategy for life sciences and biotechnology, directed toward improving the competitiveness of the European biotechnology sector and the general situation for European biotechnology. E.U. documents have acknowledged the potential significance of genetically modified crops-for example, the conclusion in a recent report that "the potential of plant genomics and biotechnology to deliver major advances in our lifestyles and prosperity is enormous. [Biotechnology] can also maintain and enhance the competitiveness of E ...


United Nations At 75 And The Challenges Facing International Law, Ved Nanda May 2021

United Nations At 75 And The Challenges Facing International Law, Ved Nanda

Pace International Law Review

On September 21, 2020, the Member States celebrated the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. In the Declaration marking the occasion, world leaders recounted the achievements of the body, including catalyzing decolonization, promoting and protecting human rights, working to eradicate disease, helping mitigate dozens of conflicts, and saving lives through humanitarian action. They also enumerated challenges the world faces, such as “growing inequality, poverty, hunger, armed conflicts, terrorism, insecurity, climate change, and pandemics.” These challenges, the Declaration said, are interconnected and can only be addressed through reinvigorated multilateralism, which, it emphasized, “is not an option but a ...


Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser May 2021

Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Cultural Heritage Law Between Truth And Power: Law's Evolution And Our Collective Cultural Interest In An Informational Economy, Felicia Caponigri Jd, Phd May 2021

Cultural Heritage Law Between Truth And Power: Law's Evolution And Our Collective Cultural Interest In An Informational Economy, Felicia Caponigri Jd, Phd

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

Julie Cohen’s book, Between Truth and Power, analyzes our shift to an informational economy, the increasing presence of networked infrastructures that contest our traditional rule-of-law framework, and the important role transnational governance institutions play in this context. As subject-matter examples of the shift to an informational economy, Cohen spotlights labor, land, and money and inspires us to think about how tangible goods have become dematerialized and intangible and then reified again as information and how legal entitlements shape our complex interactions with these newly complex properties. Taking inspiration from Cohen’s spotlight on labor, land, and money, this Essay ...


The Right To Food In Puerto Rico: Where Colonialism And Disaster Meet, Gabriela Valentín Díaz May 2021

The Right To Food In Puerto Rico: Where Colonialism And Disaster Meet, Gabriela Valentín Díaz

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.