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Taxation-Federal

2018

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Debate On Carried Interest, Jeffrey H. Kahn, Calvin H. Johnson, Douglas A. Kahn Dec 2018

Debate On Carried Interest, Jeffrey H. Kahn, Calvin H. Johnson, Douglas A. Kahn

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


Demystifying Irs Transcripts, Robert D. Probasco, Nikki Mccain, Ann Garza Dec 2018

Demystifying Irs Transcripts, Robert D. Probasco, Nikki Mccain, Ann Garza

Robert Probasco

No abstract provided.


Elaine Gagliardi On The Family Limited Partnership In 2018: Powell, Cahill, And Income Tax Basis At Death, Elaine H. Gagliardi Dec 2018

Elaine Gagliardi On The Family Limited Partnership In 2018: Powell, Cahill, And Income Tax Basis At Death, Elaine H. Gagliardi

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

The Tax Court’s 2017 holding in Estate of Powell v. Commissioner1 followed by its 2018 decision in Estate of Cahill v. Commissioner,2 signals a need to rethink how best to structure the family limited partnership and the terms of the partnership agreement. In a shift away from its historical approach to analyzing gross estate inclusion of family limited partnership assets, the Powell court endorses application of Section 2036(a)(2)3 to include the value of partnership assets in decedent’s gross estate, and in an unprecedented step employs Section 2043 to determine the value of family limited partnership assets includible in the gross …


Head In The Clouds, Head In The Sand: Federal Failure To Update Guidance On Computer Transaction In An International Context, Logan S. Weaver Dec 2018

Head In The Clouds, Head In The Sand: Federal Failure To Update Guidance On Computer Transaction In An International Context, Logan S. Weaver

Washington Law Review

The United States has two different rationales for taxing income of non-U.S. persons and entities. First, the income may be “sourced” to the United States, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code. Alternatively, the income may be effectively connected to a trade or business within the United States that provides income to the non-U.S. person or entity. The sourcing rules for income of non-U.S. persons and entities depend heavily on the nature of the underlying transaction and the geographical location where certain key elements of the transaction take place. So long as the non-U.S. person or entity avoids activities that …


Federal Tax Update (Powerpoint), Stephen L. Owen Nov 2018

Federal Tax Update (Powerpoint), Stephen L. Owen

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Comments On Suggested Change To Tax Court's Rules Of Practice And Procedure, Robert D. Probasco Nov 2018

Comments On Suggested Change To Tax Court's Rules Of Practice And Procedure, Robert D. Probasco

Robert Probasco

Comments on behalf of the State Bar of Texas Tax Section to the U.S. Tax Court to suggest a change to the court's Rules of Practice & Procedure to allow for entries of limited appearance.


Taxation, Craig G. Bell, Michael H. Brady Nov 2018

Taxation, Craig G. Bell, Michael H. Brady

University of Richmond Law Review

This article reviews significant recent developments in the laws affecting Virginia state and local taxation. Its sections cover legislative activity, judicial decisions, and selected opinions or pronouncements from the Virginia Department of Taxation and the Attorney General of Virginia over the past year.


Tax Reform On Homeownership, Margaret Ryznar Oct 2018

Tax Reform On Homeownership, Margaret Ryznar

University of Miami Law Review

The 2017 tax reform, by curtailing the deductions for mortgage interest and state and local taxes, frustrates the American public policy of encouraging homeownership. Yet, there are many reasons that public policy has encouraged homeownership for decades. Most importantly, homeownership is an important savings tool for Americans—and tax reform should be mindful of it.


Law School News: Does Indictment Mean Correia Will Likely Be Forced To Resign? Law School Dean Says 'Wait A Week' 10/17/2018, Michael Holtzman, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2018

Law School News: Does Indictment Mean Correia Will Likely Be Forced To Resign? Law School Dean Says 'Wait A Week' 10/17/2018, Michael Holtzman, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Legislative Foundation Of The United States' New International Tax System, Joshua D. Harms Oct 2018

Legislative Foundation Of The United States' New International Tax System, Joshua D. Harms

Seattle University Law Review

This Note begins with commentary on the United States’ former worldwide system of taxation. This system taxed multinational corporations’ offshore profits at the applicable domestic income tax rate less credits for taxes paid to foreign governments. This tax regime provided for the deferral of income tax due on the profits of multinational corporations’ overseas operations until the time of repatriation. This Note considers the issues inherent in this system and analyzes the repatriation tax holiday under the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004. This holiday has been unanimously criticized by both sides of the political aisle and led to large …


Section 4968 And Taxing All Charitable Endowments: A Critique And A Proposal, Edward A. Zelinsky Oct 2018

Section 4968 And Taxing All Charitable Endowments: A Critique And A Proposal, Edward A. Zelinsky

Faculty Articles

No abstract provided.


The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery Sep 2018

The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

America is on a path towards a level of both wealth and income inequality unparalleled in recorded history. Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century summarizes and conveys the work of Piketty and many co-authors, over many decades, looking at the structure of income and wealth inequality across many nations and centuries. This review essay builds on Piketty’s ambitions as well as his data, in order to put forth a better solution: one that accepts and even embraces the facts of unequal ownership of capital, but changes the social meaning of those facts to avoid the social harms that follow …


The Death Of The Income Tax (Or, The Rise Of America's Universal Wage Tax), Edward J. Mccaffery Sep 2018

The Death Of The Income Tax (Or, The Rise Of America's Universal Wage Tax), Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

In 1913, with whispers of progressive politics in the air, Americans ratified a Constitutional amendment allowing for a tax on “all incomes, from whatever source derived.”This set the stage for the individual income tax, a tax meant to fall on wealth and the wealthy. It was a small step, but it was a step. Capital and labor, wealth and wages, would each be paying the price of civilization. The corporate income and gift and estate taxes soon formed a troika of wealth taxes, though the individual income tax fell on upper-income wages as well.

Things changed. Over a century later, …


Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery Sep 2018

Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

The social and political problems of wealth inequality in America are severe and getting worse. A surprise is that the U.S. tax system, as is, is a significant cause of these problems, not a cure for them. The tax-law doctrines that allow those who already have financial wealth to live, luxuriously and tax-free, or to pass on their wealth tax-free to heirs, are simple. The applicable legal doctrines have been in place for nearly a century under the income tax, the primary social tool for addressing matters of economic inequality. The analytic pathways to reform are easy to see once …


Groves V. United States (Seventh Circuit Court Of Appeals Brief), T. Keith Fogg Sep 2018

Groves V. United States (Seventh Circuit Court Of Appeals Brief), T. Keith Fogg

W. Edward "Ted" Afield

No abstract provided.


Behind The Curtain - What Happens After You File A Federal Tax Return, Robert D. Probasco Sep 2018

Behind The Curtain - What Happens After You File A Federal Tax Return, Robert D. Probasco

Robert Probasco

No abstract provided.


Beps, Atap, And The New Tax Dialogue: "A Transatlantic Competition?", Reuven Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni Sep 2018

Beps, Atap, And The New Tax Dialogue: "A Transatlantic Competition?", Reuven Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni

Articles

Since its launch in 2013, the US actively participated in all aspects of the BEPS project. However, until recently, the general view was that following the conclusion of the BEPS negotiations and the change of Administration the US is stepping back from the BEPS process. While the EU was charging ahead with implementing BEPS through the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD), the US stated that it was already in compliance with all BEPS minimum standards and therefore other than Country-by-Country Reporting (CbCR) it had no further BEPS obligations. The US decided not to sign the Multilateral Instrument (MLI) to implement BEPS …


De Novo: Reviewing Tax Court Redressability Incongruities In Innocent Spouse Relief Sections 66© And 6015(F), Jason Harn Sep 2018

De Novo: Reviewing Tax Court Redressability Incongruities In Innocent Spouse Relief Sections 66© And 6015(F), Jason Harn

Seattle University Law Review

Part One of this Note details the historical background of joint and several liability in federal income taxation. Part Two introduces, compares, and contrasts the two statutory provisions Congress has enacted to relieve “innocent spouses” from joint and several liability. Part Three discusses the incongruent standards of review applied by the Tax Court to these—§§ 66 and 6015—two substantially similar relief provisions. Finally, Part Four suggests remedies to alleviate this incongruity.


How Shell Entities And Lack Of Ownership Transparency Facilitate Tax Evasion And Modern Policy Responses To These Problems Sep 2018

How Shell Entities And Lack Of Ownership Transparency Facilitate Tax Evasion And Modern Policy Responses To These Problems

Marquette Law Review

The purpose of this article is to review the use and application of shell entities, as they facilitate tax evasion, impede investigations, and harm society. This article details the types and characteristics of shell entities, reviews actual cases to exhibit how shells are abused, outlines reasons shells disguise beneficial ownership, and analyzes steps taken by countries and organizations to thwart the abuse of shell entities. Many types of shell entities are used by tax evaders and are often layered in an intricate network which conceals the identity of beneficial owners. Nominees and bearer shares are used in tandem with shell …


Per Se Economic Substance, Jesse P. Houchens Aug 2018

Per Se Economic Substance, Jesse P. Houchens

BYU Law Review

The economic substance doctrine is used by the IRS and courts to distinguish legal tax avoidance from tax evasion. More specifically, executive and judicial bodies use this doctrine to revoke statutorily compliant tax benefits that arise from transactions that lack, beyond such tax benefits, both a subjective business purpose and an objective economic effect. The most common tool for measuring the objective economic effect of a transaction is the pre-tax profit test. However, disagreement among courts and scholars applying this test has led to taxpayer uncertainty and accusations of reverse-engineered opinions. In this Comment, I reevaluate and propose an alternative, …


The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 7, No. 2 – Summer 2018 Aug 2018

The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 7, No. 2 – Summer 2018

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.) Aug 2018

Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.)

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Summaries For The 33rd Annual Tei-Sjsu High Tech Tax Institute, Silin Chen, June Hostetter, Sahdia Saiara, Jessica Wong, Cherry Zheng Aug 2018

Summaries For The 33rd Annual Tei-Sjsu High Tech Tax Institute, Silin Chen, June Hostetter, Sahdia Saiara, Jessica Wong, Cherry Zheng

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of The Head Of Household Filing Status, Chau Le Aug 2018

Analysis Of The Head Of Household Filing Status, Chau Le

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Contemporary Tax Journal's Interview With Mr. Eric Ryan, Sara (Yaqin) Sun Aug 2018

The Contemporary Tax Journal's Interview With Mr. Eric Ryan, Sara (Yaqin) Sun

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Beat And Treaty Overrides: A Brief Response To Rosenbloom And Shaheen, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Brett Wells Aug 2018

The Beat And Treaty Overrides: A Brief Response To Rosenbloom And Shaheen, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Brett Wells

Law & Economics Working Papers

In a recent paper posted on SSRN, Profs. David Rosenbloom and Fadi Shaheen argue that the Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Tax (BEAT) (IRC section 59A), as enacted in 2017, is a potential violation of Articles 23 and 24 of US tax treaties. In addition, they argue that the BEAT does not override those treaties and therefore the treaties can be relied upon to overcome the effects of the BEAT. In our opinion, this conclusion is wrong, for two reasons. First, we believe that the BEAT is not a treaty violation. Second, we believe that even if the BEAT were found to …


The Tao Of The Dao: Taxing An Entity That Lives On A Blockchain, David J. Shakow Aug 2018

The Tao Of The Dao: Taxing An Entity That Lives On A Blockchain, David J. Shakow

All Faculty Scholarship

In this report, Shakow explains how a decentralized autonomous organization functions and interacts with the U.S. tax system and presents the many tax issues that these structures raise. The possibility of using smart contracts to allow an entity to operate totally autonomously on a blockchain platform seems attractive. However, little thought has been given to how such an entity can comply with the requirements of a tax system. The DAO, the first major attempt to create such an organization, failed because of a programming error. If successful examples proliferate in the future, tax authorities will face significant problems in getting …


Surviving Irs Examinations And Appeals, Emily A. Parker, Robert D. Probasco Aug 2018

Surviving Irs Examinations And Appeals, Emily A. Parker, Robert D. Probasco

Robert Probasco

This article summarizes the statutory, regulatory and administrative rules and procedures that apply to IRS civil tax examinations and Appeals proceedings, including alternative dispute resolution procedures. The focus of this paper is on field examinations, rather than service center examinations, correspondence examinations, or office examinations. In addition, it attempts to answer some of the basic questions that taxpayers often ask their advisors and representatives when they are the subject of an IRS civil tax examination:

  • Why was I selected by the IRS for audit?
  • How long will this audit take?
  • Why do the agents want all this information, documents, data, …


Tax Shelter Disclosure And Penalties: New Requirements, New Exposures, Mary A. Mcnulty, Robert D. Probasco Aug 2018

Tax Shelter Disclosure And Penalties: New Requirements, New Exposures, Mary A. Mcnulty, Robert D. Probasco

Robert Probasco

One of the primary weapons in the battle against tax shelters has been mandatory disclosure to the IRS. The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 built on this approach by clarifying and making consistent the various disclosure requirements and strengthening penalties for non-disclosure. To uncover abusive transactions, Congress drew the boundaries of disclosure so broadly that even legitimate tax planning transactions are covered. To understand the dangers in the new rules, one must look at the broad range of transactions covered, the participants covered, and the harsh penalties for nondisclosure.

- Transactions Covered. The disclosure requirements apply to six categories …


Tax Court Find Stars Transaction Lacks Economic Substance, Robert D. Probasco, Lee S. Meyercord Aug 2018

Tax Court Find Stars Transaction Lacks Economic Substance, Robert D. Probasco, Lee S. Meyercord

Robert Probasco

In Bank of New York Mellon Corp. v. Commissioner, the Tax Court found that a structured trust advantaged repackaged securities (“STARS”) transaction entered into by BNY Mellon lacked economic substance, and disallowed foreign tax credits of $199 million as well as transactional expenses of $8 million. BNY Mellon is the first test case to emerge from the IRS’s attempts to disallow tax benefits to several financial institutions that participated in the STARS transaction.

The STARS transaction is one of a number of different transactions that the IRS refers to as “foreign tax credit generators.” These transactions generally rely on inconsistent …